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to the proprietors, and it is hoped that no and cold forge tests being in the same pro-
gentleman in the same line of business will portion.
seek admittance, except by special invitation

In many instances complaints have been or permission. The principal trade of Norwich made by the makers of boiler plates to the MECHANICS MAGAZINE

is in shoes, and the Norfolk Herald " gives effect that the Government tests are too us the following statistics of this manufacture: severe to insure good iron, by requiring them

- The hand machines now in use are chiefly to supply plates which shall stand a tensile those of Thomas, Howe, or Singer. There strain of twenty-two tons per square inch are about 400 of these in warehouses, and lengthways, and eighteen tons per square

inch LONDON: FRIDAY, AUGUST 14, 1868.

200 in private houses, daily at work. There crossways of the plate; also a good hot and are also several large American machines for cold forge test. In this case it has been said

sewing soles to uppers; and in three factories that the plates cannot be subjected to a high THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.

steam power has been applied to these ma- tensile strain without injury to the plate, with

chines, so that soles and uppers may be regard to the forged tests. It is, however, a THE twenty-eighth annual conference of the applied at the rate of a pair per minute. By well-known fact that iron plates can be made

members of the British Association will means of machines a pair of boots can be cut to stand the forged tests required by the commence at Norwich on Wednesday next, out, fitted, sewn together, and finished in an Government ; also a tensile strain of twentyunder the presidency of Mr. Joseph Dalton hour and a half. Three operators are re-six tons per square inch lengthways, and Hooker, F.R.S. Everything at present seems quired for each machine-two fitters and one twenty-one tons per square inch crossways of to promise a success equal to that which has machinist. Suppose 500 machines to be daily the plate, by care and attention on the part hitherto attended the annual meetings of the at work, each will produce two dozen pairs of the makers. The course taken by the Association. A programme of the sectional daily, or a total of a thousand dozen pairs of Government with regard to framing a code of arrangements, as far as they have been uppers daily. By the use of an American tests, by which plates of a certain thickness already made known, appear on another page, machine the soles may be attached to the and quality must admit of bending both hot so that we shall confine ourselves here to a uppers at the rate of one pair per minute, or and cold, with and across the grain, to insure few general remarks upon the forthcoming 600 pairs daily. By the use of two American their being received at the dockyards, has meeting And, first, let us say a few words machines this number may be doubled. been the means of drawing the attention of on the route to Norwich, that grand old When trade is good about 6,000 men, women, the makers to the requirements of the Governecclesiastical city. Those who are journeying and children are employed in their manufac- ment, whereby a better class of iron is now from the metropolis, and who have time to ture either in the warehouses or in their own obtained than otherwise would have been. spare, have choice of another route than that homes. The operatives may be divided into But a very few years since, the only result by the Eastern Counties Railway-a line one-third men, one-third women, and one- the makers sought to obtain was a high tensile which runs through a flat and uninteresting third children. They will produce, by the strain. district. Steamships run three times a week aid of machines, one thousand dozen pairs of from London Bridge to Yarmouth, the latter boots and shoes daily; the number will there- sile strength differ very materially, according

The methods of testing iron plates for tenplace being within an hour's ride of Norwich fore he six thousand dozen weekly, and, to the views of the different persons employed. by rail.

On board the passenger boats plying taking the average price at 40s. per dozen, Some hold that pieces cut out in a circular form between London and Yarmouth the accommo- the weekly value would be £12,000. Sup- are the best for the purpose; others that dation is good, and provisions of all kinds are posing the trade to continue brisk for fifty pieces cut with parallel sides are preferable, supplied at moderate rates. The trip from weeks in the year, the annual value would be and while some hold that the length of the London to Yarmouth averages about eleven £600,000. hours in length; the vessels keep in sight

piece taken for testing is a fair sample, others of land nearly the whole distance, and

Among foreigners of note who intend to be think it unfair, and so on, each trying to here and there some picturesque views are present this year at the British Association secure the advantage of the result of the test. seen, though, as a rule, the coast is flat. are Padre Secchi, of Rome; Professor Vam- From experiments made with circular and After passing through Yarmouth Roads, with bery, M. Lartet, Dr. Broca, Colonel Moulinie, parallel-sided pieces the difference was found its crowded shipping, there are two or three Baron and Baroness Madler, M. Favre, Dr. to be very great. The experiments to which miles of awkward river navigation before Karl Kock, of Berlin; and Baron Walters- we here refer were carried out as follows :Yarmouth is reached, and the passengers land haussen, of Gottingen. Among those mem- A certain number of pieces were prepared in

bers of the Association who have been reat a quay in the centre of the town, proceed

a circular form, and a corresponding number ing thence, as already observed, by rail to moved by death are Mr. John Crawfurd, in a parallel-sided form, both with and across Norwich. The arrangements for the recep- and Sir David Brewster.

F.R.S., President of the Ethnological Society, the grain. The pieces of both shapes so pretion of the Association at Norwich are very

pared varied in diameter from lin. to 10in.,

and the average of the results in every length complete, the committee having a large choice

that was tested was in every case in favour of of public rooms, and having taken plenty of

the circular pieces. It will be apparent that time to mature their plans. The mechanical

when a parallel-sided piece of iron of any section has more room than it had at Dundee; GOVERNMENT TESTS FOR BOILER length is tested, the chance of its breakin fact, more than twice as much as it re

PLATES. quires. The papers read before the geogra

ing at a point other than the centre, when than of a scientific character, this section is well to say a few words on the final process length of piece tested, in consequence of phical section, being more of an entertaining Bereke e Proceeding to the immediate sub- the full strain is applied (or even under the always well filled, and will be especially so of manufacture, as bearing upon the ulti- the strain being the more likely to fall into a on this occasion, because much relating to mate results of the testing. After the puddling weak part of the plate, and also owing to the the Abyssinian expedition will be brought has been completed, the iron is removed from elongation of the plate. But when the pieces forward. If pressure upon the accommoda- the furnace in an irregular form, taken to the tested are circular in form, the probability of tion provided is felt anywhere, we expect it steam hammer, and there hammered; it is their breaking at any other part than the will be in this and in the physical science next passed through rolls and rolled into smallest is done away with, as the piece must sections. Association this year is a lecture by Professor slabs, from about 12in. to 18in. wide, and break exactly at the smallest place to obtain

