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nued by a single rod to king head of the principal over shoes and struts, and two intermediate between bolted to iron rafters and secured with fin. coach next the dome, and so run along the ridge to the the large struts and ridges. The common rafters

The roofs are boarded, slated, and ridged, wrought-iron curb at the base of the dome. The are 5in. by 3in. deal, wrought on three sides, as described in an earlier impression. The drawprincipals are secured to cast-iron shoes. These notched over purlins, and secured to the ridge pioce ings of the boiler-house roof show the details clearly shoes are bolted through the cut stone into the with wrought-iron knees and coach screws. One and speak for themselves. On the whole, this brickwork of the walls, each by two l?in. bolts with rafter is fixed over each principal, and one inter- establishment reflects the highest credit on Mr. cast-iron washer plates. The purlins are 7in. by mediate. The bottom purlins are securely pre- Bazalgette, the engineer; Mr. Webster, the con3in. deal, wrought three sides, and stop chamfered vented from canting by wrought-iron straps, and tractor for the works; and Messrs. Rothwell, the on two arrises, and are fitted one over ridges, one the purling secured to rafters by L-iron knees, contractors for the machinery.

(Continued from page 169.)

to that port. Speaking of the Suez Canal, which boats, of which the merchant seamen were now money was voted it should be shown how much of now approached completion, he referred to the almost totally ignorant. The committee was reeach vote was to be charged to shipbuilding and fact that it would be necessary to fill certain lakes appointed, for the purpose of obtaining further and manufacturing, not only for the whole of the in the vicinity of the canal (which were now dry) more complete information. twenty-two dockyards, but also how much of each from the Red Sea, which was distant eighteen The Committee on Agricultural Machinery prevote for each individual yard. The finance miles; and as those lakes covered an area esti- sented an interim report, stating that they had aceounts should give the same details, in the same mated by some at 300 square miles, and evapora- been at work, and had obtained much information, form, as the navy estimates, so that the total for tion went on in Egypt at the rate of lin. per diem, but were not at present prepared to present a deeach yard should in these finance accounts actu- the evaporation from the lakes would be equal to tailed report. They would, however, do so at a ally be considered as the debtor side for the ships 3,600,000,000 cubic feet per diem, or 250,000 future meeting if re-appointed. to be built and maintained and the goods to be cubic feet per minute. As soon as the canal was Professor Rankine read a paper on the probable manufactured. The effect of this would be that opened, he thought the Association should be put connection between the resistance of ships and it would be impossible in future for the Admiralty, in possession of all the phenomena attendant upon their mean depth of immersion. He explained the without the sanction of the House of Commons, to its opening, for he could not help thinking that it laws to which this resistance was due, and the add or omit any items from the cost of ships or must exercise some influence upon the atmosphere means of calculating the extent of the volume of manufactures. Another important change would of the adjoining district which would be worthy the disturbance caused by the passage of a body through be that the estimates should be so arranged as to attention of the Associationt.

the water at a speed greater than the natural speed insure the proper statistical appropriation of the He next approached a question which he said of the waves; and also stated the result of some wages and salaries of each person to the proper had excited a great deal of public attention, viz., observations made by himself with reference to manufactory or factory to which he belonged, so the state of the British Navy; and he might begin three steamers travelling at different velocities. that the proper cost of the articles made in each by saying that, however satisfactory that state. This subject was considered in connection with the manufactory might be correctly ascertained. might be to some departments, it was not satis next paper, read by Mr. C. W. Merrifield, on the

Sir J. Bowrfng said, as an old naval reformer, factory to the country in general. He would necessity of further experimental knowledge rehe believed the first thing to be done in such endeavour to point out in what way public opinion specting the propulsion of ships. Mr. Merrifield matters was to get hold of the money, and then to might be brought beneficially to bear upon this stated what had been already done for the purpose see that it was dispensed with due care. He hoped important subject. They would no doubt all agree of obtaining knowledge on this subject, and with that one of the results of Parliamentary Reform with him that they had all but one desire, viz., the view of acquiring further information he sugwould be that men of business, like Mr. Seely, that this country, whatever might be the cost, gested that a vessel of considerable but managewould be returned to the House of Commons, for should have the best ships the ocean could carry able size should be drawn through the water by a he believed that millions might be saved annually and that machinery could propel. With regard tow rope, and an accurate measure taken of the in the national expenditure.

to the ships, he thought the great source of the power expended, and also of the velocity and direcpresent unsatisfactory state of things was the total tion of the currents of water at every point in the

absence of any system upon which their construc- neighbourhood at which it might appear desirable ; SECTION G.-MECHANICAL SCIENCE. tion was conducted. Before building their ironclad and then that similar observations should be made PRESIDENT—G. P. Bidder, C.E. Vice-Presidents-navy it should have been considered what they while the vessel was propelled by her own screw. C. Hutton Gregory, President of the Institution of were to be filled with, according to the plan adopted These, he said, were experiments that could not be Civil Engineers ; J. Whitworth, D.C.L., F.R.S.; mine before a vessel was built what its speed expense ; but the Government had all the means

in the merchant service. They should also deter- conducted by private persons without a ruinous J. F. Bateman, F.R.S.; W. Fairbairn, F.R.S.; would be ; and no ship should be considered a at their disposal for carrying them out, and might Professor Rankine, F.R.S.; James Nasmyth, F.R.S.; General Lefroy, F.R.S.; C. Vignoles, while all should be as nearly as possible of the scientific objects, instead of merely cruising about

success that did not accomplish a sea-going speed, advantageously employ some of their ships for F.R.S.; Admiral Belcher, K.C.B. SecretariesP. Le Neve Foster, M.A.; J. F. Iselin, J.A.; efficiently. He did not purpose entering into the

same speed, in order to enable them to act for exercise. Lieutenant-Colonel Manby; and W. Smith, C.E.

