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to be evening meetings each day for the reading of and the results attained. In complying with this, sion, and trust they may prove a step in the right papers, of which a good many are promised, by Mr. /I have put my remarks in writing, in order to give direction, and shall be glad if they are the means T. Wright, M.A., F.S.A., Mr. J. R. Planché, Mr. / you the more information and occupy less of your of leading to a yet further and more exhaustire discovered Roman villa at Chedworth, Athelstane Lyon Playfair, all the bituminous and gaseous coals, have this day seen the large tank in which the Hall, and ancient stones at Kemble. The district those of South Lancashire and Cheshire included, water was measured and the diagrams by which

stoppages, the average production being 42yds. Steam Boiler Explosiong, in an adjoining room, partizans who advocate it as superior to every during the same period.

kindly lent for the occasion by the Wigan Coal and other. The circumstances, however, are so various This being the last meeting for the reading of Iron Company, when a brief report upon the under which different boilers are worked at difpapers, the chairman proposed votes of thanks to progress and results of the trials was read, and the ferent mills, that it is by no means easy to get at the council of the Philosophical Society for the importance of the prevention of smoke and economy reliablo data, and therefore the importance of a facilities afforded for the annual meeting; to the of fuel spoken to by several of the gentlemen careful comparativo test. local committee and the honorary local secretaries, present.

With this view, boiler makers were invited to Mr. J. Fernie and Mr. W. E. Marshall, for the very On Thursday and Friday, the 23rd and 24th ult., co-operate with the coal owners, the one party completo arrangements they had made; and to the trial shed was thrown open to as many members finding the boilers, the other being at the expense the soveral railway companies for the advantages of the Association as wished to be present or to of setting them to work, providing the coal, and they had given in travelling. A vote of thanks send a representative. A considerable number conducting the experiments. In answer to this was also passed to Mr. Whitworth and Mr. Fair- availed themselves of this opportunity, and the invitation, Messrs. Hick and Hargreaves, of Bolton, bairn for presiding. This meeting being perhaps boilers were shown to them in full operation, as on supplied a two-flued boiler with steel tubes : one of tho most successful in point of attendance the previous day, heavily fired, without producing Messrs. Clayton, of Preston, a two-flued boiler with the Institution have ever helâ, it is needless to any smoke, and it appeared to excite surprise in iron tubes ; and Mr. Green, of Wakefield, one of his observe that long and important discussions fol- the minds of many that the results could be attained patent water-heaters or economizers. Messrs. lowed each of the papers, which discussions we by such simple means as were then adopted. Petrie, of Rochdale, were desirous of sending one are precluded by the Inles of the Institution from On the first series of trials a detailed report has of their patent boilers fitted with pockets in the reporting.

already been presented to the Coal Association, flue tubes, and arranged to do so, but the time

and thinking that there was much information with proving too limited the carrying out of their BRITISH ARCHÆOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. interest, Mr. Fletcher, with the permission of the very important to try the evaporative power of a

regard to these trials which would prove of general intention was prevented. Further, as it was thought THE twenty-fifth annual meeting of this associa- Coal Association, prepared condensed tables of the conical water tube boiler as compared with those mencing on Monday next, August 10. Earl Bathurst mode of conducting the trials. These tables, how- hand, and set down alongside of the others. It is is the president, and there is a long list of vice-pre- ever, are somewhat elaborate, and will not be issued to be regretted that a still greater variety could sidents. The inaugural address of the president will for another month.

not be obtained. The three boilers supplied hardly be delivered on the Monday afternoon, and the mem


furnished the full means of settling the very vexed bers dine together in the evening. Tuesday is to be devoted to an inspection of the antiquities of the before you on the present occasion a statement of this important inquiry. I will, however, give you It may naturally be expected that I should lay question as to which is the best form of boiler, and

be that we are but yet on the threshold of town—the Roman amphitheatre, Roman wall at the origin of these trials with the objects proposed the results obtained with the means in my possesWatermoor, tosselated pavements, &c. There are E. Roberts, F.S.A., Mr. E. Levion, M.A., F.S.A., brief reference to what are termod the “ Admiralty time. It is necessary, in the first place, to make

series of investigations. &c. There will be excursions daily; among other Coal Trials.” Some years ago, at a series of coal

In describing the mode in which these experiplaces, to Banbury Rings, Fairford Church, Trewsbury Camp, Malmesbury Abbey Church, a newly- trials made by Sir Henry De La Beche and Dr. monts have been conducted it is hardly necessary

for me to explain tho testing apparatus, since you were very much under-rated ; and the Welsh coals, the smoke was estimated. abounds in Roman and British remains. which are more or less of the anthracite class, the water evaporated was carefully measured and