Sometimes it is rolled in the the correct breaking strain. It will thus be Huxley to the working men of Norwich, on form of narrow bars Sin., 34in., 4in., and seen that, in testing iron, pieces of a circular chalk, which is all the more interesting sometimes bin. wide, for the purpose of cross- form have a decided advantage over pieces of because Norwich is in a chalk district, and flint has been largely used in the construction bars are then taken to the shears, and cut evident that this must be the case, for pieces

piling with the wide bars. These slabs and similar length of a parallel-sided form. It is of some of its old public buildings. The ex- into the required lengths; the lengths are of circular formn have a greater body of iron cursions, all of which are fixed for Thursday, now taken to the rolling mills and there behind the smallest part of the circle, which August 27, will be to Cromer, Lynn, Hun- piled according to the size of plate required. supports the piece while under heavy strain ; stanton, Walsingham, Holkham, and Yar: The narrow bars are cross-piled with the and, further, pieces of circular form have a mouth. Mr. R. J. H. Harvey, M.P., and wide bars, with the view to obtain a better greater area of iron to support the weights Lady Henrietta Harvey, have invited all the result upon testing. members of the British Association to

But great objections when applied, and therefore are not so liable dejeuner at Crown Point, on Saturday next, being rolled down, the joints of the narrow manufacturers are of opinion that lin. in

exist to this practice, for, while the pile is to elongation as parallel-sided pieces. Some and will send two steamers to convey them bars appear to open, and by so doing the width, whatever the thickness of the plate, from Norwich. As this is an invitation to strength of the plate is injured rather than was sufficient to test the quality of the iron ; about 2,000 guests, we believe it is a stretch benefited by the process. From a very great on the other hand, others have preferred a of hospitality exceeding any that has ever number of experiments which have been much wider piece, each being anxious to before been offered to the British Associa- made by cross-piling narrow bars with wide obtain a better result in the tests. The fol. tion.

ones loosely placed together, and also with lowing table shows the result of a number of Many of the manufacturers of Norwich piles made solid (which had previously been experiments which have been made in order will throw open their works, but it is to be cross-piled), it is demonstrated that the ad- to ascertain what, if any, advantage would understood that only such parts of the manu- vantages gained by the latter process amount result from testing iron in broad pieces, over factories will be shown as inay be convenient to about 7 per cent. for tensile strain, the hot other pieces of a much narrower width. The



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were, however, soon abandoned, as only The first is that beet sugar is largely and only the extremities of the junction are

test pieces varied in width from one to eight first energetic impulse to this manufacture, | increasingly used by our refiners. In the inches.

by offering a prize of one million francs for next place, says Mr. Baruchson, the rapid the successful production of sugar from roots decrease of slavery in the countries where of home growth. Germany, as well as France, the sugar cane is cultivated, is calculated to entered the lists, and all that science could increase the cost and diminish the production effect was done to bring the question to a there; while the manufacturers in the tropics successful issue. More energy, however, are at a disadvantage with the improvements was shown in France than in Germany, so in machinery introduced by modern science

that the factories, in course of time, became in Europe. Third, the tendency of British grain.

grain. firmly established in the former country, agriculture is towards a preference of pasturDog. In, Deg.

whilst in the latter, they, for the most part, age and root crops over grain. Fourth, 11 by 5 21:0

1 1 by 5 19-0
5 18-25 7-16 died out.

the soil and climate of England and Ireland So the manufacture struggled on through are specially suitable for the successful growth 5 17-333

its infancy, and after twenty years of work- of beet. Next, Ireland needs new industries ; 5 17-6665-16 ing in France-during which time the process land and labour there are comparatively 5 18-375 3-16 had attained tolerable perfection-it cheap, and capital can be procured to support

returned again towards the north. It then judicious enterprise ; and, lastly, we are told rapidly spread, not only over Belgium and that there is on an average a saving of about

the German States, but over Poland and into £+ per ton in freight and charges from the 5 16.928 3-16 the heart of Russia, and at the present time cane-producing countries, and of £1 10s. to 5 16:32, 3-16 the Continent of Europe produces about £3 per ton on beet from the Continent, 5 17-406 17:33 per cent. of all the sugar consumed in These reasons touch upon points of a com

the world. This is the more remark-mercial character, which it does not lie within These experiments prove that there is a able, inasmuch as the process is far more our province to discuss; they further refer very great difference in the result with regard complicated and troublesome than that to matters of fact, which are capable of proof adopted by the Government in testing iron adopted for cane sugar. These results natur- or disproof, but only by actual practical

commercial speculation, for tensile strain is to take a plate indis-bility of introducing the manufacture in nothing could look more promising than the where it is thought most desirable, other than our own country, and so we find that of late question as it stands in Mr. Baruchson's the edge ; for instance, about a foot from the years attempts have been made in Ireland to pamphlet. He has fairly and honestly treated

from the beetroot. The his subject, but viewed by the light of contiedge. The pieces are planed out so as not to success, however, was only partial ; a large nental results and figures, we cannot accept contain less than one square inch in section; amount of capital was spent, and valuable its success as established in England. The they are parallel-sided, and are held between machinery was erected, but the investment subject, however, has a most important bearthe nippers, not less than 6in, in length. In proved å blank—the speculation utterly ing upon our national interests, and we say, by some works, the testing of the shearings from failed. As the best and most modern pro- all means let it undergo another practical the plates is considered a sufficient guarantee cesses were adopted, and as all the experience trial. Previous failures may only lead—as in of the quality of the iron. As a matter of of continental success was brought to bear Germany—to subsequent successes. course, it is the cheapest, but it is very far from being a satisfactory test. There can be upon the question, it may seem strange that therefore, those with whom it rests to promote no safer method adopted than cutting a piece not aware—and we speak from some know- hand.

