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the fish when freed from oil and dried, the following quantities of ammonia and phosphoric acid :
Ammonia,–12} pounds at 14 cents,........ $1.75
The matter thus prepared would have a value of $45.20 the ton, agreeing closely with that which we have calculated for the manure manufactured from sardines in France, in which the quantity of ammonia is somewhat greater, and the phosphoric acid less, giving it a value of $47 the ton.
Prof. George H. Cook of New Jersey, in an analysis of the menhadden, obtained from 100 parts of the dried fish, 167 parts of oil, besides 61•6 of azotized matters yielding 9.28 parts of ammonia, and 21:7 of inorganic matters, etc., containing 7-78 of phosphoric acid. If we deduct the oil, we shall have for 100 parts of the fish, according to this analysis, 11.2 of ammonia, and Y-3 of phos. phoric acid.
By comparing these figures with the results calculated for the animal portion of Mr. Bruce's manures, we find :
Ammonia. Phosphoric acid;
34 " (excluding shale),. 12.5
The proportion of phosphates is of course greater in the more bony fishes. In the manure of Mr. Bruce there are doubtless small amounts of phosphoric acid and ammonia, derived from the shale and the products of its distillation; but these do not however warrant the introduction of an inert material which reduces more than two-thirds the commercial value of the manure. The results which we have given clearly show that by the application of a process similar to that now applied in Franee and in Newfoundland, which consists in cooking the fish, pressing it to extract the oil and water, drying by artificial heat, and brin ling it to powder, it is easy to prepare a concentrated manure, whose value, as a source of phosphoric acid and ammonia, will be in round numbers, about $40 the ton.
• Report of the Geological Survey of New Jersey for 1856, p. 93.
We can scarcely doubt that by the application of this process a new source of profit may be found in the fisheries of the Gulf, which will not only render us independent of foreign guano, now brought into the Proviuce to some extent, but will enable us to export large quantities of a most valuable concentrated manure, at prices which will be found remunerative.
ARTICLE III.- Additional Notes on the Post-Pliocene Deposits
of the St. Lawrence Valley. By J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.G.S., &c.
(Read before the Natural History Society of Montreal.) In a paper on the Newer Pliocene and Post Pliocene deposits of the vicinity of Montreal, communicated to the Natural History Society last winter, I promised to follow up the subject, especially in the direction of the more minute organisms of these deposits, and the comparison of the stratigraphical arrangements near Montreal with those in other parts of the Province. In fulfilment of this promise, I now proceed to state a number of facts which I have ascertained or which have been communicated to me in the past summer.
I. FORAMINIFERA AND Bryozoa.
The Foraminifera are creatures almost at the extreme limit of simplicity of structure in the animal kingdom. Generally microscopic in dimensions and consisting of a soft and apparently homogeneous jelly, they present no appreciable organs, except little thread-like extensions of their bodies, which appear to be their organs of prehension and locomotion. Such creatures might at first sight be supposed incapable of being preserved among the medals of creation. They have, however, the power of secreting for their protection delicate and beautiful calcareous cells, divided into a number of chambers which are added successively in the progress of growth, and communicate with each other and with the outer world by minute orifices; and as these creatures abound everywhere in the ocean, their shells are constantly accumulating on its bottom, so as in some cases so form thick beds of calcareous matter. The Bryozoa, equally minute in size, are far more complex in structure; presenting, with a general polyp form, complicated digestive and muscular apparatus, which place them far in advance of the hydroid polyps, and have induced the majority of modern zoologists to arrange them with the mollusks. They occupy horny or calcareous cells, which usually have wide openings for the extension of the arms or tentacles which procure the food of the inmates. These cells are arranged in branching or flat and circular groups, which form a large proportion of the zoophytes of the older naturalists, and are to be found everywhere. on submerged stones, shells, and sea-weeds.
I place these two tribes, in their structure so dissimilar, together, because they are found together in the drift deposits; and because, owing to this and to their microscopic size, they can be conveniently studied in connection.
