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neither better nor cheaper than the ordinary

ON PUDDLING IRON.*

are liberated, and taking into account the atomic manufactured goods. The million--the public at

By C. W. SIEMENS, F.R.S.

weights of C = 6 and Fe = 28, it follows that for large-have no direct interest in patents as patents;

every

6 X 4 = 24 grains of carbon, 28 X 3 = 84 TOTWITHSTANDING the recent introduction grains of metallic iron, is added to the bath. the public interest is indirect, being concerned only

of cast steel for structural purposes, the proin the products of the new manufacture. The

Assuming ordinary forge pig to contain about interest of the public is in being able to purchase duction of wrought iron and puddled steel by the 3 per cent. of carbon and the same amount of lace for 1s. or 6d. which had previously been sold puddling process ranks amongst the most impor- silicon, it follows from the foregoing that in

252 as high as five guineas for equal quantities ; and tant branches of British manufacture, representing whoever attempts to argue against patent mono

an annual production exceeding one and a half mil removing this silicon - 3= 8.4 per cent., and poly will have to show that science is independent lions of tons, and a money value of about nino

90 of manufacturing interests for its encouragement, millions sterling.

84 and that the progress of manufactures has been

Notwithstanding its great national importance in removing the carbon x3 = 10.5 per cent. trammeled by patent monopoly; or that just the and the interesting chomical problems involved,

24 same or greater progross would have been made the puddling process has receivod loss scientific of metallic iron is added to the bath, making a had the world never known such patentees as Watt, attention than othor processes of more recent total increase of 8.4 x 10-5—6= 12.9 per cent., Bramah, Cort, Brunel, Mushet, Fourdrinier, Heath- origin and inferior importance, owing probably to

or a charge of 420lb. of forge pig metal ought to coat, Palmer, Perkins, Roberts, Napier, Wheatstone, the mistaken sentiment that a time-honoured yield 4741b. of wrought metal, whereas the actual Bessemer, Mardock, and a host of other worthies practice implies, perfoct adaptation of the best field would generally amount to 3701b., 12 per whose names and inventions have become almost means to the best end, and leaves little scope for cent. less than the charge, showing a difference of as household words. improvement.

1041b. between the theoretical and actual yield in The scanty scientific literatnre on the subject each charge. In order to realize the theoretical will be found in Dr. Percy's important work on result, a sufficient amount of cinder must have

“ Iron and Stoel.” Messrs. Crace Calvert and been supplied, the quantity of which can bọ THE LATE DEPUTY-MASTER OF THE Richard Johnson, of Manchestor, have supplied readily ascertained in taking the expression Fo; ROYAL MINT, MR. WILLIAM HENRY most valuable information by a series of analyses 04, the atomic weight of which is 3 x 28 x 4 x 8

of the contents of a puddling furnace during the BARTON.

- 116; while that of the three atoms of iron different stages of the process.

116 IN aberre-nameasgrein'le meints while notiebed in the intimately in the first place, teit met moltem pod These prove that the molten metal is mixed alone is 3 x 28 = 84. It follows that