We are these matters, take the subject seriously in

They will find much assistance from from the plate, about one foot from the edges ledge of the matter that failure could be Mr. Baruchson's pamphlet, which gives a dethereof, the same being prepared with parallel laid to the charge either of engineer, scription of the rise, progress, and present sides, and this will ensure bath to makers and

directors, or shareholders, who position of the manufacture on the Continent,

manager, consumers a good quality of iron. When iron is put upon its merits for tensile strain, undertakings--pecuniary support.

were not behind in that great essential of all as well as some practical directions on the the pieces to be operated upon should in no therefore, obliged to look for the cause out-of the sugar,

We are, cultivation of the root and the manufacture case be prepared by punching them from the side these circumstances, and we are under plates, but by planing. From what we have the impression that soil and climate-espe- NEW METHOD OF BOLTING TUBES above stated, it will be seen that the practice of cially the latter-have played a prominent,

TOGETHER. principles which will ensure the best materials development of beetroot sugar manufacture Inscription of a new plan for joining the being used in the service.

in Great Britain.

We have thus far given our own views and ends of telegraph wires, tubes, and rods, the

ideas upon the subject; at this point, how- principle of which consisted in turning up BEETROOT SUGAR.

ever, we turn to some remarks upon the sub- the ends at right angles and screwing them FROM an early period of the world's ject by Mr. Arnold Baruchson.* The author together with a nut. Another method for been used

article of food. 'The has been commercially interested in the been lately patented by MM. Schaffer and ancients derived their sweets chiefly from article, and who, having watched in other Budenberg, who have also invented a parhoney, manna, and fruit. Although they lands the development of the manufacture, ticular system of lubrication for steam were acquainted with the juices of the sugar

is desirous to see it introduced into England, machinery. The peculiarity of this method producing plants, it was left for modern the climate and soil being, in his opinion, is represented in the adjoining figures, and civilization to effect their extraction and con

eminently suited to the purpose.

Mr. consists in each half of the extremities of the version into sugar.

Just as the knowledge Baruchson, it will be seen, differs from us in pipes to be united being cut off at an angle of of fermented liquors and the condiment of our conclusions in this respect, but he does so 15deg. In fig. 3 one of the junction pieces sea water were common to men long before mainly upon the recent representations of the they were acquainted with the method of secretary of the Irish Beetroot Sugar Comseparating alcohol and salt, so were they pany. That gentleman attributes failure to familiar with honey and the sweet juices of want of capital and errors in management.

FIG.2 plants before they knew how to separate

We are not in a position to refute the secresugar from the cane. The moderns are far tary's statement positively, but this much we richer in vegetable sweets than were the may say-everything was done to secure sucancients; thus to those in use by the latter, cess, and there were those who were satisfied the former have added cane, maple, beet, with the management who were acquainted maize, and palm sugars. It is to the third on

with the manufacture on the Continent. this list-beet sugar-we wish to direct Moreover, there were those who would will

FIG. 3

FIG.4 attention, with the view of seeing how far it ingly have subscribed further and largely may be reasonable to expect it to become a

could they only have seen a reasonable prostaple commodity of British manufacture, spect of a successful yield of sugar. But these

A The history of beet sugar, although im- are points upon which we need not further portant, may be summed up very briefly. dwell, as we are entirely with Mr. Baruchson Margraaf, a German chemist in Berlin, dis-in wishing to see the manufacture of beet covered in 1747 that the beetroot contained sugar developed in our own country. And a large quantity of sugar. After a lapse of in view of the commercial importance of the fifty years a manufactory of beet sugar was

question, we will give Mr. Baruchson's views established, under royal patronage, at Cu- upon the subject. moom, in Silesia, by Achard. The works Six excellent reasons are given by Mr. Ba- is shown ready to receive the ends of two

ruchson for directing attention to the subject. tubes, and fig: 2 shows tie same arrangement; 2 or 3 per cent. of the crystallized sugar

tapped for the purpose of being screwed on could be extracted. Napoleon I. gave the

* Emingham Wilson, Royal Exchange. to a water or gas pipe. It will be perceived

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that one-half of the junction, A', is furnished the Eastern has to perform he has but one whilst paint covereth a multitude of defects with a groove, in which a ring of india lathe, and the variety of his productions is and soon loses its bloom. On the other hand, rubber is placed, and then the projection of accordingly very limited. We, on the other good work and careful finish, without any the other half, 'B, fitted into it. By com- hand, have a great variety of machines, each attempt at effect, is far more satisfactory to pressing this ring, the tightness of the joint adapted to some special object. Thus we have the mechanical eye, costs less, and is the uniis secured. The pieces are actually held dentists' lathes, lapidaries' lathes, osteological versal practice of the best makers. Keeping together by a bolt, D' (see fig. 1), which lathes, gunstock lathes, rocket-stick lathes, these potnts in view, and purchasing from a passes through both junctions, and is fastened shoe-last lathes, and copying lathes of respectable firm, will always ensure the turner with a nut and washers. Instead of a bolt, many kinds. Besides these, we have lathes every success mechanical means can give. the joint may be made good by means of the for drilling, boring, for turning shafts, rail. For the rest, he must, of course, trust to the arrangement represented in fig: 4. The ap- way axles, tyres and wheels, rolls for rolling skill and aptitude he possesses for his work, plication of this principle of jointing to an iron, as well as lathes for cabinet-maker's and his proficiency will depend upon his taste elbow is shown in fig. 1. For rapidity of work, billiard-ball turning, ornamental and judgment, execution and facility of connecting and dis- work, screw-cutting lathes, &c., &c. Our The second part of Mr. Northcott's work connecting pipes this method possesses some author, without going into the details of is devoted to hand lathes and their uses. After advantages, but although the joint may be every lathe extant, carefully describes such some general remarks upon hand turning, he completely hermetical when first made, there as are types of all the rest, and thus avoids describes the different processes of turning is no certainty of its remaining so.