Before proceeding to describe the species found, I may mention that though the minute dimensions of these objects may cause them to escape the notice of many collectors, they are, when studied with the aid of the microscope, not inferior in interest and beauty to any other fossils found in our tertiary plains. The Foraminifera may easily be detected by examining the clays in which fossil shells occur, and particularly those holding Fusus tornatus and the spicula of Tethea Logani,* with the aid of a pocket lens. When they are thus ascertained to be present, a quantity of the clay should be well dried, broken into small pieces, and stirred in a quantity of water, when the clay will subside and the little shells may be skimmed from the surface. When dry they may be spread on a tray or on dark-colored paper, and examined with the lens to ascertain what forms are present. They may then be picked up with a moist camel's-bair pencil, and placed separately in small boxes for more minute examination. For the microscope, they may be mounted either on a dark ground as opaque objects, or in Canada balsam as transparent objects; and should be studied in both of these ways. With the foraminifera, the collector will usually find valves of Cytheridea, some of the smaller univalves, and detached cells of Lepralia. (1.) Position of Foraminifera and Bryozoa in the Post Pliocene
Deposits. Logan's Farm. In the last volume of the Naturalist, I de
• For notices of these and other fossils referred to in these pages, seo my former paper, Canad. Nat. vol. 2.
scribed a number of species of fossils from Logan's farm, and stated what I believed to be their relative position. By the kindness of Mr. Logan, I bave since been enabled to make an excavation in the spot where these remains are most abundant, and obtained the following section :
ft. in. Soil and sand,
......... 1 9 Tough reddish clay, ..........
..........0 of Gray sand, a few specimens of Saxicava rugosa, Mytilus edulis,
Tellina Grænlandica, and Mya arenaria, the valves generally
...O 8 Tough reddish clay, a few shells of Astarte Laurentiana, and Leda Portlandica,........
.......1 1 Gray sand, containing detached valves of Saxicava rugosa, Mya
truncata, and Tellina Grænlandica ; also Trichotropis bore
alis, and Balanus crenatus : the shells in three thin layers .0 8 Sand and clay, with a few shells, principally Saxicava in de
tached valves......................................... 1 3 Band of sandy clay, full of Natica clausa, Trichotropis borealis,
Fusus tornatus, Buccinum undatum, Astarte Laurentiana,
........... 3 Sand and clay, a few shells of Astarte and Saricava, and remains
of sea-weeds with Lepralia attached ; also Foraminifera, ... 2 0 Stony clay, boulder clay.
It thus appears that at Logan's farm we have littoral species at top, and that all the rare and deep-water fossils, as well as the Lepraliæ and Foraminifera occur in a comparatively thin band Dear the base of the deposit. This corresponds precisely with the order observed elsewhere in the vicinity of Montreal; though at Logan's Farm the arrangement is somewhat more complex than in other localities.
Tanneries.-At the brick-yards near the village of the Tanneries, near Montreal, the surface of the Leda clay is well stored with Leda Portlandica, Astarte Laurentiana, Natica clausa Tellina Greenlandica, and some other shells. It also contains sponge spicula and foraminifera. The shells at this place, though by no means so numerous as at Logan's farm, are remarkable for their excellent state of preservation.
Beauport.-I visited this celebrated deposit for the first time last autumn. At first sight it consists of a mass of stratified sand
and gravel, equivalent to the Saxicava sand of Montreal, and resting on boulder clay. The overlying mass is filled with Saxicava Tellince, &«.; and the underlying boulder clay as usual contains no fossils. My experience in the Montreal deposits, however, led me to expect a bed, however thin, representing the Leda clay, between these; and on searching at the junction of the two great beds above mentioned, I was gratified by finding a layer of sand about three inches in thickness, filled with the rarer shells of the deposit, characteristic of its deeper waters, such as Fusus tornatus, Pecten Islandicus, Buccinum ciliatum, Modiolaria discors, &c.* The Rhynconella psittacea occurs only in this layer, and in such a manner as to leave no doubt that it is buried here in situ, in the very spot where it lay anchored to the stones of the surface of the drift. On these stones, however, I found a new and interesting field for observation. In the thin layer above referred to, all the stones, as well as those that lay on the surface of the boulder clay or partly imbedded in it, were covered with the remains of marine creatures, especially Balanus crenatus, Spirorbis sinistrorsa, Spirorbis spirillum, Lepralia and Hippothoa. This layer, in short, evidently represented a time when the surface of the boulder clay, covered only by a thin layer of sand and stones, constituted the bottom of clear and deep water, before it became covered by the Saxicava sand. This bottom, although no clay has been deposited on it, represents the Leda clay at Montreal, and is exceedingly rich in the fossils usually found at the surface of that bed. Foraminifera occur in it, but they are comparatively rare, and, so far as I could find, only of species common at Montreal.
(2.) Species of Foraminifera.
In my paper of last year a few of these were figured, but the pomenclature of these creatures was in a state so unsettled that I hesitated to attach names to them or to identify them with described species. I am now relieved of the greater part of this difficulty by the appearance of Williamson's excellent monograph on the British Foraminifera, the nomenclature of which I shall follow in poticing our Canadian species.
• Sir C. Lyell notices the fact that these shells are more abundant in the lower part of the mass than above.