Mr. C. J. Appleby read a paper on mechanism relative merits of broadside guns and turret guns, for utilizing and regulating convict labour. He PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

but he would say that, whatever difficulty there referred to the ordinary methods of employing conMR. BIDDER delivered an opening address occupy- might be in getting fine lines with broadside guns, vict labour at Dartmoor, Portland, Chatham, and ing about an hour. The object of the Association, that difficulty did not exist in the case of turret elsewhere, and added that the work done by conhe said, was to advance and apply science to the ships. Another point was that at present they did victs unaided by machinery was so small and ungreat objects of life, and in that section they had not know until they sent a ship to sea to what profitable that it would have been cheaper to emto consider the operations of the laws of mechanics extent she was going to roll; but the mechanical ploy free labour. Consequently, he was requested with a view to benefit the world in general, and principles upon which this depended under ordinary to design and construct machinery at Chatham this country in particular. The laws they applied circumstances, were so well known that the ostent which would assist the men and at the same time were certain and sure, and there was no doubt to which a ship would roll should be known before act as a check on the quantity of work done ; and that in their application they would conduce to a quarter of a million of money was spent upon her. the result was so satisfactory that the principle was the happiness of mankind in general. He re- The trials of ships in Stokes Bay he characterized soon extended. The crank had become practically ferred to some of the principal topics engrossing as a sheer delusion, and said that trials, to be of obsolete, and more recently the treadwheel had been public attention in the present day; and noticing, any value, should bọ conducted at sea by men adapted to useful work, as at Walton, near Liverfirst, the great water question, he congratulated independent of any department or of any other pool, where the machinery was designed by Dr. the committee on having present some of the influence whatever; and until that was done they Fairbairn. This machinery was used in weaving greatest and most eminent authorities upon that would not be able to bring to bear such a check cocoa-nut fibro matting, in working mat-dressing subject, who would, doubtless, give information upon the Admiralty department as the country had machines, and pumping water for the supply of the that the Association would diffuse for the benefit a right to demand. With regard to the armour of gaol. The speed of the machinery was admirably of the public in general with reference to the ships, he contended that this was a subject that governed by Siemens's governor, and the results supply and utilization of water in various ways, should be subordinate to the considerations he had obtained were highly satisfactory. and preserving rivers from pollution by sewage mentioned, for it was of no use to have a ship so Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S., read a and the refuse from manufactories. A more beau-over-weighted that she became useless as a morable paper giving a description of a ventilating fireplace, tiful and interesting subject than the habits of fort. He concluded his address by some remarks with experiments upon its heating power as comrivers could not engage the attention of engineers;

on technical education (contending that it should pared with that of ordinary fireplaces. This paper and whether they looked at the circumstances of comprise a sound knowledge of the elemental laws was illustrated with numerous sucid diagrams; the the constitution of the great rivors of India and of mechanics, and be specially directed to the merits claimed for the invention were that it was America, or came down to those in their own position the student was to fill in life) and on the peculiarly applicable to barracks, hospitals, and neighbourhood, they would find that the same application of machinery to the economical working large public institutions, as well as private houses, general laws pervaded all. It was well known and ventilation of mines.

inasmuch as it secured a perfect system of ventilathat the greatest rainfall was at the highest levels. Professor Rankine, F.R.S., then read the report tion, and an equable temperature throughout the At the top of the Himalayas the rainfall was no of the committee on the performances of steam rooms or wards, by forcing a quantity of partially less than 400in. per annum ; while on some of the ships, which stated that the committee had col-heated air through an aperture near the ceiling, mountains of Cumberland it was 200in., but in lected a great deal of information with regard to which, again in its turn, assisted in feeding the fire ; Norfolk only about 20in. He suggested that the the performances of upwards of 350 vessels, which and by a peculiar formation of the fire lumps at quantity of water that fell on the whole course of were being prepared, and would shortly be pub- the back of the grate, creating a more perfect coma river should be gauged, and that observations lished in a tabular form with the transactions of bustion of the fuel, and thereby less smoke, should be taken to show the meteorological condi- the Association. It had been the duty of the com- and also a reduction of one-third less fuel. The tions of the atmosphere under which it fell. If mittee only to collect such data, and not to form results of experiments made by General Morin and that course were pursued, a body of facts would be any practical conclusion therefrom.