Suffico it to say that placed very incorrectly at a much higher rank for the coal weighed, while the smoko was observed

evaporative value than the bituminous ones. The ECONOMY OF FUEL, AND PREVENTION reason of this was that in these trials the coals of

and registered throughout every minute of each OF SMOKE. this district, and of the North Country, which are

experiment. of the same character, were not properly burnt,

In attempting to ascertain which of the three SOME JOME three years since we informed our readers and thus they did not evaporate a fair share of boilers gave the best results, it was clearly necesof the inauguration of an extensive series of

water. For some years after, all bituminous coals sary to learn, in the first place, the best mode of experimental trials on the evaporative power of stood at a disadvantage, till in the year 1855 the firing them, and then to compare the highest various descriptions of coal and forms of boiler at North Country coal owners instituted a series of result of each boiler with the others. In doing Wigan. As this bears upon the important question experiments on the evaporative power of their coals, this, three modes of firing were adopted-No. 1, of economy of fuel and prevention of smoke, which under the superintendence of Sir W. G. Armstrong, " spreading," firing;., No. 2 " coking” firing; is one of considerable interest to our readers, we the late Dr. Richardson, and Mr. James A. Long- No. 3, "alternato side” firing. · Spreading append the valuablo report of these experiments ridge, C.E., of Westminster. These experiments firing is that usually adopted and which makes so which has been forwarded to us by Mr. L. E. showed that the Newcastle coal would not only much smoke. In this system the coal is scattered Fletcher, Chief Engineer of the Manchester Boiler evaporate as much water as the Welsh, and as evenly over the whole fire, begining at the bridge Association. The object of these trials has been rapidly, but also, that if properly fired, it could be and then gradually working forwards to the fire two-fold, firstly to establish the evaporative burnt without smoke, and the Newcastle coals were door. In “coking” firing the coal is heaped on to efficiency of the South Lancashire and Cheshire subsequently placed on the Admiralty list.

the dead plate at the front of the furnace, and after coals, and secondly to ascertain how they could be

The coal proprietors of this district, however, lying there till coked through, the crest is pushed burnt to the greatest advantago in ordinary will were still left out in the cold shade, and believing backwards towards the firebridge and a fresh boilers without the production of smoke, as well as that their coal did not fear competition either with charge of raw coal thrown on to the front of the to decide upon the best form of boiler, so that the the Newcastle or Welsh, resolved to institute a furnace in its place. By this means the gases are steam user might learn how to save conl and similar set of trials to those previously conducted gradually evolved instead of being set free almost prevent smoke.

at Newcastle, and requested Dr. Richardson, of instantaneously in a cloud, as in the “ spreading These trials were brought to a conclusion on the Newcastle, and myself to undertake their super- system, while a bright fire is maintained at the 24th ult., being finished off with three general intendence. For this purpose the marine boiler back of the furnace over which the gases pass. field days, so as to afford steam users an opportunity now standing in the trial shed was specially made,

- Alternate side" firing was introduced, I believe, of seeing the results obtained. On Wednesday, which is a precise counterpart of the boiler em- | by the late C. Wye Williams. On this plan the the 22nd ult., William Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., prosi- ployed for testing purposes at H. M. Dockyard, coal instead of boing spread across tho whole width dent of the above association, with other gentlemen Keyham, These trials, which occupied about two of the furnace is cast to one side only so that one of the executive committee, met the members of years, showed that the coals of this district had a side of tho fire is black while the other is bright, the South Lancashire and Cheshire Coal Association, high 'economic value, and were able to evaporato when as soon as the fires are burnt through, the who had been at the expense of these experiments, 11-281b. of water at 100deg. to llb. of coal, other side of the furnace is charged, and so on. and visited with them the trial shed in order to without making any smoke beyond a slight trace

Each of the three systems was applied to the satisfy themselves as to the success of the trials. of a faint colour now and then. This result is Lancashire boilers, when it was found on the whole In preparation for this all the boilers were in full quite equal to that obtained either by the North that with round coal the highest amount of duty work. These are of various construction, one of Country or Welsh coals, and was verified by the was obtained by the “coking” firing, and at the them being of the marine multitubular type, and Admiralty officers, who were sent down to inspect same time the least amount of smoke, though the another of the patent conical water tube, while a a repetition of the trials and report thereon. This adoption of " side” firing appeared of advantago third is an ordinary Lancashire mill boiler with report has since been published, and speaks strongly with “ slack,” and probably both systems might be steol furnace tubes, and the fourth a similar one with in favour of the high character of the South had recourse to with success according to circumiron tubes. All of them were fired under different Lancashire and Cheshire coals.