encumbering the volume with matter which in various materials. The manufacture of is only interesting to a limited number of the necessary tools is also described, and the readers.

particulars of grinding, glazing, and polishLATHES AND TURNING.*

The construction of a perfect lathe involves ing are given. We next come to self-acting

no ordinary amount of care and consideration, and screw-cutting lathes, which, with their OP athithe may be us meaning an organicers and therefore, aglaiato eletos of author

We uses, are described in the third part of this

are, therefore, glad to echo our author's ad- useful treatise. And here we may mention ing establishment, none perhaps carry with vice to amateurs to purchase their lathes of that Mr. Northcott has introduced several them more interest than that of turning. So

a respectable maker, and not to attempt to improvements, his arrangements for adjustinteresting is the process of developing use- make one for themselves. It may always be ment and alteration being exceedingly well ful articles and beautiful forms from rough considered that when an amateur makes his planned and convenient in use. In the fourth unshaped masses of material, that turning own lathe-although he himself may con- part, the author treats of ornamental turning has been more sedulously followed than any sider it a remarkable work of genius--in in the same clear and explicit manner in which other popularized mechanical pursuit.

reality it will be found to be of little value. he has handled the preceding sections. Here only is its study pursued with a view to This may be an unwelcome truth to many we are made familiar with the complex combut there are innumerable instances of the less inexorable, practical proficiency as a means of livelihood, mechanical aspirants, but it is not the binations of ornamental apparatus, and the

evidenced by the beautiful results which may be obtained from use of the lathe being aqcuired solely for

A number of illustrations are the pleasure the prosecution of such a study in this direction.

many miscarriages which have occurred their use.

Mr. Northcott tells given which are printed from blocks turned imparts. There is a fascination in possessing us that he has even heard of a wooden by the author. Further on, we have some the power of imparting grace and elegance to slide-rest and a wooden elliptical chuck excellent practical examples of the use and an unsightly block of wood or a ragged piece having been introduced in a lathe of power of the geometric chuck. These blocks of metal, and there is a charm in watching home construction. The fact is, that it is were furnished to the author by Mr. Plant, of the gradual perfection of the work as it seems simply absurd to attempt to construct a ma- Alsager, Cheshire, having been cut by one of then, the popularity of the pursuit and the im, without skill and experience, as well as a beautiful designs, and cannot fail to be adportant bearing it has upon mechanical good set of tools, and all the necessary ad- mired by all who see them.

It will thus be seen that Mr. Northcott's work we have not had before now a modern reli- ance of those who are about to purchase a well supplies the deficiency which has hitherto able and inexpensive treatise on the subject. lathe, we extract from Mr. Northcott's book existed in respect of a sound and useful work The more is this to be wondered at when we the following main points of a good lathe : upon the special subject of turning: The see so many enquiries for information upon In the first place, it should be constructed particulars given are very comprehensive, all turning made through the engineering wholly of metal, for, although some are of branches of turning being noticed, and a large from time to time, point to the necessity for opinion that the introduction of wood is ad- amount of practical information being given such a work, and we are glad to see that ring or chattering which frequently annoys already stated that there are two hundred and necessity now met in a very efficient manner the operator, and renders it difficult for him thirty-nine illustrations, all of them done in by Mr. Northcott, in the volume now before to produce good work, the notion has almost the best style, and some of large size, we shall u8. It is the result of long practical ex- exploded amongst mechanics, the chattering have given valid reasons for our strong reperience, and its production was prompted by being always caused by the inattention or commendation of this work to all interested the circumstance, that the author found con- unskilfulness of the operator.

in the use of the lathe. siderable difficulty in acquiring informationotherwise than by practice-concerning the be as strong and massive as possible, without

In the next place, the various parts should many operations in which the lathe is capable clumsiness. Of course, the bed should be PREPARATIONS TO

PHOTOGRAPH of aiding. Mr. Northcott divides his work into four firm and truly level. The spindle should be

THE GREAT ECLIPSE. thoroughly unyielding, and stand immovably

N the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE of March 20 parts. The first of these treats generally on of good size, and its bearings not too close

IN the subject, the several varieties of lathes in

we gave full particulars about the appause being noticed, and their good points being perhaps as good as any. When well made, the optician, to photograph the great eclipse

together. Conical bearings hardened are ratus constructed by Mr. Browning, F.R.A.S., given, as well as the various technical ex- with proper care and occasional regrinding, of the sun on the 17th of this month. The some excellent engravings of lathes, from they will last a long time and give but little instrument consists of a reflecting telescope, those of the most simple to those of the trouble. If, however, they are not lubricated, with a silvered glass mirror 5ft. 9in. in focus, most complex character, and including ex- if the metal of the headstock yields to the ture of the sun which will be a little more

or are screwed up improperly, or too tight, or throwing upon the photographic'plate a picamples bearing the well known names of Whitworth, Fairbairn, Muir, &c. It is a

pressure of the screw, the necks will bind, get than lin. in diameter. That telescope, which

hot, abrade, and cause great trouble and an was unfinished when our description was contrast to contemplate these splendid ma- noyance. The starting and reversing handle written, has now reached India, and is in the chines, and then to turn to those in use not shčuld be within easy and convenient distance hands of Major F. Tennant, who, with a party only in the East, but in Spain, Portugal, and of the operator. The slide rest should have of sappers, has been educated in astronomical some other European countries. There the lathe consists of two fixed points between for throwing the tool in and out of cut. For De La Rue, at Cranford. The last news