others were given in extenso. brought together which, he thought, might be ap The report of the committee on the safety of Mr. Thorold, C.E., read a paper on an auxiliary plied for the benefit of the country to a very great merchant ships and their passengers was brought railway for turnpike roads, and passing through extent. He next referred to the peculiar charac-up by Sir Edward Belcher. It referred to the towns. The author stated that his object was to teristics of the rivers in the neighbourhood, viz., ) absence in the merchant service of such regula- utilize the existing highways for the purpose of a the Wensum, the Yare, the Waveney, and the Bure, tions as were applied to the navy and the emigrant tramway, and to accomplish this object he proposed and spoke of the influence these were supposed ships, and recomended that a load-line should laying down a single rail on one side of the existto have in maintaining the bar at Yarmouth. He bo ‘marked to prevent overloading, and that more ing roads, out of the way of the ordinary traffic, regretted that tidal observations, which could have efficient means should be provided for clearing and as this rail would admit of curves of 20ft. easily been obtained from Yarmouth and Low- vessels of seas that they might ship. They also radius, it would be peculiarly adapted for new estoft, had not been laid before the Association ; recommended that deck loading should be restricted countries by passing up ravines and mountain and expressed his belief that a thorough investiga- within certain limits, and that the engine-room sides with any gradient not exceeding 1 in 12. tion and careful collection of facts would show shonld be covered in so as to prevent shipped seas It was proposed to have four wheels following each that the land water gave little, if, indeed, any, ad- from getting into the engine-room and rendering other along the centre of the track, which wheels vantage to the port of Yarmouth, and that a large the ship water-logged. The boats should also be would carry the load, and the balance would be extent of land now rendered almost unproductive provided with greater facilities for use, and the preserved by a pair of ordinary wheels so arranged by flood waters might be utilized without damage seamen should be properly trained in the use of that they would act equally well upon level and



uneven surfaces. The carriages it was proposed to propel by means of a traction engine; but the system was equally available for drawing by elephants, and other beasts of burden. The adhesion of the traction wheel could be regulated to any weight, and by an arrangement of the other wheels the engine could even lift its traction wheels out of a soft place. The cost of a tramway of this description is estimated at £500 per mile. The details of this invention were explained by the aid of a number of diagrams and models. It was proposed to use a hollow rail, and carry in the cavity a telegraph for communicating from one end of the system to the other—the telegraph being not only cheaply laid, but secured from all interference or danger of injury from storms or other causes.

We have merely noticed these papers in passing, as we purpose to report them fully in a future number.

Exeter has been chosen as the place of meeting for the British Association in 1869, and Professor Stokes, F.R.S., has been selected for the presidency.

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FR. JOHN WARD, of Port Glasgow, has lately

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to be used under water. It consists in fitting the
details for containing oil, and holding a wick in
a translucent case or lantern, which is closed, ex-
cepting at the bottom and top, where there commu-
nicate with it two tubes, the upper open ends of
which are to be kept above the surface of the water.
With this arrangement the heat of the flame will it-
self cause the continual renewal of the air necessary
to keep up the combustion by inducing an upward
current by the tube communicating with the top
of the lantern, and a downward current by
that communicating with the bottom. The lantern
is made with two shells when it is of glass,
an air space being enclosed between the inner
and outer shells, so that the heat of the flame may
not make the outer shell liable to be cracked by the
external cold water. Our engraving shows a vertical


ing 11. The bottom plate 3 is cast with a cylin-| employment of flanged cartridges, and to provide
drical part 14 below, which forms a chamber con the arm with an automatic arrangement for ex-
taining the oil vessel 15, and with space for the air tracting the cartridge cases. Fig. 1 of our en-
which first enters this chamber by the descending graving is a longitudinal section of a firearm con-
air tube 16, which is attached by a coupling 17 to a
branch pipe 18 fixed in the side of the chamber 14. structed according to the present improvements.
The air inlet into the chamber is situated a little Fig. 2 is a section showing the extractor in the act
above the bottom, so that any little water in the of withdrawing the cartridge case. Fig. 3 is a trans-
chamber may not close it.

verse section through the line 1-2 of fig. 2. Figs. 4,5,
The oil vessel 15 is constructed so as to be screwed and 6 are separate views of the extractor. The
into the bottom of the chamber 14, a rubber ring moveable head shown in the engravings of the first
being applied to the joint to make it tight. Small gun is dispensed with, and the caoutchouc obturator
holes are made through the plate 3 so as to commu- is replaced by a metallic piston a. Through the
nicate with the space between the outer shell 1 and centre of this piston a channel of truncated conical
the inner shell or chimney 13, and thereby admit of form is formed for the passage of the striker or
the air in that space being gradually changed as it needle R (which is shortened), when impelled by
becomes heated.
cast of considerable thickness so as to make the the spring T. The metallic piston a is lodged in
lamp heavy enough to sink, but weights may be a chamber in the front end of the breech-bolt B,
added if necessary.

