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addition to these I find an imperfect radius that seems not to differ at all from that of a young male Cervus Canadensis, and a part of another radius that does not differ appreciably from the corresponding part of a radius of Antiloca pra Americana.
The remains of the fossil deer now described are those mentioned by Professor Wyman, namely a left metatarsus, a humerus and a radius, all more or less imperfect.* Professor Wyman described the humerus as “closely resembling that of the red deer, and of intermediate size between this and the humerus of the caribou.” As these cervine remains evidently belonged to a species different from any hitherto described, either extinct or living, I propose for it the name Cervus Whitneyi, in honor of their discoverer, Professor J. D. Whitney.
The remains of Canis consist of a femur, two tibiæ and a humerus (the latter and one of the tibiæ in perfect condition), and may not have been those mentioned by Professor Wyman, although he enumerates parts corresponding to these; since it seems impossible that he could have described them as not differing in size from corresponding parts of the "gray wolf (Canis occidentalis Dekay, -C. griseus Sabine)," and as being not distinguishable from them; they in reality indicating a species of nearly twice the size of that animal. The rami and “fragment of a right upper jaw" mentioned by Professor Wyman as belonging to the same species are not now in the collection. This species seems to correspond in size quite nearly with the Canis dirus which Leidy described (first under the preoccupied name of primavus, and still later under the name of Indianensis)t from a portion of an upper jaw found with the remains of Jlegalonyx, Tapirus, Equus and Cervus Virginianus in the banks of the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana, and also with the Canis Haydeni Leidy, described later from the Pliocene sands of the Niobrara River from a fragment of a right ramus. Since of the present species we have only a few of the bones of the limbs, it may be better to give it a provisional name than to refer it to either of the species already described, and await the reception of additional material to show their relationship. I accordingly propose for this species the name Canis Mississippiensis. As previously noticed, the remains associated with those now described nearly all belonged to extinct species, and to the fauna immediately preceding the
* Another specimen referred to under the head of Cervus by Professor Wyman as "an imperfect humerus of a much smaller animal than the preceding' belongs to the extinct peccary, (Platygonus compressus).
+ Canis primævus LEIDY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 200, 1854. Journ., Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., iii, 167, pl. xvii, figs. 11, 12, 1856. (Name preoccupied).
Canis dirus LEIDY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 21. (Same specimen.)
Canis Indianensis LEIDY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 368, 1867. (Same specimen.)
present. The bones, though light and somewhat soft, are still white and in an excellent state of preservation, and, though some are broken, have not suffered much abrasion. The humerus of the wolf shows the marks of the teeth of some small rodent.
CANIS MISSISSIPPIENSIS, sp. nov. The remains of this species, consisting of a perfect right humerus, the distal two-thirds of a right femur, an entire left tibia and the greater portion of a right tibia, indicate a species of nearly if not quite twice the bulk of the existing large wolf of the northern hemisphere (Canis lupus), and which had a stature fully one-tifth greater, the difference between them being nearly as great as that between Canis lupus and Canis latrans. The bones do not differ appreciably in respect to form from those of Canis lupus. Their measurements (given in millimeters), in comparison with those of the corresponding bones of a specimen of Canis lupus (number 268 of the Museum of Comparative Zoology) from Kansas are as follows :Comparative Measurements of Bones of Canis Mississippiensis
and Canis lupus.
C. Mississippiensis. C. lupus. Humerus.—Total length, .--.---------... 223
....... Least circumference of shaft,.. Femur.–Total length, .--
Transverse diameter of axis and great
ner side), ---
123 Tibia.—Total length -----.
vated point of the tuberosity,--...
Cervus WHITNEYI, sp. nov.
lacking the distal end, and a right metatarsal, which has also lost the distal termination, indicate a species of about the same proportions as Cervus Virginianus, but much larger, considerably exceeding in size Cervus macrotis. The measurements given below indicate the fossil species to have been at least one-seventh larger than C. macrotis, and apparently more than one-fifth larger than C. Virginianus. A comparison of the bones themselves give a stronger impression of the greatly larger size of the fossil species than do the tabulated measurements. In respect to form, the humeri of the three species do not materially differ, although the condyles in C. macrotis have à rather greater relative breadth than in either of the other species. The radius also differs but little in form in the three, but in the fossil species the ulna (it has now been broken away and is lost) was solidly anchylosed with the radius nearly throughout its length, being free only near its distal extremity,
tion, being not only free proximally as well as distally, but for quite a space near the proximal end does not even touch the radius, there being an interval of fully two millimeters between them. In C. Virginianus the radius and ulna are nearly as fully anchylosed as in the fossil species. The metatarsal bone is similar in form to that of C. macrotis, except that it is relatively more compressed laterally in its distal portion, and seems to have been (the distal end is lacking) relatively narrower at its lower articulation. In this respect it corresponds more nearly with the distal portion of the metatarsus of C. Virginianus, which is much rounder and relatively more slender than that of C. macrotis. The metatarsal of the fossil species differs from that of C. Virginianus, however, in having the groore of the posterior surface continued much further distally than in that species. In the following table of comparative measurements the specimens taken are middle-aged males, the Cervus macrotis (No. 1781 of the Mus. Comp. Zool.), being from the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming Territory, and the C. Virginianus (No. 1733 of the Mus. Comp. Zool.) from Maine. Comparative Measurements of Bones of Cervus Whitneyi, Cervus macrotis, and Cervus Virginianus.