stances. Fires also of various thicknesses were conditions, one of them mechanically by Messrs. Out of these Admiralty coal trials sprung, through tried, viz., 6in., 9in., and 12in., when it was found Vicar's patent self-feeding firegrate, and all the the suggestion of Mr Lancaster, the second serios, that the thickness of Sin. gave a better result than others by hand. Slack coal was used in the which you have been invited to witness to-day, and Cin., and 12in. than 9in., so that the thickness furnaces of two of the boilers, including the one to hence the foregoing allusion to them. It was would have been increased still further had the which the self-feeding firegrate was attached, and thought it might be well to extend the trials to size of the furnace permitted it. Added to this, round coal in the others, while the length of the ordinary mill boilers as well as the marino, with a firegrates of various lengths were tried, when it firegrate in one of the mill boilers was 4 feet, and in two-fold object, viz., to ascortain, in the first place. was found that one of 4ft. gave a more economical the other 6 feet. All the boilers were in full work how the coals of this district could be burnt with result than one of 6ft., though it scarcely generated and heavily fired, yet withont producing any smoke the greatest advantage in the ordinary mill boilers, so much steam. It has been a very rexed question beyond a slight trace of a faint colour now and then. and, in the second, the best form of boiler in which which is the best part of the furnace for the admisAfter witnessing the experiments with the testing to burn the coals, and thus to assist the steam usersion of air above the bars to complete the combusapparatus, and the mode of firing adopted, the in economizing fuel and preventing smoke. These tion of the gases ; some advocating its admission company - having satisfied themselves as to the are most important considerations. The question at the door, others at the bridge. Both these plans absence of smoke--adjourned to a luncheon, pro- is frequently put, Which is the most economical were therefore submitted to test, and, without vided by the Association for the Prevention of form of boiler? while everyone has its strong troubling you with preciso figures, it was found

on success.

that there was little or no practical difference not realize a higher economy or speed with round establish the conclusion that the smoke nuisance between the two plans, and that a slight admission coal than simple hand firing, but when “slack" admits in all cases of considerable abatement, and of air for a minute or so after charging on the was used, it was somewhat superior in economy, in most of total removal. As' already stated, tho coking” principle, whether at the firedoor or but more so in speed.

only difficulty is in those cases where boilers are bridge, was successful in preventing smoke.

I must not omit to allude to the subject of overtasked, and these, it would appear, could be These preliminaries being settled, the standard mechanical firing, which is one of considerable assisted by mechanical feeding, or the use of the fire adopted for testing the relative merits of the importance. All present will be more or less steam jet apparatus, while in many of them the three boilers was one 12in. thick, made of round familiar with the self-feeding furnace introduced difficulty could be met by resetting the boilers, or coal, and fed on the "coking" system, the com- years ago by Mr. Juckos; this, however, as yet, renewing the chimney, so as to improve the draught, bustion being assisted by the admission of a little has been principally applied to externally-fired or, at all events, by additional boiler power. With air through the firedoor for a minute or so after boilers only ; but attempts have recently been sufficient boiler power the smoke question is settled. charging, by which means the smoke was practi- made to introduce it to those fired internally, and With regard to the form of boilers it has been cally prevented. This mode of firing was adopted negotiations were entered into for its application found that those of the plnin two-flued construction, on two lengths of firegrate, one 4ft. and the other to one of the trial boilers. It was thought, how- aided by a water heater, are able to develope a very 6ft., when it was found that with a firegrate 4ft. in ever, by the patentees that the furnaces were too high result. Wo have evaporated as much as length nearly 10lb. of water could be evaporated small, and, consequently, its application was re- 10f1b. of water at 100deg, by llb. of coal on a fireby llb. of coal, and 150 I.H.P. per hour realized by luctantly abandoned. Messrs. Vicars, of Liver- grate 4ft. in length, and 10 lb. on a firegrate the boiler. When the 6ft. firegrate was adopted pool, have brought out a self-fooding firegrate, 6ft. in length. In both cases this has been done 9f1b. of water were evaporated from llb. of fuel, which is applicable to boilers whether fired er- without smoko, and while evaporating as much and about 170 1.H.P. obtained from the boiler per ternally or internally, and one of these grates was as 100 cubic feet of water from the boiler in the hour. These results are without the assistance of applied and tested. It proved very successful in course of the hour with the 6ft. firegrate, and 80 a feed water heater.