The lamp may be of any shape, and is held by a screw b passing through the side provided that the air inlet and outlet are arranged of the bolt and entering a circular groove c on the at the bottom and top. A lamp constructed in this outside of the piston. A square tooth or projecway is found to be practically effective, and will be tion d is formed on the periphery of the piston of great utility in searching for sunken articles, in near its head. This tooth serves to operate the assisting divers in their various operations, in ex extractor. The rear or tail s of the extractor is amining the bottoms of ships, and in fishing and in the form of a flat ruler terminated at the front other operations.

by the extractor proper g, which is a curved piece having the form of a portion of the inner circum

ference of the barrel, and having a recess to THE NEW CHASSEPOT BREECH-LOADING receive the flange o of the cartridge. The cartRIFLE.

ridge is sho'vn in two positions ; in fig. 1 it is

seen in the charge chamber, and in fig. 2 as withsection of a lainp in which theexternal shell is a plain and illustration the Chassepot rifle, which holds ar grau d'is formed in the rear fut portion of the glass cylinder, 1, which is held between metal plates or rings 2, 3, at the top and bottom, the whole being

a very prominent position in the history of small extractor, into which the tooth d of the piston secured by screwed rods 4 and nuts 5, and made tight arms, especially in France, where the weapon is takes. The extractor slides in a recess h in the by rubber washers 6 applied between the edges of the adopted arm of the army. Failures, however, bottom of the breech chamber. the glass cylinder 1, and the plates or rings 2, 3. have occurred in practice with this gun, which are

The employment of Aanged cartridges modifies The top plate 2 is formed with a conical nozzle 7 for traceable to the form of cartridge, the base of the form of the charge chambor, and dispenses the attachment of the ascending air tube 8, this at- which hitherto had no rim, but was swelled out with the combustion chamber in the old rifle. tachment being effected by means of screw coupling at the base of the bullet and fitted into an enlarge- The rear of the charge chamber, that is, the rear 9. The top plate has also fixed on it a pair of bowment of the breech chamber, as will be seen on end of the barrel, bas a circular groove o" to repieces or handles 10 for holding the lantern or for reference to the engravings above referred to. ceive the flange o of the cartridge. A cavity h' is attaching a cord to suspend it by: The bottom plate The defects which actual use have developed led formed to receive the extractor proper !, which 3 is formed with a central opening 11, up through the inventor to modify the arm in the manner completes the annular portion at the entrance of which opening also allows the fresh air to pass up illustrated in the accompanying engraving, and the charge chamber. In withdrawing the breechto feed the flame, the inner glass shell or chimney which renders it simpler and better in every re- bolt, the tooth d of the piston a reaching the end 13 being mounted on the plate, so as to enclose the spect. The principal object of M. Chassepot's of the groove i of the extractor, draws back the central space communicating with the central open- presont improyements is to adapt the gun for the extractor, and with it the cartridge case, which

is then thrown out by inclining the gun. When taken out of the tube, and separated by sifting from or of any tint that may be required. When well a fresh cartridge is inserted its flange enters the the sand and ashes. The beads are then sorted manufactured, these three layers, after being fired, rocess ol of the extractor, which pushes it into according to their various sizes by sifting, and the become perfectly united to each other, and form a place when the bolt is pushed forward. Thus the perfect are separated from the imperfect by being homogeneous body. If this operation be perfectly extractor is operatod by the bolt both to push of a perfectly globular form roll off into a box placed against all possibility of injury, either by atmospheric

Those successful, the metal will be for ever protected the cartridge into place and to extract the case below, whilst the imperfect, badly-shaped ones action, dust, gas, smoke, or insects, and in such a from the barrel.

remain on the table. The workmen employed for manner as not to lose any of its brilliancy or colour, The other improvements in the Chassepot rifle this purpose are called governadori. The beads are even after many centuries of exposure. When this are as follows:- The screw formerly passed through next polished in a very simple manner by the lustra- delicate film of glass possesses the requisite thinthe main or top piece to enter the slots in the dore, or polisher, who shakes a certain quantity of ness, fineness, and purity, and the whole surface of bolt is now replaced by a plate p (figs. 1 and 2), them in a bag with a little bran. The finished beads the sheet exhibits no inequality of thickness, the passed through this main piece, and held by a are finally threaded on strings, and tied up in bundles metal appears in all its native beauty, and the glass sint. This piece serves as a tenon to slide in of dozens, grosses, &c. This is chiefly done by with which it is covered is scarcely discernible. the groove of the bolt B. The tenon on the spring women and girls (infilzatrici).

The manufacture of mirrors and chandeliers also carrying rod fo is dispensed with, as well as the The art of bead making at the lamp, “ Perle alla forms an important branch of industry. These corresponding mortise in the button at the hind Lucerna,” is, as we have said before, quite a separate mirrors are usually decorated with figures, leaves, part of the bolt. The whole is replaced by a business. In working at the lamp, tubes and rods &c., of most original design, engraved at the back,

The frames of these button or stopper L, screwed into the rear end describe all the manipulations of this ingenious art, mirrors are decorated with leaves and flowers in of the bolt. The sight rises on a hinge towards over which the taste and dexterity of the artist so white or coloured glass.

These mirrors have obthe front of the barrel to facilitate operating it.

entirely preside. But we may give an example: tained a great success at the Paris Exhibition, and a black bead, decorated with roses, forget-me-nots, are being sent in large quantities to Paris and Lon

and leaves of aventurine. The artist first takes a don. THE GLASS WORKS OF VENICE AND

rod of black glass, and melting it in the blow-pipe

flame of the lamp, twists it about an iron wire until
he has made a small ball of the required size, rolling