a motion independently of the ordinary screw photography at the observatory of Mr. Warren which the object to be turned is placed, and screw cutting this motion is especially valu- we heard from Major Tennant was, that he it is turned first in one direction and then in able. The tool holder should be one of those was undecided whether to fit up the telescopo another, by means of a bow, the string of which allows the tool to be placed at any at Masulipatam or Guntoor, both of which which is passed two or three times round the angle or convenient position on the tool plate. places in Eastern India are on the central line object, to obtain a good hold. In the East, All wearing or working surfaces should be of the eclipse. At Masulipatam, which, at chisel with one hand and actuates the bow provided with oil holes for lubrication, and all events, will not be far from the point with the other, guiding and steadying the dust or grit should be fitted with stoppers. mences at 14hrs. 54min. 11sec. Greenwich

those holes which are liable to get filled with where the pictures are taken, the eclipse comchisel upon the rest with his big toe. Nor All sliding surfaces should be scraped to a mean time, or 20hrs. 18min. 51sec. local mean does the contrast end here. Whatever work

good bearing and without grinding. Orna- time. The totality commences at 16hrs.

mentation of every kind should be avoided, 9min. 31sec., and ends at 16hrs. 15min. "A Treatise on Lathes and Turning, Simple, Mechani as mouldings and beads harbour dirt, get 19 sec. Greenwich mean time.

Thus the duradon: Longmans, Green and Co. 1968.

bruised, and are always catching the knuckles, tion of the totality will be 5min. 48sec., in

which time it is expected that six photographs we can scarcely credit the statement. Our latest that the company have the chance of obtaining a will be obtained. The eclipse ends at 17hrs. news is to the offert that Sir Charles Bright and second route, it would be, so long as the cable is 40min. 16sec. Greenwich mean time, or at the “ Narva” left Key West on the 8th inst. for worth repairing, a great want of foresight not to 23hrs. 4min. 56sec. local mean time. As

New York. For the present, therefore, the keep it in repair. If our main telegraphic routes during the eclipse the sun is not very far attempt to recover the cable is abandoned ; we are depended on one wire or cable only, interruptions from apogee, and the moon only six hours anxiously awaiting some news as to the immediate would be total, and telegraphy would be much in

We are very glad terfered with ; but as in most, if not all, of our from perigee, there is a large difference of indeed to hear that “all are well” on board. important through routes we possess good alternadiameters very favourable for the observa

We are glad to find that our conjectures of last tive lines, it is quite the exception to hear of a total tion of the phenomena of the totality. week, relative to the locality of the break in the cessation of communication.

The central line of the eclipse enters on the 1866 Atlantic cable, have been verified by the tests The Mediterranean Extension Company roport west coast of India, in latitude 16deg. 35min., which were made, but which only came to our that both of their cables, the Malta and Sicily and about three miles north of Viziadroog, and knowledge subsequent to our mentioning the the Corfu and Otranto, are working well. quits India on the eastern coast, near Masuli- break to our readers. Mr. Willoughby Smith was The Electric and International Telograph Compatam, passing near Muktul and Guntoor. sent to Valentia at once, and his tests were verified pany mention in their engineer's report that “ tho The shadow will be about 143 miles broad, by Messrs. Clark and Laws, who immediately fol- cable across the Dart has been renewed, the cable but the further the observer is placed from lowed him. Their results have been communicated to the Isle of Wight has been taken up, repaired, the central line, the shorter will be the dura- and the fault is localized at about eighty-eight miles "The thirty-three knots of now cable, ordered by the

to the public by Sir R. A. Glass through the press, renewed where it was necessary, and relaid." tion of the eclipse. fter leaving India, the in 100 fathoms of water, at or about the same spot directors for the purpose of renewing a correspondshadow will cross the Bay of Bengal, the North that the break occurred last year. The steamer ing length in the English side of the Dunwich Andaman Island, the Mergui Archipelago, " Hawk," belonging to the Telegraph Construction Zandvoort cable, has been completed.” The shoro the Malay Peninsula, and the Island of and Maintenance Company, and usually kept by end of this piece, a length of thirteen miles of Borneo. The work of Major Tennant and them in the Mediterranean for the repair of the massive cable, was laid, on Saturday last, two miles, his party will be performed at the expense of Malta and Alexandria cablo, has been recalled from from the cable house over the sands close to the Indian Government, but expeditions have Malta to execute the necessary repairs, which it Lowestoft Ness, having been previously laid.,

Numerous trials have been made with Wheatstone's been sent out by many European Govern is hoped will not take long. ments, besides the English, to take photo- Anglo-American Company appeared to be most castle, and, owing to the great success attending

Soon after the Atlantic cables were laid the automatic apparatus between London and Newgraphic and other observations of the eclipse. anxious to have an engineer stationed at New- upon them, additional instruments on the same The photographs of the total eclipse of foundland with the necessary machinery to under-plan have been brought into use between Lon1860, obtained in Spain, proved that the red take repairs, should such be required, but it came don, Manchester, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. The protuberances seen during the progress of to nothing ; they have lately again been discussing present system of the Company embraces 10,085 the phenomena belong to the body of the the subject, but owing to some opposition the miles of line, 50,067 miles of wire, and 7,655 insun. They are of enormous size, but nothing matter has again dropped. It is to be wondered that struments. is known as to their permanency, or whether they porsevere in so short-sighted a policy. The The reports of the progress of the Indothey are solid or gaseous.