84 columns of this journal recently. Mr. Barton's tion of the oxide or cinder which forms the lining 74lb. of cinder is requisite to produce the 541b. of high character as a man, and his prominent and or protecting covering to the cast-iron tray of the reduced iron. useful career as a public servant for ncarly forty puddling chamber, that the silicon is first sepa There must, howover, remain a sufficient quanyears, justify us in furnishing further particulars rated from the iron, that the carbon only leaves tity of fluid cinder in the bath to form with the of his life. The late Deputy-Master of the Mint the iron during the “boil," or period of ebullition, silicon extracted from the iron a tribasic silicate of was a son of Sir John Barton, who, in his earlier and that the sulphur and phosphorus separate last iron, or about 501b., making in all 166lb. of fettling, days, was the chosen friend and constant com- of all while the metal is coming to nature. which would have to be added for each chargepanion of H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence, after The investigations by Price and Nicholson, and quantity which is generally exceeded, nothwithwards King William IV. Under the patronage of by M. Lan, confirm these results, from which Dr. standing the inferior results universally obtained. the Duke, Sir Jolin, in the year 1814, was ap- Percy draws some important general conclusions, There remains for our consideration the sulphur pointed Comptroller of the Mint. In this post which have only to be followed up and supple- and phosphorus, which, being generally contained the father of Mr. Barton distinguished himself by mented by some additional chemical facts and in English forge pig in the proportion of 2 per the display of a considerable amount of mechanical observations in order to render the puddling process cent. to 6 per cent. each, can hardly affect the ability. He invented and introducek into the perfectly intelligible, and to bring into relief the foregoing quantitative results, although they are Mint a mechanical appliance of great practical defective manner in which it is at present put into of great importance respecting the quality of the value, known as Barton's drawbacos, and which is practice, involving great loss of metal, waste of metal produced. in use to the present day. Its purpose is to adjust, fuel and labour, and an imperfect separation of the It has been assorted by Percy that the separawith far more exactitude than can be accomplisbed two hurtful ingredients, sulphur and phosphorus. tion of these ingredients is due to liquation. This by rolling, the thickness of gold and silver straps in- In forming, by means of the rabble an intimate I understand to mean that the crystals of metallic tended for conversion into coin. In 1830, the subject mechanical mixture between the fluid cast metal iron which form throughout the boiling mass when of this notice was transferred from a subordinate and the cinder, the silicon contained in the iron is the metal “comes to nature excludes foreign office in H.M. Customs to the Royal Mint, whilst brought into intimate contact with metallic oxide, substances in the same way that the ice formed his parent became treasurer to Queen Adelaide, and being found afterwards in the form of silicic upon sea-water excludes the salt and yields sweet and left the latter establishment altogether. Very acid, combined with oxide of iron, it follows that it water when remelted. According to this view, pig soon young Mr. Barton succeeded to the comp- must have reduced its equivalent of iron from the metal of inferior quality will really yield iron trollership, and he continued to perform its duties cinder to the metallic state.

almost chemically pure to which foreign ingrewith great efficiency till the year 1851, when the The fluid cinder may be taken to consist of | dients are again added by mechanical admixturo general management of the Mint was revolutionized Fe3O4, and silicic acid or silicia is represented with the surrounding cinder or semi-reduced ander pressure of a Royal Commission. There by SiO 3, from which it may be inferred that for metal. It may be safely inferred that the amount had been up to this date a divided authority, a every four atoms of silicon leaving the metal nine of impurities thus taken up will mainly depend kind of Imperium in Imperio, which regulated atoms of metallic iron are liberated ; and taking upon the temperature, which should be high, in the Mint affairs. As in the Paris Mint, at the the atomic weights of iron = 28, and of silicic order to ensure perfect fluidity and separation present hour, a company of moneyers for many acid = 225, it follows that for every 4 x 22.5 of the cinder and unreduced metal. The following years—in fact, for many generations—“farmed = 900 grains of silicon abstracted from the metal, was the result of an analyses of the Mint machinery, and were paid, not salaries, 9 x 28 = 252 grains of metallic iron are liberated English pig iron before and after being puddled :but porcentages upon the coinages executed by from the cinder. The disappearance of the carbon them.

from the metal is accompanied by violent ebulli- Pig metal. This system was abolished altogether in 1851, tions, and the appearance of carbonic oxide, which Sulphur...