(Continued from page 133.)
it on a kind of iron mould with a circular groove,

APPARATUS. VOR the production of coloured or enamel beads and smoothing it with an iron tool until it has ac


sisted in his great mechanical ingenuity and which they are composed are costly, especially the small rod of aventurine, and softening it in the flame, imitations of coral, cornelian, ruby, opal, agate, traces on the black glass ball leaves of any other constructiveness, as evidenced in the apparatus for mother-of-pearl, &c.; some of these, as the cornelian, pattern that may be required, and smooths it again conducting the original and elaborate experiments are composed of two qualities of paste, the first with the iron tool. He next traces with a small rod by which he arrived at such great results. Their opaque, forming the core, and the second transparent,

of rose-coloured enamel the roses on the ball, smooth- main characteristic was simplicity, which is indeed, of another colour. The tubes, or canna, of which ing it as before with the smoothing tool. The the perfection of ingenuity, and is the distinguishthe ingredients contain oxide' of gold or silver, do forget-me-nots are next traced on the bead with a ing feature of the work of genius. As has been not present their true colour until they have under- small rod of blue and white enamel, that has been lately remarked by a good judge, “ the practical gone a second action of the fire in the process of previously twisted together spirally in the flame, and

powers were never, perhaps, "more strikingly reduction into beads Prismatic tubes are also drawn, the head thus completed is taken off the wire, and displayed by man than in the various contrivances

Besides the production of an infinity of shades of left to cool in a box filled with sand. An endless he adopted whilst conducting his researches—some enamels, or sm Iti, as they are called, Murano still variety of beads are made in this manner of every of them being almost equivalent in ingenuity to

We regret to preserves the secrets of producing imitations of pre- by rolling a bead made of common glass, whilst still have to record the fate of the greater portion of

possible colour. Gold and silver beads are made the compilation of a steam engine." phires, rubies, emeralds, topazes, opals, lapis lazuli, ornamented with little points of crystal, ruby, tur- they were given by Mrs. Faraday to the porter of

Shortly after Faraday's death the speciality of Venice and Murano. The inventor quoise, &c. Artificial eyes for stuffed birds, animals, the Royal Institution, who, we need not say, could of this most beautiful material was the celebrated and even for human beings, are also made at the scarcely appreciate them. He accordingly sold Miotti, in the thirteenth century, who discovered it lamp. Spun glasses of every tint is also made, and them pioco-meal, and even parts of the same apby accident, whilst engaged in the preparation of a

is used for making feathers and flowers of most sur paratus, to different buyers, and thus broke up certain enamel for mosaic; the name arvonturina prising lightness, baskets, mats, trays, and even combinations that probably few men besides Farawas given to it from avventura, which signifies chance. According to the most eminent chemists, of manufacture at Venice, and may be divided into

Mosaics also constitute a most important branch day himself really understood. avventurina owes its rich golden iridescence to a crystalline sepa ation of metallic copper from the two distinct classes. The first, inlaid, or marquemass coloured brown by the peroxide of iron. The terie mosaic, which is produced by all the enamel following is an analysis of the aventurina of the pieces having their edges perfectly close and ad

Obituary. present celebrated manufacturer, the Cay. Pietro herent one to another; such kind of mosaic is Bigaglia, of Venice:

generally used for the production of personal orna- We have the painful duty this week of announcing Silicic acid

ments, such as brooches, earrings, bracelets, &c., or

67-3 Lime


objects of household decoration, such as table tops the death of William Henry Barton, Esq., lato

and other furniture. The Venetian differ from the Deputy Master and Comptroller of her Majesty's Protoxide of iron

3-4 Binoxide of tin

Florentine and Roman mosaics, being chiefly of com- Mint. The deceased gentleman was connected

2.3 Protoxide of lead

plicated geometrical patterns, of extremely showy with that establishment for the long period of

1.0 Metallic copper

colours, 'in enamels, aventurine, artificial agate, thirty-eight years, and since 1851 had held the

4.0 Potash

chalcedony, lapis lazuli, &c., instead of being made combined offices named above. Mr. Barton was 5.3

up of stones, as in the Florentine ; or like the Roman always distinguished for urbanity and kindness, Soda


mosaics, which are manufactured of very thin pieces and his decease leaves a vacancy in the Mint which Almost infinite are the uses to which it can be ap- of enamels of numberless colours, rubbed and is not likely to be more ably or honourably filled plied in jewellery and ornamentation. The glass-polished, and represent landscapes, fruit, flowers, blowers of Murano are enabled to remelt and intro- views, animals, &c. The other kind of mosaic is than it was by himself. The late officer was an duce it as a decoration to their celebrated glass made by using stone or enamel pieces, cut into shapes excellent amateur mechanic, and several useful in

which are not quite regular or geometrical. These ventions owe their origin to his knowledge and The reduction of the glass tubes or canna into pieces are then put together more or less near to skill. His career, indeed, was notable in many beads consists of the following operations : -1. The each other, so that between them the joints are seen, respects, and it is not improbable that a more sorting of the tubes, according to size, as it is im- and the work does not in this case appear smooth, lengthened notice of him may, ore long, appear in possible in drawing that they should be equal. but rough. This style of mosaic is known as the our columns. Mr. Barton died at Bushey Park on This is done by women (cernitrici), who acquire by Monumental, or Byzantine. This is most fitted and Tuesday last in the 67th year of his age. practice a marvellous dexterity at this work. The generally adopted for the purpose of architectural sorted tubes are next passed over to the tagliatori, decoration, both for the interior and exterior of whochop them into small pieces of uniform lengths, on buildings. the upright edge of a fixed chisel. The next opera Venice, in nearly all ages, seems to have been the tion is the dividing of the bits of tube from the home of mosaic, and here the walls of the fine