It is hoped that delay in getting a vessel from Malta and the passage European line are most satisfactory; the whole of some of these points will be cleared up by the across must be most sorious, but having one cable the materials for the line in Persia-comprising spectroscopic apparatus, which has been still working, they probably do not feel it. Should 11,000 iron posts, 33,400 insulators, and 900 miles taken out by nearly every expedition which which we sincerely truet will never occur-wo for constructing the lines from the Caucasian

a misfortune happen to both at the same time—of No. 4 wire-have been sent out. The material has left Europe. Next Tuesday will, there

suppose they will bestir themselves. We find it Mountains through the Crimea to Odessa, and on fore be an eventful day in the history of stated that it is in contemplation by the directors to Balta, will be shipped during the winter, and, astronomical photography.

to offer a reward of £1,000 for any information owing to the severity of the winter, this part of bearing on the rupture of the cable, last year, or the line will be constructed of extra strong iron

on the present occasion.” This hardly agrees with posts. The lines from Balta northwards to the ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY. the generally-accepted version, that the fault was Prusso-Russian frontier will be constructed with occasioned by an iceberg.

wooden poles, that district being very rich in THE cable from Sicily to Algeria has been ro The prospectus of the French Atlantic Tele- timber. Messrs. Siemens, the contractors, are con

graph Company for working the concession of fident that they will be able to deliver the line in We learn from America that during the Messrs. Erlangor and Router is just out.. They good working order to the Company before the rocent displays of an aurora borealis, which was

have in addition to this concession obtained contract time, the end of next year, in a condition an object of wonder and admiration, tho tele-ono from the government of the State of New worthy of its high commercial and political import

York, granting them the exclusivo privilege for ance. graph operators at Valparaiso and Fort Wayne, twenty years of laying a cable to any point in the Indiana, curious to test its effect in working tele- state. By the French concession they are bound, if graph lines, disconnected the batteries from the required, to lay a second cable should the first be NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DIS

COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL APline and put the wires to earth, when they got insufficient to meet the demands of the traffic.

PLICATIONS. magnetism (sic) sufficient to communicate with The cablo will start from Brest, and be landed at

the island of St. Pierre, in Newfoundland, a distance each other.

TELL-TALE." of 2,300 nautical miles; from there a second cable In speaking of earth currents, Mr. Latimer will be laid to the United States, probably New

OF RETARDED EBULLITION-APPARATUS FOR TESTClark remarks that on one occasion "visible sparks York, about 700 nautical miles, making a total occurred, and the tension must have been equal distance of 3,000 nautical miles of sea to be crossed. to many hundreds of cells.” The occasion referred Atlantir ductor wisi etibe larger than the present We read in the “Bulletin de la Société Into was during an “aurora.” On the same sub-300lb. of the present, the total weight of the cable way of making a fireproof flooring applicable to

dustrielle," of Mulhouse, of a very simple ject, Mr. Varley states, in his evidence before the being 35cwt., and 14cwt. in water. A provisional Select Committee, that “ During the last autumn contract for manufacture has already been entered warehouses and granaries. It consists in first (1859) I succeeded in measuring some of the cur- the Great Eastern" is again to be made useful. an inch in thicknoss, and running upon this a

into with the Telegraph Construction Company, and spreading upon the planks a layer of clay about rents between London and Ipswich, and had to Some well-known names aro in the direction in layer of asphalte about half an inch thick, introduce an opposing battery of 140 cells of Paris, presided over by M. Drouyn de L'Huys; Daniell's battery to balance the current, showing, Mr. Robert Lowe, M.P., presiding over the Board Numerous experiments, we are told, have provod therefore, in the earth at Ipswich, compared with in London. The company have already entered the efficacy of this as a protection against the the earth in London, a difference of electric ten- and the French Govornment for the exclusive uso

into arrangements with the Submarine Company spread of fire, and it has been adopted in all tho sion amounting to 140 cells of Daniell's battery." of a wire from London to Brest viâ Dieppe.

corn stores of the General Omnibus Company of The following is given as the information con


The Anglo-llediterranean Company have issued tained in a telegram lately received respecting the their report, and we find that the manufacture of The same publication gives us an interesting Cuba cable :- The cablo Sir Charles Bright was the cable is being rapidly proceeded with, the on- account of an extraordinary “tell-tale” apparatus engaged in laying between Florida and Cuba had gineer's report as to its condition being most in use at the vast establishment of Dolffus, Miog, and been lost, and the attempt to recover the cablo satisfactory. The cable, it is believed, will be laid of last year, which had broken, was also unsuc- by the middle of next month. Negotiations have Co. There are four night watchmen on these cessful, the cause of the loss being that the cable been going on between the Government and the premises, and they have to make ton visits to ran out when some miles short of Cuba; the end Company respecting tho existing line between ninety-three stations, in all 930 visits. On comwas buoyed, but during the night was carried away Malta and Alexandria, and an agreement for a lease mencing his rounds a card is delivered to each covered. The statement also montions that there are: - The lease to be for fifteen years ; the Com- watchman, which he carries about with him. was no pilot. The foregoing has appeared in many pany to pay a minimum rent of £2,000 per annum, At every station he has to visit is a frame of of our daily papers, and it is as well to correct it taking the whole of the receipts; the company not the size of the card, at which, at a given timo, in certain points. A rumour was circulated that to be bound to repair the cabie in the winter seato say that since the rumour telegrams have been agreement at any time, if the cable is broken and the card. the cable of last year was broken, but we are glad son, and to havo tho option of determining the a stamp presents itself, and impresses a mark on

The marks are so arranged that when received through the cablo from Havana. The thoy decline to repair.' The company-wisely, wo the whole are printed they form one completo accounts-purely telographic-hitherto roceiveu must acknowledge—are anxious to retain the lino as design. Any delay or omission on the part of the have been very moagre, giving us the information an altornative routo, and to secure the benefit of a watchman leaves a blank space on the card, whieh that we have already placed before our readors, considerable local traflic. that the cablo ran short and the end was lost and advantago of alternative lines as a means of ro- tells the hour at which tho man failed in his duty. not recovered. As to there being no pilot on board ducing the chance of a total interruption, and now. When going off duty, the men push their cards into