Sulphur and the Mint was then placed under the direct in rising in innumerable bubbles to the surface of Phosphorus

Phosphorus... and exclusive control of the Government. Under the bath, burns with the blue flame peculiar to the new arrangement it was considered desirable that gas. to amalgamate the offices of Deputy-Master and It is popularly believed that the oxygen acting Those analyses were made a few days since by Comptroller, and so to effect a certain amount of upon the carbon of the metal is derived directly Mr. A. Wellis in my laboratory at Birmingham. economy. It was at this period, therefore, that from the flame, which should on that account be Led by these chemical considerations, and by Mr. Barton-already Comptroller-became the made to contain an excess of oxygen ; but the very practical attention to the subject extending over holder of the dual post. That post he retained appearanco of the process proves that the combi- many years, I am brought to the conclusion that until the day of his death (the 25th ult.), and it nation between the carbon and oxygen does not the process of puddling as practised at present is is not too much to say that few men could have take place on the surface, but throughout the body extremely crude, being wasteful in iron and fuel, better performed its duties. His mind, like that of the fluid cinder in separating from its metallic immensely laborious, and yielding a metal only of his father, had a mechanical bias, and he was iron.

imperfectly separated from its impurities. How ever devising ingenious contrivances for over But it has been argued that although the reac- nearly we shall be able to approach the results coming practical difficulties. In temper and dis- tion takes place below the surface the oxygon may indicated by the chemical reasoning here adopted position Mr. Barton was irreproachable, and he be nevertheless derived from the flame, which may I am not prepared to say, but that much can be was uniformly kind and generous to his colleagues osidize the iron on the surface and become trans- accomplished by the means actually at our doors and subordinates of whatever grade.

ferred to the carbon at the bottom in consequence is proved by the result of eighteen months' workThe estimation in which the deceased gentleman of the general agitation of the mass.

ing of a puddling furnace erected to my designs by was held at the Royal Mint is sufficiently testified This view I am, however, in a position to dis- the Bolton Steel and Iron Works in Lancashire. to by the fact that, with two or three unavoidable prove by my recent experience of melting cast This furnace consists of a puddling chamber of exceptions, the whole of the officers and men om- steel upon the open flame bed of a furnace, having very noarly the ordinary form, which is heated, ployed there attended his funeral on Monday week invariably observed that oxidation of the unpro- however, by means of a regenerativo gas furnace, at Teddington Old Church. Mr. Barton, we find, tected fluid metal takes place so long as it contains the principle of which is sufficiently well established was born in 1803, and he died on the day after his carbon in however slight a proportion. Supported at present to render a special description horo sixty-fifth birthday. It is to be trusted that the by this observation, I feel convinced that the unnecessary. vacant post will be henceforth filled by as good a oxidizing action of the flame in a puddling furnace The advantages of this furnace for puddling are man-a botter is not needed.

commences only after the malleable iron has been that the heat can be raised to an almost unlimited formed already.

degree, that the flame can be made at will oxidi

Carbonic oxide being represented by Co, and zing, neutral, or roducing, without interfering with The colony of Victoria received and sent by the the cinder by Fe 3 04, it follows that for every the temperature, that draughts of air and cutting Peninsular and Oriental Mail steamers, during the four atoms of carbon threo atoms of metallic iron fames are avoided, and that the gas fuel is free month of May last, 76,518 letters, 2,181 book packets,

from pyrites and other impurities, which are and 137,954 newspapers.

Read before the British Association.

carried into the puddling chamber from an ordi

an inferior

Puddled bar.

Iron

Iron

99-276

·017 .237

-47 100-000

Silicon

Total

Silicon

100-000

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nary grate. In this respect the new furnace pre- again in November last, since which time it has sents the same advantages as puddling with char- been used continuosuly.

THE BROADS OF EAST NORFOLK.* coal. The result of the water bridges has been that the

BY MR. R. B. GRANTHAM. The following table gives the working results amount of fettling required is reduced to an ordinary which were obtained from this furnace as com- proportion, the average quantity of red ore used

HE author's remarks had reference to water pared with the results obtained at the same time being 93 3lb. per charge, besides the usual allowin an ordinary furnace from the same pig (the ance of bulldog, while the average yield per

or lakes, were not commonly found in the same ordinary forge mixture):

charge of 475-3lb. of grey forge pig is 476-41b. of geological formations in England. As an instance TABLE NO.I.-- Regenerative Gas Furnace. puddled bar, as results from the following observa- of utilizing the waters of these broads, and also of tions during one turn :

improving lands affected by them, he referred to

Great Yarmouth Water Works Company, taking Numbers Time First ball Metal Date. of heat. charged. out.