the prevention of smoke, as well as in speed and cubic feet with the 4ft. grate, which is sufficient The next step is to compare the results ob- economy of evaporation, but when fired with to develope, with a good engine, about 200 1.H.P. tained from each of the three boilers, and, on round coal, it had no euperiority over hand firing per hour in the first case, and 160 I.H.P. per hour considering the whole of the trials, the following in any one of those points. When fired with in the second. appears to be the result :- The patent conical slack, however, it was certainly superior to hand I cannot conclude these romarks without calling water tube boiler is not practically superior to the firing both in economy and speed, and equally attention to the great influence of careful stoking plain two-flued, as regards either evaporative successful in the provention of smoke. The con- simply, on smoke prevention. These trials have economy, speed, or the prevention of smoke; nor stant movement of the bars seems to communicate proved how very much depends on the proper use is the plain two-flued practically superior to the an agitation to the mass of fuel which keeps it of the shovel. George Weekes, the stoker, who patent conical water tube boiler. With regard to alive and promotes the passage of the air through has fired the boilers throughout this series of the steel-flued boiler as compared with the iron it, and thus quickens the combustion, which gives experiments, as well as the previous one with the one, the steel appeared to have no advantage over this self-feeding firegrate an advantage in this Admiralty boiler, takes an interest in his work, and the iron, nor the iron over the steel ; so that as respect over hand firing.

considers stoking as his profession. In this way I far as regards economy and speed of evaporation,

In testing the comparative merits of the various think it should be viewed. Firing is an art and 28. Well as the prevention of smoke, either one of boilers, round coal was adopted as being more should be treated as such, and not as a slap-dash the three boilers seem practically as good as the equable and reliable in its results, and also as random process which any untaught labourer can other. These conclusions were based on trials affording a standard of comparison with the prior accomplish. To a great extent our smoke promade with the boilers set up with external flues series of Admiralty trials in which round coal had ducers are the stokers. Educate the stokers in in the ordinary way, but it was thought it would been used throughout. After the earlier questions thoir art and smoko will be prevented. They be of interest to check the results, by altering the had, however, heen settled, attention was directed should be instructed, in the first instance, how to course of the flame so as to allow it to pass directly to burning slack," when it was found that fire without producing smoke, and be stimulated to the chimney on escaping from the furnace tubes, smoke could be prevented in burning slack coal to constant care by a fine on failure, and a premium instead of passing round the boiler through the

as well as round, but that it was more difficult of external fues. This trial corroborated the pre- management as regards speed of evaporation, movement, the question would soon be settled. A vious ones, and the results from the patent conical Withslack coal, the coking system proved stoker would then require a diploma of competence water tube boiler were found to be practically on rather slow in its action, and side firing, though as a “ smoke preventor" before obtaining a post, a par with those of the plain two-flued. This ex, somewhat faster, is yet slower than the spreading; and his livelihood would depend upon his skill. periment is interesting in other ways. The fuel

so that although an economical result can be ob: The question, after all, is not ono entirely of did not evaporate so much wator per pound, but tained, and smoke prevented, yot the same amount science. As soon as the public become sufficiently the boiler developed nearly as high an I.H.P. per of steam cannot be raised in the same time as with educated on the subject to demand the suppression hour without the external flues as with them.

spreading firing. We have found a loss of as much of the nuisance, and stokers are placed in their There is another question of interest with re

The as 30 I.H.P. in one boiler per hour when firing proper position, smoke will be abolished. gard to the construction of boilers, viz., whether with slack in the speed of coking firing as com- question is as much a social as a scientific one, and the introduction of water tubes into the flues of pared with spreading. From this it appears that to exhaust it fully, one must travel into other fields Cornish or Lancashire boilers is of advantage or when slack coal is burnt, and fired by hand, than those of material science only. But this I not. To assist in determining this question, Mr. either speed must be sacrificed or smoke made. leavo to other hands, though I cannot help exClayton, of Preston, went to tho expense of fixing This may be met by ample boilor power, but will prossing the hope that the meeting of this day, by four water tubes in each of the flues of the boiler I fear provo a difficulty in those cases where drawing attention to the importance of the subject, previously supplied by him, so that the same boilers are fully taskod. In these cases the self- will provo a stop towards suppressing the smoke boiler was tried with and without the tubes.

feeding firegrate, previously referred to, as well nuisance, and thus of promoting a most important The result of the trials with the tubes certainly as the steam jet system, promise to be of service. sanitary and social reform showed that, as a rule, some advantago, though