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the pump, the water is again brought to the boiling. A RETURN just issued shows the receipt and tors;" and, lastly, we need broadside ships of con

a kind of letter-box, and as this is done the exact on the archæology of early Buddhist monuments. be dark, limited in accommodation, and presenti time at which they are delivered is printed. All On the Monday evening a discourse will be delivered features opposed to the British sailor's notion of a this contrivance is completely beyond the men's in the drill-ball by Mr. W. Odling, on reverse sea-faring life. It is on these points that our towercontrol, and there is no possibility of tamporing chemical actions; and on the Tuesday evening ing broadsides have the advantage, and this fact and with the mechanism. No description of the appa- there will be another soirée in St. Andrew's Hall. this alone renders them popular with a very ratus would be intelligible without the drawings The concluding general meeting will be held in the overlook the fact; it must be dealt with firmly, and which accompany it. drill-hall on Wednesday, August 26.

not ignored. The moment it comes to be calmly Simple tar water, we are told, may be em On Monday last a town meeting was held at handled and examined it loses half its force. There ployed for dyeing silk and wool what is called a Brighton for the purpose of inviting the British is no good reason why we should not have both gris cendre or ash grey colour. The stuff is first Association to hold its 1869 meeting at that place. broadsides and monitors, each intended to discharge mordanted with weak perchloride of iron, by soak- The invitation is a joint one from the county of a specific duty. We hold those who insist that we ing in the solution for some hours. It is then Sussex and borough of Brighton. The county should have nothing but a monitor fleet as shortdrained and passed through the bath of tar water. invitation was decided upon at a meeting held on sighted as the Admiralty, who insist that we shall The oxyphenate of iron, which is thus precipitated Saturday, convened and presided over by the Earl have nothing but broadsides. on the fabric, gives a very solid colour. of Chichester, lord-lieutenant of the county. The

But in point of fact, our navy will never be perfect Krebs has continued an investigation, begun town meeting was presided over by the mayor, and until it is composed of three distinct types of war some years ago by Dufour, on some of the was influentially attended. Both members for the vessel. First, we must have true monitors to defend

our coasts and the shores of our colonies. These phenomena of retarded ebullition. The experi- borough were present, and spoke in favour of in-ships would never be called upon to move far from ments have an interest for mechanics and engi- viting the Association. A resolution to that offect home, nor would it be expedient to send them on neers, inasmuch as they may throw light on the was passed, and a deputation, committee, and sec- long cruises. Secondly, we must have ships which, causes of some boiler explosions which have retaries were elected.

being essentially monitors in action, must still appeared inexplicable. The experiments were

possess the power of making long voyages at high made in & retort connected with an air-pump, the

speed, and of berthing large crews with some comwater having previously been boiled several times


fort. How this is to be accomplished we indicated to get rid of air in solution. After connection with

not long since in an article on * Convertible Moni

expenditure of naval prize and other moneys siderable tonnage, to protect our commerce from point, and then the heat is withdrawn and the between April 1, 1867, and March 31, 1868. Re- rovers of the “* Alabama" type. These vessels must be pump set to work. When a vacuum of 1lin. was ceipts: Unclaimed share account, £4,705 16s. 1d. ; excessively fast, and carry the heaviest guns made; obtained, and the temperature of the water had Government percentage, £2,529 Os. 3d. ; prizo for- armour they must not carry:

Double skins and fallen to 167deg. Fah., it was found necessary to feitures, £737 16s. 4d. ; 'slave and tonnage bounty, numerous water-tight compartments will give them pump with caution, as at that point the ebullition is £30,193 18s. 7d. ; salvage services, £4,531 2s. 5d. : a certain degree of immunity from the effect of shot likely to be violently reproduced. But that stage balance of bounty money, £5,185 138.'11d. ; booty striking at or below the water-line. Their sides being passed, it was found possible to get a perfect captured, £2,202 95. 6d. ; grant for special service, them; tough that splinters may not fly. They vacuum, and allow the temperature of the water £5,990 5s. 9d. ; proceeds of junks, £1,581 1s. 11d. ; should sail excellently, and carry coal enough to be to sink to 86deg. or 104deg. Fah. without any Indian prize money, £877 1s. 4d. ; grant for stores able to keep the sea for a long time. But, above all ebullition. At this low temperature and pressure, captured, £7,566 10s. 3d. ; advance account, things, they must be fast--fast to chase and fast to run however, violent ebullition can be set up by several £543 11s. 6d. ; total, 266,641 7s. 10d. Expendi- away. Such vessels would form no contemptiblo means. Among these, Krebs mentions two which ture : Unclaimed share account, £241 193.; Guvern- foes for the stoutest ironclads we have afloat. True, he thinks may afford explanations of somo explo- ment percentage account, £151 2s. 98.; prize shot would pierce them at a long ranga—if they could sions. One is a sudden application of heat, the forfeiture account, £91 188. 24. ; slave and tonnage be hit. But it is also true that they could pierce the other is a shaking of the liquid. The latter seems bounty, £11,946'ils. 7d. ; 'salvage services, sides of any of our war ships-except, perhaps, the unlikely to be realized in a large boiler, but the £821 4s. 11d. ; bounty for destruction of pirates,

" Hercules”-and that, too, at long range. There former, we think, may happen whon, for example, £214 178.; distributed out of booty captured in are not wanting naval officers of large experienco after a fire has been banked for some time, and the Pegu and China, £46 18s. 3d. ; grant foi special manding such ships to any ironclad afloat.

who tell us that they would infinitely prefer com

A fleet temperature and pressure allowed to fall, a violent service, £64 12s. 4d. ; India prize money account, of fast unarmoured vessels will be essential to the stir has been given to the fuel, and a torrent of £30 Os. 5d. ; grant for stores captured, £99 14s. 9d.; safety of our commercial marine in war.