Correspondence. broken pieces by sifting. The next process is to basilica of St. Mark's have been during many ages round off the angular ends of these cylinders, and covered with masterpieces of mosaic decoration. In

ENGINEERING IN RUSSIA. for this purpose they have to undergo a second England fine specimens of modern Venetian mosaics action of the fire. The workmen employed for this may be seen at the South Kensington Museum, and TO THE EDITOR OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." purpose are called tubanti, from the tubes used by St. Paul's Cathedral, London. The whole vaulted

SIR, I have been informed by some relatives who them for reducing the little bits of glass into beads. roof of Cardinal Wolsey's Chapel, at Windsor, repre

have just arrived from Russia, that on and after the This tube is made either of copper, brass, or iron, senting the kings and queens of England, is now

1st of May, 1869, a tax of 6s. 10d. per hundred and is fixed at

end of an iron rod. Before being being decorated in mosaic, a great part of which is weight will be levied upon engines, tools, and every put into the tube, these little pieces of glass are put already fixed, and Dr. Salviati is now executing kind of machinery sent from this country into into a mixture of lime and powdered ashes, moist-mosaics for the National Memorial to the late Prince Russia. Can you, or any of your readers, inform me ened with a little water, and are stirred about until Consort, now in the course of erection in Hyde-park. if this is really the case. - I am, Sir, yours, &ci, their cavities are filled up. This is necessary to pre- Enamels are much more permaneut than any other

Accrington, August 26.

J. D vent the bore of the bead being partially or wholly substance that has been used in the composition of closed whilst undergoing the action of the fire. A mosaic, whether stone, marble, or clay, on account certain quantity of the little bits of glass are put of their less porous and less dilatable body. into the tube with a proportion of sand and pow

TO CORRESPONDENTS. With regard to the gold and silver enamels, which THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to subscribers dered ashes, according to the quality of the beads, are used with such effect in monumental mosaics,great of £1 18. 8d. yearly, or 108. 10d, half-yearly payable in to prevent their sticking together. The tube is improvement has been made of late years in their then introduced into the furnace, the heat of which production. On a ground of thick glass, or enamel,


All literary communications should be addressed to the can be regulated as required, and the workman con- according as it is desired to render the gold enamel Editor of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Letters relating to tinues turning it round until the cylindrical bits of transparent or opaque, or to impart to it a warm or the advertising and publishing departments should be ad glass assume a smooth rounded form. The beads variegated colour, there is laid a leaf of gold or dressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles, Mechanios' MAGAare then allowed to cool slowly, and afterwards silver, to which it is attached principally by the ZINE Onice, 166, Fleet-street, London, action of the fire; then a film of the purest glass is ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on

To insure insertion in the following number, advertise"Society of Arts Journal."

spread over it; this film may be perfectly colourless Thursday evening.

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We must absolutely decline attending to any communi- Navy, who has been requested by the Admiralty to SOMETHING similar to the "spectre of the cations unaccompanied by the name and address of the furnish the drawings and plans for a powerful iron- Brocken” was seen the other evening in Weardale, writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of good clad single turret-ship for the defence of the coast. when the sun was just above the western horizon,

Advortisements are inserted in the MechanICS' MAGA- The "Glatton" will be 245ft. in length, and 49ft. in beyond the mountain of Kilhope, on which the fire ZINE at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inser- breadth, with a burden of 2,700 tons, and a mean was raging On the night in question a gentlo tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists draught of water of 19ft. She will be furnished breeze brought the smoke down the vale of Kilhope, of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same rate with one turret, protected by armour-plating 14in. at the end of which it ascended the skies, presenting as type. Special arrangements made for large advertise in thickness, and will carry two guns, each of 25 a pillar between the sun and the spectator.

CAPTAIN ROWETT.– It is a matter of public notoriety tons--the largest yet placed on board a vessel of Between the pillar and the sun were four men bethat Mr. Willoughby Smith is absent on telegraphic busi- war. She is to be completed and ready for undock-labouring the fire on Kilhope with tree branches,

It would, therefore, be unfair to insert your letter ing before the close of the next financial year. We trying to extinguish it. The shadows of these men until Mr. Smith has had an opportunity of replying to your have given details of this ship in our present were thrown on the pillar of smoke and appeared as previous communication. issue.

monster giants, every movement of whom was disRECEIVED.-D. B.-R. R.-T. C.-R.J.-W. H.P.-C. E.

tinctly observed. -W. B.-R, S.-J.D.-R. B. S.-S. K. M.-S. A.-R. P. D. -J.F.-T. H. W.-E. D. B.-J. P.-R. T. C.-T. J.-R. M.

A DISCOVERY of human remains has just been -C. R.-H.W.J. F.-G. D.H.-J.M.-J. F.D.-C. W.R.


made in the neighbourhood of Shap, Westinoreland, -R.J.-M. A.-C.B.-H.D.

whero men are engaged by the side of the London

and North-Western Railway cutting stone for THE process of destroying the Colosseum in ballast for the line. One of them, as he was striking

Regent's-park will be shortly began, and that once his pick into the stone, came in contact with someNabal, Military, and Gunnery Items favoured place of resort, but of late peculiarly for thing which felt soft. On examining it he found a work of more immediate utility.