C. Whit- C. ma. C. Vir.
neyi. crotis. ginianus. Humerus.—Total length, --...
head to most dist. part of inner
C. Whit- C. ma
neyi. crotis. Radius.—Total length, .....
68 Metatarsus.—Total length,...
(proximal five-sixths), ......... 273 232
I. CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS.
1. Action of Nitric Acid on Silver and Copper, alone and in presence of Nitrates.-Acworth has examined at length, in the laboratory of Dr. Frankland, the gases which are evolved by the action of nitric acid on metals, both with and without the presence of nitrates in the solution. The following are his conclusions : (1) cold dilute nitric acid acting on copper evolves nearly pure nitrogen dioxide; (2) in presence of a strong solution of cupric nitrate, this same action gives rise to nearly pure nitrogen monoxide; (3) potassium nitrate has no effect; (4) ammonium nitrate causes the evolution of nitrogen and nitrogen monoxide, mixed with some dioxide; (5) nitric acid, acting on zinc or iron in presence of ammonium nitrate, evolves nearly pure nitrogen; (6) mercury under the same circumstances acts similarly ; (7) on silver, the gaseous products are nitrogen and nitrogen dioxide, with scarcely à trace of the monoxide; (8) in presence of ammonium nitrate, silver produces nitrogen chiefly, mixed with a little nitrogen dioxide.-J. Chem. Soc., II, xiii, 828, September, 1875. G. F. B.
2. On the Condensability of the Gaseous Products of the vistillation of Carbonaceous Shales.—Distillation of carbonaceous shales at a low temperature, is extensively resorted to, as is wellknown, for the production of liquid hydro-carbons for illuminating purposes. The large amount of gas simultaneously produced, and its high illuminating power, suggested to COLEMAN a series of experiments upon the condensability of these gaseous products. For this purpose a compression-pump was provided, by which the gas was condensed into an iron tube. This tube was slightly inclined, and at about three-fourths of its length, a reservoir was placed. Beyond this the gas passed through copper tubes which were immersed in a freezing mixture. Upon the main tube was a safety valve which allowed the pressure to be regulated at pleasure; this was maintained at about 140 pounds to the square inch. In the first experiment, 538 liters of gas were passed through the apparatus, in the second 467 liters, and in the third 1274 liters. In both reservoirs, 84 c. c. of liquid was ob- . tained in the first experiment, 77 c. c. in the second, and 195 c, c. in the third. Of the 77 c. c., 54 c. c. of sp. gr. .690 condensed in the first reservoir (i. e., by pressure alone without cold) and 23 c. c. in the second, of sp. gr. 850. Of the 195 C. c., 114 c. c. of sp. gr. •691 condensed at + 16°, and 81 c. c., of sp. gr. *658, condensed at -18°. As a mean therefore each liter of gas yielded about 158 c. c. of liquid of sp. gr. •680; which is equivalent to one gallon for each 1000 feet of gas. After this treatment the gas was found to have lost its illuminating power, giving no more light when burned from a bat wing jet than does a Bunsen burner. From this and other facts, the author concluded that ethylene is absent from sbale gas. Common coal gas when subjected to this treatment gave no appreciable quantity of liquid. The shale products, by weight, therefore, which are obtained on distillation, are:non-luminous combustible gas 20.9 per cent; volatile liquids, sp. gr. .680 dissolved as vapors in the gas 4:9 per cent; commercial paraffins, sp. gr. •700-800, 52:3 per cent; tarry acid or basic bodies 21.9 per cent. The author proposes a method for commercially preparing these light oils from the gas.-J. Chem. Soc., II, xiii, 856, Sept., 1875.
G. F. B. 3. On the Medico-legal determination of Arsenic.-Having occasion to revise, for purposes of physiological investigation, the methods ordinarily employed for the detection of arsenic in the tissues,* GAUTIER ascertained that they were seriously deficient in quantitative exactness. He thereupon devised an improved method of separating the arsenic from the organic matter, based upon those of Orfila and Filhol, and a modification of the method of Marsh, by which the arsenic is obtained in a weigbable form. The former is as follows:-100 grams of the finely divided animal matter is placed in a porcelain capsule with 30 grams pure nitric acid, and moderately heated. At first the mass liquefies, then it thickens and becomes orange-colored. The capsule is taken from the fire and 5 grams pure sulphuric acid are added. Heat is again applied till white fumes appear. Then 10 or 12 grams of nitric acid is allowed to flow drop by drop on the residue, and it is heated to carbonization. An easily pulverizable mass is thus obtained, which is exhausted with boiling water, filtered, the filtrate reduced with a few drops of hydro-sodium sulphite, and precipitated as usual, by a current of hydrogen sulphide. The arsenous sulphide, transformed into arsenic oxide by nitric acid, is ready for the Marsh apparatus. This consists of a
* See this Journal for December, 1875, page 474.