Pig charged.

Puddled bar returned. water from Ormesby, Rollesby, and Filby Broads 4701b.

4701b.

(possessing together an area of from 400 to 500 FIRST SHIFT. Ib. Ib. 486

acres), and supplying the town of Yarmouth and 1867 410 892

470

its neighbourhood; and the cases of improvement 6 45 7 50 396

of land by drainage as carried out at Martham, 480 410

Somerton and Winterton, and Beccles, and other 9 16

426
11 22
480 Mean results 476-31b....

... 476-41b.

places about to be constituted drainage districts. 11 40 412

To show the origin of the broads he described the SECOND SHIFT.

proving an average gain of fully 12 per cent. over the geology of those portions of the country in which 1 48

428 410 yield of ordinary furnaces, while the superiority they are situated, and from this and certain histori420

of quality in favour of the gas furnace is fully cal facts he deduced the conclusion that the eastern 4 53 426 418 maintained.

valleys of Norfolk were formerly branches of a 417 7 12 425 407

It is also worthy of remark that these results wide estuary, and that the present rivers and 8 15

422 are obtained regularly by the ordinary puddlers of broads are the remains of that large body of water. THIRD SHIFT.

the works, and that no repairs have been necessary He then proceeded to refer to the valleys of the 9 10 10 15 423 414

to the gas puddling furnace since November last, rivers Bure, Yare, and Waveney, and their tribu10 25 11

412 the roof being reported to be still in excellent con- taries, the combined water-sheds of which extend 11 35

420 420

dition. In these investigations I have confined my-over parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, and embrace an 45

The 424

self to the puddling of ordinary English forge pig, * area of 1,210 square miles, or 774,400 acres.

418 4 20 420 400 in order to avoid confusion ; but it is self-evident Bure and the Yare together drain more than half FIRST SHIFT,

that the same reasoning also applies in a modified Norfolk, the Waveney only a small portion, but a May 28, 1867

5 88

423 402 degree to white pig metal or refined metal, the use large part of Suffolk. In Ormesby Broad, on the north 6 50 400 of which I should not, however, advocate.

side

the Bure, the surface of the water is two or 390

Regarding the water bridges, I was desirous to three feet above the high water of the Bure at the

407 10 35 11

426

ascertain the cost of heat at which the saving of sluices at the end of Muckfleet. It is said to be 20ft.

420
11
1

416 fettling and greater ease of working was effected. deep in some places, which would make its bottom SECOND SHIFT.

The water passing through the bridges was accord considerably lower than low water in the sea. Pro422

422 ingly measured by Mr. W. Hackney, who has also bably the bottoms of many other broads may be 424 415 furnished me with other working data, and found below the level of the sea, which may be accounted

to amount to 251b. per minute, heated 40deg. Fah. for by depressions and upheavings of the formation. 23

This represented 60,000 units of heat per hour, or River beds are not unfrequently lower than the

& consumption not exceeding 8b, to solb. of solid low water of the sea, and this occurs far up their THIRD SHIFT.

fuel per heat, an expenditure very much exceeded courses away from the sea. In some cases this may 11 20

424

by the advantages obtained where water or cooling be traced to the force of the currents deepening cisterns are available.

them, but in the broads there are no currents or The labour of the puddler and of his underhand other disturbances to cause an excavation of the 4 20 430

being very much shortened and facilitated by bottom. The broads are supplied by streams run

means of this furnace, I should strongly recom- ning into them from minor valleys and springs which Total charge, 136:12; total yield, 132-37 ; being at the mend the introduction of three working shifts of rise in the formations, to which they form catchrate of 20cwt. 2qr. 2/b. of pig iron per ton of puddled bar.