They appeared to have belonged to a full-grown THE Emperor of the French, on the occasion of his fete day, granted commutations of punishment to way of spelling the name of the territory just at one time waste ground, and frequented by gipsies ;

SEVERAL correspondents having inquired the proper male. The place where the bones were found was 938 soldiers in the military prisons.

acquired from Russia we, 6 Philadelphia Ledger,"

"hence it is conjectured that the remains are those Two English staff Artillery officers have gone to have to state that the best authorities write Aliaska. either of some of the gipsy tribe or of some one who Turin to examine some new models of field artillery The word is pronounced Al-yas-ka.

had fallen into their hands. recently invented.

The number of visitors to the Patent Office necticut, which is an open buggy and weighs about

A CARRIAGE has been made in Bridgeport, ConThe Prussian musket factories are actively en- Museum, South Kensington, for the week ending 1251b. The body is one piece of hard rubber, onegaged in completing the armament of the Northern August 22, was 5,571. Federal troops who are not yet provided with the opening of the Museum, free daily (12th May, 1858), usual carriage bolts and screws, and presents a

Total number since the eighth of an inch in thickness. It is without the needle gun. The whole of the landwehr of the kingdom has been supplied with this weapon since 1,364,399.

perfectly smooth surface, which is not soiled or December last.

THE Isle of Man Steampacket Company have tarnished by rubbing or handling. The rubber is CAPTAIN E. COTINEAU, of the French ship “Bor- issued an order that no more paraffin oil for the tougher than wood, and very much more elastic. deau," at present in India, has received the order of island will be shipped on board their steamers. The The running gear is of wood, but the next carriage the Legion of Honour from the French Government, fact that a vessel laden with paraffin oil has recently unaffected by wet, hot or cold weather, and was pro

company have been led to take this step from the made will be entirely of rubber. The material is in addition to the gold medal which was presented been blown up in the Channel. him by the English Government, for his gallant con

pared at a temperature of 300deg., the body having duct in saving the crew and passengers of the

It is a remarkable fact that when there were only first got into a plastic mass, like dough. English ship « Royal Family," which was on fire in three mail steamers monthly between San Francisco A COMMUNICATION from Naples states that VesuMadras Roads.

and Panama, the average number of bags of printed vius is again showing disquieting symptoms; for A COMMUNICATION from Brussels, in the "Courrier mail matter received was about eighty. Now there some days past eruptions have taken place at the de l'Escaut,” says “ The news which reaches me are four steamers per month, the number has upper cone. Deep rumbling sounds are followed by from the camp at Beverloo is not very favourable to increased to one hundred and fifty bags.

jets of incandescent matter, thrown to a great our improved military armament. The new muskets On Saturday, the 5th September, a paper will be height. The lava frequently appears at the brink are certainly loaded at the breech, which is all very read before the members of the London Association of the crater and then stops. About three in the well, but some of them also discharge themselves at of Foremen Engineers, by Mr. Joseph Stone, on the morning of the 17th the cle became imposthe same place, which is not precisely advantageous Manufacture of Iron.' The chair will be taken at ing. Columns of thick smoke ruse high in the air, for the soldier, who thus receives the projectile 8 p.m., by Mr. Newton, of the Mint, and the place of followed by burning stones. After shining a moment which he wished to send to the enemy." LIEUTENANT STURM, of the Prussian army, who City. meeting will be the George Hotel, Aldermanbury, they fell and rolled, still red hot, down the side of

the mountain. This eruption lasted so long as the accompanied the English expedition in Abyssinia, has just presented to King William the drinking- the Polar Seas was the mildest known for twenty, and showed that, even after sunrise, the same vol

AN American paper states that the last winter in darkness permitted it to be seen, as at daybreak the

fire paled. The smoke was, however, still thick, cup used by King Theodore, and which was found five years, and that the natives of those seas lost all on the bed of the African monarch half filled with their winter supply of meat, which is usually pre

canic phenomenon continued. rum. It is an enormous buffalo horn, the thick end served by being frozen. It is likely that the whalers, for the destruction of wild beasts in the four divi

It appears that in the year 1867 the rewards given of which is closed by a metal plate forming the bot- through the mildness of last winter, will be able to sions of the central provinces of India amounted to tom; the pointed extremity is cut off, and the penetrate during this summer even farther than they upwards of 41,000 rupees. This cutlay represents opening thus made is closed by a wooden stopper. did last year into the Polar Sea. This cup is covered with buffalo skin, and is sus

the slaughter of nearly 3,000 beasts of prey, viz.,

The wood of the red Quebracho has been success- 902 leopards and panthe pended to a leather strap. It is entirely destitute of fully applied to tanning purposes in Buenos Ayres. 475 hyænas, and 467 wolves. The greatest amount

535 bears, 527 tigers, ornament.