LAVINGTON E. FLETCHER. From the foregoing it will be seen that in this

July 21. slight, was gained both in economy and speed by series of trials we have taken into consideration the addition of the tubes, but it would require a the best mode of firing, whether with round coal little further investigation before I could see my or slack, with thick fires or thin, with long bars way clearly to recommend them as worth their out

or short, the best point for the admission of the STEAM FIRE ENGINES FOR H.M. DOCK, lay for general practice. In certain cases, where air, as well as the comparative advantages of

YARDS. boilers are distressed by heavy firing, they might mechanical and hand firing, also the result of Monday last the Board of Admiralty paid boilers are placed under favourable circumstances, steam jets. We have also endeavoured to arrive Dockyard. After the Board had visited the storeit does not appear that much advantage would be at the comparative evaporative efficiency of the house, the masthouse, the steam factory, the naval gained from them, and it is questionable whether conical water tube boiler, and the plain two-flued, barracks, and the ships in the basin and docks, they would repay the outlay of fixing them in the as well as the merits of iron and steel furnace first instance, and keeping them in repair in the tubes, with the value of introducing water subet Sheerness, and manufactured by Messrs. Shand,

steam fire engine, lately delivered at second, as well as atone for the complication they into the two-flued boiler. I can scarcely consider Mason and Co., of Blackfriars-road, London, was introduce into the boiler.

this, however, as an exhaustive series of investi- inspected. The furnace was laid with wood and There is another point of importance in connec- gations, and there are other trials which it would shavings, and in ten minutes after applying a light tion with ordinary mill boilers, and that is heating have been satisfactory to have made. There is the engine was started with steam of upwards of the feed water. It has already been stated that the Juckes's furnace applied to boilers externally, 80lb. pressure. A jet two inches in diameter was Messrs. Green, of Wakefield, supplied one of their which has its strong advocates; also, there are first tried, and attained a pressure of 100lb. on patent economizers, fitted with self-acting scrapers, several recently patented boilers, with deflecting the square inch. After working this for some and the results of experiments with this apparatus flue-tubes, which are stated to realize highly time, some stop valves were opened and others clearly showed that it was a decided gain, not only economical results; also, there is the multitubular closed, when, without stopping the engine, six in promoting economy, but also in raising moro boiler as adapted for mill purposes. All of theso jets were all working at the same time. Various steam in a given time, so that while the coal bill is boilers it would be of interest to submit to a care- other alterations in tho jets were shown, proving reduced, the power of the boiler is increased. The ful comparative test. I addition to this there is the power and efficiency of the engine. The trial feed water heater is also of material advantage to the gas system, which is an enlargement of the plan was in every respect satisfactory. The engino the boiler, irrespective of the question of fuel, in- of coking firing already described. Much is yet left is of the double horizontal construction, and is the asmuch as it maintains it at a more equable tem- for other investigators, but I trust that these trials largest of its kind, the weight being nearly three perature throughout, and thus promotes its will prove of service to steam users, while I wish tons. We understand that a similar engine, by longevity. Although we succeeded in preventing every success to those who are willing to push the same firm, is nearly ready for Pembroke the smoke without any special apparatus, and them further.

Dockyard. simply with the proper use of the shovel, coupled Though these trials may not be exhaustive, it with the admission of a little air above the bars, has been found that smoke may be prevented, yet it was thought desirable to try the effect of whether fired mechanically or by hand, without Museum, South Kensington, for the week ending

THE number of visitors to the Patent Office other means, and, therefore, Mr. D. K. Clark's pa- any special appliance, or when the combustion of August 1, wns 5,131 ; total number since the opentent steam jets were applied. This apparatus, the gases is assisted by driving in currents of air ing of the Museum, free daily (May 12, 1858), though very successful in preventing smoke, did | by jets of steam, and I think these trials fairly | 1,346,940.

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analogous articles from plastic substances, have lately been patented by Mr. C. H. Murray, of Loman-street, Southwark. The improvements consist principally in the novel construction of the die and the cutting table. The object in view is to so construct the die through which the clay is delivered and to lubricate the faces that it will be