eight hours each for twenty-four hours, each shift ment basins or reservoirs, and are no doubt per

representing the usual number of heats, by which forming a most important and useful part in the TABLE No. II.- Ordinary Furnace.

arrangement both the employer and the employed economy of water supply by detaining superabundwould be materially benefited.

ant quantities of water from storms and continuWeight of Weight of

The labour of the puddler may be further re-
Date.
Time.

ous wet weather; and they prevent inundations in
metal puddled bar
charged. produced

duced with advantage by the introduction of the the lower parts of the country by affording time,

mechanical rabble, which has already made con- where the inclination in the main valley is slight, Ib. siderable progress on the Continent.

and the velocity naturally slow, for floods to pass May 17, 1867

425

By working in this manner, a gas rogenerative off at each successivo low tide. With regard to 405 puddling furnace of ordinary dimensions would the scour of the river Yare, Mr. Grantham was of

produce an annual yield of about 940 tons of bar opinion that it would be most desirable to deepen iron of superior quality from the same weight of the whole of Breydon Water and impound a larger grey pig metal, and the ordinary proportion of body of back water, and thereby further increase fettling.

the scour at the bar. Passing to the subject of In conclusion, I may state that a considerable drainage in connection with the broads, Mr. Grant426 420

number of these puddling furnaces have since ham did not recommend their conversion into agribeen erected abroad, and that in this country they cultural land, considering the great importance of

are also being taken up by Messrs. Kitson, of Leeds, keeping them as reservoirs, particularly those of 425 and a few other entorprising firms.

large areas, in which the water would continue

good and wholesome. The land to be acquired by 410

draining the broads, if that were possible, would

amount to 2,500 acres, which is a trifling quantity Mean charge, 4841b.; mean yield, 4261b.: or 22cwt. 2qro

MARINE VELOCIPEDES.

as compared with that which may be retained 20lb. of pig iron per ton of puddled bar.

THEY have got marine velocipedes in France. round about them, or with the quantities which - It will be observed that the ordinary furnace twelve miles from Paris, and was constructed at St. county. The drainage he would recommend was received charges of 484lb. each, and yielded on an Denis. Imagine two snow-shoes, so to speak, held that of the marshes and swamps, which were average 42615., representing a loss of 12 per cent., together by iron rods at a yard's distance, and be- mostls caused by the broads and the rivers in conwhereas the gas furnace received charges averag-tween these the propelling wheel, about a yard in ing 4281b. and yielded 4131b., representing a loss of diameter, with paddles eight inches long and four

nection with them. Most of the lands he had 3.5 por cont. It is important to observe, moreover, wide. Then behind, and almost on a level with the seen in this state would be highly productive and that the gas furnace turned out eighteen heats in top of the wheel, a saddle for the driver, and to the profitable if they could be deprived of the surplus three shifts per twenty-four bours, which was the wheel on each side driving cranks for the feet, the water and so maintained. At the same time he limit of production in the ordinary furnace.

wheel and seat covered with sheet iron to prevent would secure the means of using the water for

wetting. Over the wheel is fixed a swivel handle of irrigation if necessary. This conversion of the The quality of the iron produced from the gas iron for the hands, and to the ends of this handle the marshes into profitable and remunerative land need furnace was proved decidedly superior to that from tillers for the two rudders. With this simple ma- not interfere with the impounding and storing the the ordinary furnace, being“ best best in the chine, which is more difficolt to upset than a boat, water in the broads. By the improvement of 80 one and " best ” in the other caso from the same and which is always ready for use, since it requires much land a large amount of additional permanent pig.