Messrs. Bletscherand Company, of that city, showed, by far was paid in the Sangor district, viz., 7,135 An order has been received by the heads of de- at the Paris Exhibition, a collection of leathers rupees; and much more than half this sum (4,520 partments at Woolwich Arsenal from the War Office, tanned with the powder of this wood, and were rupees) was for the destruction of wolves (353). decreasing the number of cartridges to be manu- awarded a silver medal for its employment. The The item next in importance is one of 4,250 rupees factured. Of the number ordered at the commence- trial of new tanning and dyeing substances in various for the spoils of 86 tigers in the district of Raepore, ment of the financial year, 52,000,000, there had countries cannot be too much recommended. been manufactured 24,000,000, leaving 28,000,000 to

in the Chutteesghurgh division. Five of these Raebe completed ; but this number has been reduced Museum during the week ending August 22, 1868, three in the Nagpore district, and one at Belaspore.

The number of visitors to the South Kensington pore tigers are said to have been man-caters, as were by 14,000,000, and for next year an intimation has was-On Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, free, Mention is also made of a man-eating panther, for been given that not more than 10,000,000 of cart- from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., 14,737 ; on Wednesday, whose death a reward of 100 rupees was given. ridges will be required, notwithstanding a heavy Thursday, and Friday (admission 6d.), from 10 a.m. outlay has recently been made in erecting additional till 6 p.m., 2,365. National Portrait Exhibition, by called by the Bheels panka billee, has been shot by

A NONDESCRIPT animal, said to be a flying cat, and buildings, and supplying machinery for their manu-payment, '8,634 ; total—25,736. Average of corre- Mr. Alexander Gibson in the Punch Mehals. The facture.

The experiments lately conducted at Shoebury- sponding week in former years, 11,332. Total from dried skin was exhibited at the last meeting of the ness for the purpose of testing the Moncrieff gun the opening of the Museum-7,678,676.

Bombay Asiatic Society. Mr. Gibson believes that carriage are considered very satisfactory. The gun

THE “Courier des Alpes” reports a fact of rare the animal is really a cat, and not a bat or flying fox, mounted on the carriage was the ordinary 7-inch occurrence. Enormous quantities of ants, very large,

to some contend. It measured eighteen inches in land service Woolwich gun. Two shots were fired black, and having long wings, have descended on length, and was quite as broad when extended in the

air. As the head is demolished naturalists will with service charges of 141b. powder and 1151b. shot; various localities of Savoy. Pont-Beauvoisin and and afterwards the firing was continued with full Chambery were literally inundated by them. No have a difficulty in settling the genus to which it battery charges-viz., 221b. powder and 1151b. shot. thing is known as to whence they came, or whether belonged. Mr. Propert is said to have offered After a few rounds one of the break wheels of the their appearance is due to some violent storm or to rewards for a specimen, but the Bheels were nerer

able to procure one.

The “ Friend of India” recárriage broke, but the firing was continued with still a natural migration like that of locusts.

marks that if Mr. Gibson were not well known as a greater success, the carriage being worked with the An exhibition of bees has just been opened at member of the Asiatic Society, and a contributor to ordinary tackling by men who previously knew Moscow, under tho auspices of the Acclimatization its journal, it should be inclined to pronounce the cat nothing of the working of the apparatus.

Society of that city. It comprises a collection of to be a “preparation.” An account, moved for by the Marquis of Harting-hives of all times and all countries, of instruments

The following is reported in the country papers : ton, has just been issued, distinguishing original from and utensils employed in apiculture, and of the per

A storm of snails has fallen at Milbury Heath, supplemental estimates, and showing the amounts fumed honey furnished by the bees which suck the near Thornbury. The storm reached along the voted on each vote of the army and navy estimates plants known popularly by the names of Ivan-tchai turnpike road for a distance of about 100 or 150 yards, in the years 1865, 1866, 1867, and 1868, with the and Koporski-tchni. The honey, and the wax are and lasted about ten minutes, covering the road with totals of such original and supplemental estimates, and shown in all their stages, from their appearance in

a quantity of small shelled snails, similar to sea the entire sums voted in each year respectively. the comb to that which they present when variously snails. Some persons in the neighbourhood recollect The total of the estimates for the army for the prepared for commerce.

a similar occurrence at Tockington, a few miles years in question were £14,338,447 for 1865-66, The operation of tracheotomy was performed by distant, about forty years ago. Another some£14,340,000 for 1866-67, £15,232.200 for 1867-68, Mr. A. E. Boulton, surgeon, of Horncastle, upon a what remarkable affair has recently been noticed and £15,503,879 8s. 8d. for 1868-69. For the navy lad named Hensman.

It appears that on Sunday near Thornbury. During several days the earth the amounts

£10,456,139 for 1865-66, afternoon the boy, with others, was playing in the for several miles adjoining the river Severn, in £10,650,721 13s. 9d. for 1866-67, £11,104,888 for Market-place, and put a marble into his mouth, the neighbourhood of Cowhill, Oldbury, and Shipper1867-68, and £11,284,898 for 1868-69.

which, in his excitement, he swallowed. It lodged dine, was thickly covered with insects, commonly The mechanics at Chatham Dockyard have com- in his throat, and on the doctor being sent for, he called “lady cows.” It was impossible to walk menced preparing the keel blocks for the new turret found it was impossible to remove the obstacle by along the warth without being covered with them ; powerful armour-clad ship“ Glatton," which is ordinary means. Upon consultation with Mr. Jal- and persons bathing, who left their clothes on the ordered to be built at that establishmənt from the land, it was determined to open the windpipe, and warth, on returning found them completely covered designs of Mr. E. J. Roed, Chief Constructor of the the operation was attended with complete success. with them.


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