FIC.2. delivered with less friction, and consequently with


FIC.4 a smoother and more even surface than hitherto, and will carry away with it a very thin film of lubri cating material, and will, therefore, be delivered with a perfectly smooth and even surface. We have shown in our engraving a side elevation of the complete machine, as well as the details of the lubricating machinery. The cutting table is exceedingly simple and efficacious ; the stream of clay passes from the die over rollers, and when a sufficient length to make ten or twelve bricks has run out, it is cut off by a wire placed near the mouth of the die, and the piece so cut off is passed forward by hand on to the cutting frame. A lever with a segment working a rack is then brought over, which actuates a thrust board, and the clay is pushed through the cutting wires and divided into from ten to twelve bricks, according to the gauge. bricks so cut are left on a movable hand board, upon which they are removed to the barrow without handling. The improvement in the face of the brick thus obtained is very conspicuous, for, as the clay is pushed through the wires, instead of the wires being pulled through the clay, the edges are not torn in finishing the cut. As the stream of clay is never shut off, as many bricks can be made with one cutting frame as with two when the stream issues alternately from two orifices, By the arrangement of placing a separate cutting wire at the mouth of the die, the difficulty of cutting true bricks from a continuous stream is overcome.

In our engraving of the details of the lubricating face of the vessel, as shown at fig. 4. The perforated / faces of the boxes bl are covered, the reservoir d, apparatus, fig. 1 is a front elevation of the faces of the boxes o are covered with felt, or other which supplies these vessels with the lubricating mouth or die of a brick-making machine show- porous material. This fabric will prevent the lubri- fuid, is placed at any convenient distance abova ing Mr. Murray's improvement adapted thereto; cant from running out too quickly, and the oil will them. The covering of the boxes bl is compressed fig. 2 is a side view, and fig. 3 is a horizontal perfectly saturate the fabric. These hollow vessels by the clamps and tightening screws c between the section. a is the frontplate of the machine, which form the sides of the die, as shown in fig. 3, fixed and stationary parts of the die, so as to pack and to which the improve ddie 0 b is attached. are fitted in their places, and are secured by means of these joints and render them perfectly watertight. The sides 1 ol of the die b are made hollow screws cc, which pass through lugs secured to or The clay in passing out of the machine and in or in the form of boxes, and are removable; fixed on to the stationary part a. By loosening the exuding from the die in the direction of the arrow these boxes UI, which are shown detached in front screws c c, the boxes 01 07 may at any tim be re- in fig. 3 will rub up against the felt or woollon elevation at fig. 4, and in section at fig. 5, are sup- moved, cleaned, covered, and replaced without de- covering of the boxes or hollow vessels b', and will plied with water, refuse oil, or other liquid lubricat- ranging any of the other parts of the machine. carry away with it a very thin film of lubricating ing material, which is caused to exude from the hollow In ovder to cause the lubricating liquid to pass material, and will therefore be delivered with a pervessels or boxes bl , through holes made in the through the felt or porous fabric with which the fectly smooth and even surface. In our report of

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the visit of the Society of Engineers to Chatham, Light land wheel ploughs, J. and F.

W. Coleman and Peter Love, for round combined we noticed the highly successful working of Mr. Howard

6 0 bin trough, with patent self-supplying action. Murray's machines, and promised full particulars, Light land wheel ploughs, Ransomes and

Aveling and Porter, for patent locomotive crane a promise we have now fulfilled. We may add that Sims

4 0 0 engine. these machines, which are manufactured by Mr. T. Deep land wheel ploughs, Ransomes and

J. and F. Howard, for patent safety steam boiler and Middleton, of Southwark, are also in extensive use Sims

superhenter. at the Portsmouth Dockyard, besides which they General purpose wheel plough, R. Hornsby

The Judges who awarded the Silver Medals were: have been adopted by some of our largest contractors. and Sons, highly commended.

John Thompson, E. Wortley, and H. B. Caldwell. Light land wheel plough, R. Hornsby and

Sons, highly commended.

Deep land wheel plough, J. Cooke and PRIZES AT THE LEICESTER SHOW. Co., highly commended.

THE ABBEY MILLS PUMPING STATION N the course of our notices of the Royal Agri- Deep wheel plough, R. Hornsby and Sons, commended.

AND MACHINERY. cultural Show at Leicester, we mentioned several instances in which exhibitions obtained


WE last week noticed the opening of the prizes. But as we could not notice every exhibit General purpose swing plough, J. and F.

Thames Embankment by the members of the Howard on which this distinction was conferred, we think

8 0 0 Metropolitan Board of Works, and at the same it only fair to the majority of the recipients to General purpose swing plough, Ransomes

time described the works and illustrated its

and Sims append the following complete list of the prizes. Light land swing plough, J. and F.