The consumption of fuel was also groatly in he may carry passengers, go a-fishing, or drive it for employment would bo given to the population, and favour of the gas furnace, but could not be accu- pleasuro or exercise. It' hacks and turns with the the healthiness of the localities would be increased. rately ascertained, because some mill furnaces were slightest movement of the foot, and as the feet are

Although large bodies of water might be objected worked from the samo set of producers. The always resting in place, there is no time lost, as in to, he did not consider them so injurious as the consumption of fettling was, however, greater in the the lifting and adjusting of cars. The two perissoirs miasma arising from the evaporation and exhalation gas furnaces, and the superior yield was naturally

--we may as well mako English sense of it at once from the decaying of the vegetation of large tracts attributed by the forge managers to that cause, mahogany about the thickness of bookbinder's ague in the tropics and other similarly-circum

are six or eight inches in diameter, and made of of marshos, which is the chief cause of fever and although I held a different opinion.

boards. Finding, however, that the gas furnaces had not

stanced countries and districts. been provided with water bridges, these were subsequently added, and the furnaces put to work phosphorus, 1-16; iron, 96-79. * Holmes' pig: Sulphur, 0.08 per cent.; silicon, 1.9;

* Read boforo the British Association.

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S.W. breezo, which caused her to strain excessively. This casting is provided with an extension B* formAll at once she broke amidships. The fore part ing a valve seat, in which are inlet and outlet ports rose, the after part sunk immediately, carrying below a and b; these ports are covered by a slide valve c water the captain and eight of the crew. They which works in a valve box C made fast by screws to would inevitably have been lost had not a Spanish the extension B*. The valve box is formed with a fishing-boat, which was fortunately in sight at the screwed coupling for receiving the inner end of the time, rendered assistance. By the endeavours of the supply pipe D. c is the valve rod of the slide valve crew of the boat the whole of the castaways were c, and coupled to it is a hand lever E which rocks on fished up and their lives saved. Thore were in all a fixed fulcrum, and is intended to operate the slido on board the “Gironde" a crew of 14, including the valve, or in place of the slide valve seat valves may (aptain, but not a man was lost. As soon as they be employed. Cast on or riveted to the upper end

had been put on shore every man made off as best of the cylinder B is a flanged ring B2 which rests on the introduction of a knife. Moreover, the drop- he could, and all eventually reached Lisbon in a lip formed at the top of the pillar to carry the ping of the top sash does not interfere with the safety. The company at Agen have three other vessel from which the water is to be withdrawn, and action of this fastener, as it does with that of the steamers in dimensions much longer than the fitted to this ring is a removable cover B3 of cast ordinary ones, and it is claimed for it that it

"Gironde.” The “Gironde” was to have been the iron by which access is gained to the interior of the effoctually prevents rattling by the wind.

pioneer, but owing to the great difficulties experi- vessel. An ornamental cap Al closes the top of the
enced in navigating them on the high seas, the hollow pillar A.
owners have determined to have them taken to The weight of the hand lover E serves to depress

pieces and sent to Bordeaux by rail, where they will the valve c, and when depressed it opens a communiNEW FRENCH RIVER STEAMERS. ba again put together.

cation between the valve box and the vessel B. By

lifting the lever E the valve will be raised and the OST of our readers, says the "Gibraltar Chronicle,"

supply will be cut off. The water contained in the

vessel will then be free to escape through the outlet between a green lizard and a sea serpent-which CONTROLLING THE DRAUGHT OF WATER port, and the discharge will continue only so long as remained in this port during the months of May and

FROM CONSTANT SUPPLY PIPES.

the valve is up, or while there is water in the vessel. June. She was so long and so narrow and so low

When the handle is let go the valve will close the

HE here only by miracle, and as if her further voyage soine novel arrangements of apparatus for en- to permit of the closed vessel filling, an air pipe F was quite a matter of uncertainty. This was the abling water companies to afford a constant supply is provided. This pipe coinmunicates at its lower "Gironde," a French steamer, under the command and an augmented quantity of water to their cus- end with the atmosphere, and leads from tho bottom of Captain Girel. She had come from employment tomers without the risk of waste or the appropriation to near the top of the vessel. At its upper end this on the Rhone, and was on her way to the Gironde, of an undue quantity by individual consumers. The pipe is fitted with a socket f, to which is linged a to be used again as a river passage boat. While apparatus is the invention of Mr. E. H. Bentall, of lever G; this lever carries at oue end a valve or here she underwent a searching repair, with a view Heybridge, Essex, the well-known agricultural im- plug 9, and at the other a lever fitted with a float a!. to making her thoroughly seaworthy. It seemed at plement manufacturer. The object is effected by the the time almost impossible to make this a certainty. use of a closed vessel (from which the water is to be will then bring down the valve and close the air