The Adflame sent through the flues; and we rather think advance account, £543 11s. 6d.; balance, £50,458 miralty appear to have only just awakened to the explosions have really occurred under such circum- 16s. 10d. Total, £66,644 7s. 100.

fact. We are, however, pleased to find that steps stances.

are being taken to supply us with a few ships of this Our readers interested in the matter will know

most valuable type. that an Act amending the Petroleum Act of 1862


The great error committed by the Admiralty lies has been passed, and will come into force next year.

in confining themselves to the construction of but HE parliamentary session which has just closed

one type of war ship modified to meet different definite construction which is to be employed in made on the policy pursued by the Admiralty in wants are numerous, and cannot possibly be met by applying the “ flashing test " to samples of oil. supplying the nation with ships of war. Since the public testers will in general be men not slaught has been so vigorous, so persistent, and so other nations, because England represents a very

In this respect we differ from most possessed of skill in such manipulations, minute unprejudiced, that it can hardly fail to do good. The directions are also given as to the mode in which Lords of the Admiralty waver in their faith, and small portion of the Queen's dominions, and every the test is to be made. It is of greut importance nothing has enabled them to keep together and portion alike must be cared for. The full importto the trade that the conditions laid down should present a bold face to their foes but the vigour of let us hope that before long it will b3 fully recogbo rigorously observed, and we may therefore their virtual commanders, Mr. Reed and Admiral nized. --- The Engineer.” mention that an apparatus made after the directions The voice of every individual who knows what our of the Act has been produced by How, of 2, Foster-ships of war are and what they should be, is opposed lane, and has already received the approval of to the retention of the broadside system to the ex- MANUFACTURE OF SODA AND POTASSA. many of the most axperienced testers. We shall clusion of every other kind of vessel. describe this apparatus in our next.

and notably the “ Times”-has done excellent ser THEN soda is made by what is commonly known vice in exposing defects in Admiralty administration as Leblanc's process coal is used to reduce which have cost, and will unfortunately cost, the the sulphate of soda. The impurities in the coal,

nation millions of money. THE MEETINGS OF THE BRITISH

It is simply impossible which consist principally of pyrites, aluminous shale,

that no change will be made, and another session of and other materials containing silica and alumina in ASSOCIATION.

Parliament will infallibly see turret ships being built large proportions, act injuriously in the manufacture. NHE arrangements of the British Association by the present Chief Constructor, or another Chief Pyrites, by communicating oxide of iron and by with its Norwich meeting have now made great Parliament alike, we find with some surprise that the many purposes, and aluminous shale and the other

used by our contemporaries and by members of damages the soda produced and renders it unfit for progress. The first general meeting will be held in a building known as the “drill hall,” erocted of broadside men-of-war has been passed by in loss of soda by assisting to form insoluble compounds

most powerful reason which can be adduced in favour materials containing silica and alumina cause great for the local volunteers, on Wednesday, the 19th silence. No journal but this has referred to it. We of soda. The object of an invention recently inst., when the Duke of Buccleuch will resign the alone have been content to meet the Admiralty on patented by Mr. James Hargreaves, of Appletonchair, and Dr. Hooker, the president of the year, their own ground, and to calmly consider the force within-Widnes, is to produce soda and potassa of will assume the presidency and deliver an address of the only argument which tells in favour of broad- uniformly good and of better qualities than have The sectional meetings will be held on Thursday, side ships. The reticence of our contemporaries been obtainable hitherto. This he accomplishes by August 20; Friday, August 21; Saturday, renders it the more necessary that we should once using coal free from the impurities above mentioned. August 22 ; Monday, August 24 ; and Tuesday, more refer to this point, and show that however To effect the separation of the impurities the coal August 25. The various sections will hold their does not go far euough to render it prudent to dis- small coal) in a liquid bath, the liquid being of such meetings as follows:-Mathematical and physical science, Lady-lane lecture-room (president, Pro-walls on which England at present bases her naval impurities, boing of higher specific gravity; will sink

pense with a fleet of ships very unlike the iron specific gravity that the coal will float whilst the fessor Tyndall); chemical science, Chapel-in-theField School (president, Professor Frankland); supremacy.

to the bottom. The coal is -tipped" into the liquid,

The only good reason which can be urged for con- is agitatí-d by a rake, and is then skimmd off in thó geology, Mr. Noverre's room (president, Mr. fining ourselves to iron-plated broadside ships, is pure state. The liquid bath is a solution of sulphate R. A. C. Godwin Austen); biology, the Friends' simply that monitors cannot be rendered comfortable of soda or of sulphide of sodium, when the pure coal Meeting (president, the Rov. J. M. Berkeley); according to English ideas of comfort. It is not so is to be used in the manufacture of sods. The pure geography and ethnology, St. Peter's Hall (presi- easy to obtain men now, and it would be excessively coal is mixed with sulphate- of soda and limestone, dent, Captain Richards); economic science and dificult to man such ships as the "Miautonomoh rither in a wet or dry stato to make - black ash.' statistics, in the Museum (Mr. S. Brown, president of the Americans far better than they can ever of potassa. Mr. Hargreaves us's a liquid bath of a

Monitors answer the purposes When the pura coal is to be used in the manufacture of the Society of Actuaries); and mechanical science, Free Library (president, Mr. G. P. Bid-colonies. It've built monitors and kept them almost sium; in oth r respects he proceeds in the same

answer ours, because America possesses few or no solut'on of sulphate of potassa or sulphide of potasder, C.E.) On Thursday ovening, August 20, a altogether at home they would ba free from objec- manner as in making soda. These improvements soirée will be hold in St. Andrew's Hall, and on tion, but for long cruises, or voyages to distant parts are, of course, applicable to the coal used in the rethe following evening a discourse will be delivered of the world, they will never answer. Healthy they duction of sulphate of soda when used in the manuin the drill-ball by the Rev. J. Ferguson, F.R.S., I may possibly be, but at the best of times they must 'fncture of glass.

The on- such a policy.

The press

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