O chief feature—the Temple Pier. After inauguraThe judges in the various sections were as follow:

ting the Embankment, the company proceeded

STEAM CULTIVATORS.—J. F. Bramwell, C.E., 17, Light land swing plough, Ransomes and

by special steamer to the Abbey Mills Pumping Great George-street, London, S.W.; E. A. Cowper, Sims

00 Station of the Metropolitan Main Drainage Scheme. 6, Great George-street, London, S.W.; John Cole- General purpose swing plough, 15" Cooke

The works here are too extensive and too imman, Escrick Park, York; John Rooke, Weldan and Co., commended.

portant to be disposed of in a single article or Grange, Wansford; John Hemsley, Skelton Newark. General purpose swing plough, R. Hornsby

illustrated in one number. We therefore propose TILE MACHINES AND MISCELLANEOUS.-H. B. and Sons, commended.

to describe and illustrate the buildings and Caldwell, Monkton Farleigh, Bradford, Wilts; J. General purpose swing plough, Ball and

machinery as completely as possible in the course Thompson, Badmington, Chippenham; Edward Light' land swing ploughs, R. Hornsby

Son, commended.

of the present and successive numbers. We comWortley, Ridlington, Uppingham.

mence our illustrations with the chief mechanical

and Sons, commended. PLOUGHS.-T. P. Dods, Anick Grange, Hexham ;

features, the engines and boilers, which will be G. M. Hipwell, Elmore Lodge, Sutton, Surrey ; J. Subsoil plough, J. and F. Howard

found at pages 110 and 111 of our present issue.

6 0 Wheatley, Neswick, Driffield.

o The pumping station now under consideration CULTIVATORS, CLOD CRUSHERS, ROLLERS AND Digging plough, R. Hornsby and Sons, Subsoil plough, Ransomes and Sims

o constitutes the last important work carried out in HARROWS.-T. Chambers, jun., Colkirk Hall,

connection with the undertaking, and the dimen

highly commended. Fakenham ; F. Sherborn, Bedfont, Middlesex; W. Digging plough, J. and F. Howard, highly

sions of the machinery, not less than the work it Roberts, Thorneyholme, Burnley.


will have to perform, entitles it to the fullest conDigging plough, Ransomes and Sims,

sideration from engineers--if for no other reason PRIZES. highly commended

as a precedent for future undertakings, and as a THE BEST APPLICATION OF STEAM POWER FOR THE

guide to the most approved means of carrying out

Paring plough, Ransomes and Sims

great pumping operations in connection with PRIZES. Paring plough, J. and F. Howard

drainage schemes. Pair of single winding drum traction en- £. d. Paring plough, Ball and Son, highly

The station is situated close to Abbey Mills, gines, to be used as a pair for one im


near Abbey Creek, in the parish of Westham, plement, being the best application of

Esses. From this point, after being raised about steam power for the cultivation of the

CULTIVATORS. goil, John Fowler and Co.

36ft. by the pumps, the sewage is conveyed by

13 Cultivator, F. II. Bentall

100 0 0 One double drum traction engine, work

Cultivator, Charles Clay

7 0 three parallel lines of sewers to Barking Creek. ing with a travelling disc anchor, for Cultivator, Hunt and Pickering, highly

At a little distance beyond the station the three the second best application of steam


lines of sewers are passed over the Channelsea. power for the cultivation of the soil,


river and Abbey Creek ; then over Marsh-lane John Fowler and Co.

25 0 0 Clod crusher, Beverley Iron Works Co. 11 o and the North Woolwich Railway, and so finally One traction engine, working with clip

Clod crusher, Amies, Barford, and Co. 90 0 to Barking Creek, where it is received in a reserdrum and travelling disc anchor, for Clod crusher, W. Crosskill and Sons,

voir 9} acres in area and 164ft. deep, in which the second best application of steam highly commended.

the sewage is stored about eleven hours each tide. power for the cultivation of the soil, Clod crusher, E. Cambridge and Co.,

The machinery differs in many respects from John Fowler and Co.

26 0 0

that at Crossness, especially in the construction THE BEST APPLICATION OF STEAM POWER ADAPTED


of the pumps, which are of the double-acting FOR OCCUPATIONS OF MODERATE SIZE. Roller, Amies, Barford, and Co.

opiston class, wbile those at Crossness are of the Portable engine with windlass, cultivator,

Roller, Beverley Iron Works Co. ...

uplunger type.

It consists of eight pumping anehor, &c., being the best application Roller, Amies, Barford, and Co., liighly

engines, twelve boilers, and sixteen sewage of steam power adapted for occupations

commended. of a moderate size, James and Frederick Roller, William Lewis, commended.

pumps, one of which we have illustrated. The Howard

engine-house is in the form of a cross, two engines 50 0 0 Roller, Holmes and Son, commended. Second prize for same witheld.

being located in each arm side by side, the HARROWS.

cylinders being all disposed centrally, with the IMPLEMENTS FOR STEAM CULTIVATION, INCLUDING Harrows, J. and F. Howard

13 0 0

large air vessel on the mains within the group. PLOUGHS POR STEAM POWER, CULTIVATORS, Harrows, Ransomes and Sims


The engines are of the kind known as doubleHARROWS, WINDLASSES, ANCHORS, ROPE PORTERS, Rotary harrows, Ashby nnd Jeffery, highly &c.


acting condensing beam engines, made according Four furrow balance plough, fitted with Drag harrows, W. F. Johnson, highly

to tho most improved construction and design, Kent breasts, and convertible into


and perfectly balanced when in and out action, digger, John Fowler and Co. 12 0 0 Chain harrow, with carriage, Henry

and finished dead bright in all parts usually so Seven tine balance cultivator for large

Denton, highly commended.

finished by the best makers of first-class wateroccupations, John Fowler and Co. 12 0 0 Revolving harrow, Holmes and Son,

works engines. The cylinders are each 54in. Five tine cultivator for occupations of a

highly commended.

diameter and 9ft. stroke, with steam casos, valves, moderate size, James, and Frederick Chain harrow, E. Cambridge and Co.,

steam chests, pipes, &c., effectually covered with Howard

12 0 0

double-felt clothing, with intermediate and outer Light land cultivator single acting (new


canvas coverings, each painted in two coats of implement), John Fowler and Co.

15 Frame for harrows, rollers, &c., John

0 0 Brick-making machines, John Whitehead 5 10 0 white lead and oil, mahogany jackets, covers and Fowler and Co.

Tile-making machine, John Whitehead 7 10 0 false covers, raised bottoms, turned column

8 00 Brick-making machine, J. D. Pinfold 5 0 Harrows, James and Frederick Howard.

nozzles, polished hand gear, and wrought column 7 0 0

DRAINING TOOLS. Disc travelling anchor, John Fowler and Set of draining tools, Hunt and Pickering, silver double-beat brass valves of the Cornish type,

standards, shafts, rods, lever, and handles, and Co.

10 0 0 medal. Double disc windlass on engine, John

brass throttle valves, brass upper blow valves, Fowler and Co.

8 0 0

three-pin glands (brass bushed), brass grease Clip drum windlass on engine, John

Ransomes and Sims turnwrest ploughs with patent cocks, cast steel piston rods, metallic spring Fowler and Co.

8 00

wheel. Double drum windlass on frame, James Amies and Barford, for clod crusher, fitted with brass pins, expansion joints, bright valve bonnets,

pistons of the most improved construction with and Frederick Howard

shafts and patent turntable.

8 0 0 Three furrow balance French plough for

Amies and Barford, combined straw, corn, and hay cast-hardened nuts, traste cocks and waste pipes deep work, John Fowler, highly com

stacking machine.

to carry the condensed water from the cylinders mended.

Beverley Iron and Waggon Company, for pair of and easily accessible from the engine-houso floor, Two furrow plough for deep work, James

patent wrought-iron wheels.

and all other appendages complete. The nozzles and Frederick Howard, highly com

Bryan, Corcoran, and Co., for diamond mill-stone are placed on the back of tho cylinders, opposite mended.

dressing machine.

to and symmetrical with each other. The steam The handsome cup and goblets offered by the J. Lee Norton, patent tube well pump.

enters the nozzles from the branch steam pipes, Viceroy of Egypt, and valued at about £200, for the J. Lee Norton, patent revolving archimedian screw which are 10in. dinmeter, and have brass-faced best implement for the cultivation of the soil by Clayton, Shuttleworth, and Co., patent combined regulating valves, worked by monns of a bright

slide talves to operate both as stop valves and as steam power, suitable for foreign countries, was awarded to Messrs. Fowler and Co., of Leeds.

liquid manure drill.
H. R. Marsden, patent stone breaker.

vertical shaft and a pair of spur wheels put in WHEEL PLOUGHS. General purpose wheel plough, J. and F.

W. Smith, for improved grindstone frame for grind- motion by hand from the engino-house floor. ing reaping machine knives.

There are two double-beat steam valves of cloar Howard General purpose wheel plough, Ransomes

ġ 0 0 J. and G. Haywood, for chafi-cutter with leather areas cach equal to at least 80 circular inches strap and pulley.

through overy part, and two double-beat exhaust and Sims ... 5 0 01 Hunt and Pickering, set of drawing tools.

valves of clear areas, each equal to at least 120

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