As the vessel fills the float will rise, and the lever In length she was 283ft., while in breadth of beam drawn), so fitted that either the supply and the dis- pipe. As soon, however, as the water level falls, the she was barely 15ft., and she drew 3ft. fin. of water. charge will not be contemporaneous, or if contem- plug or valve will rise and allow a free access of air It was predicted here that she would never get to poraneous the supply will, even under the most to fill the vacancy caused by the discharge of water her destination- an unfortunate prophecy which has adverse circumstances, be limited to a certain maxi- from the vessel. proved only too true. The “Gironde is left Gib- mum allowance.

When adapting the invention to a constant house raltar on the 11th July, and put into Cadiz on the In our engraving, fig. 1 shows, in vertical section supply, the supply pipe or channel is fitted with a following day. She remained at that port sone the invention as adapted to a public or street supply: gauge nipple, the bore of which must be regulated four days, and then started for Lisbon, which she Enclosed within a pillar A is a cylindrical vessel B to suit the rate of supply required. Fig. 2 shows, reached without accident beyond a slight derange- which consists of a tube of enamelled wrought iron ment of her machinery. At Lisbon she stayed some closed at top and bottom with cast-iron ends. The fitted according to Mr. Bentall's invention. The

in vertical section, a continuous house-supply cistern eight or ten days, and, having repaired, again pro- bottom B1, which is cast on or riveted to the tube, is cistern is formed of a tube A of sheet iron galvanized after leaving the Tagus she encountered a freså posits to collect and discharge at a central opening. | BC. The cover B is cast with a port for the admission

of the supply, and screwed into the centre of the for several reasons, the principal being that yarn tinum foil it burns with a bright flame, leaving & casting C (which is made conical to gather the de- is comparatively free from mechanical impurities, very voluminous coal. It is nearly insoluble in posit to the centre) is screwed the discharge tap D. such as fragments of seed-vessels, &c., while, on the other. It dissolves easily in concentrated sulphuric E is the supply pipe screwed into the cover B, and other hand, if proper care be taken, no impurity acid and glacial acetic acid, with a brown colour, beluw it is a screwed opening (closed by a screw is added to those previously existing during the It also dissolves with ease in caustic and carbonated plug F) leading to the port and in a line with a screwed hole leading into the cistern. In this hole process of spinning. The yarn was boiled in an alkalies, giving dark yellowish-brown solutions, a hollow screw or nipple G is screwed, the hole ordinary bachelor's kier for several hours with a from which it is re-precipitated by acids in light through the same being of such diameter that it will dilute solution of soda ash. The resulting dark brown flocks. The other colouring matter reallow only a given quantity of water at the ordinary brown liquor, after the yarn has boon taken out, sembles this in most of its properties. It is, howpressure to pass through it per hour. This system, drained and slightly washed, was removed from over, much less soluble in alcohol. Cold alcohol, Îike that first described, is fitted with an air pipe, as the kier into appropriate vessels, and mixed with indeed, dissolves only a trace, but in boiling alcohol at H, which is controlled by a valve and float car an excess of sulphuric acid, which produced a it dissolves with tolerable facility, being re-deried by a rock lever i. The object of the screwed copious, light brown, flocculent precipitate, while posited, on the solution cooling, in the form of a plug F is to give ready access to tho gauge nipple G, the liquid bocamo colourless. This procipitate was brown powder. This powder, when filtered off which could not be reached through the bend of the allowed to settle, the liquid was poured off, and and dried, forms coherent masses of a colour varysupply passage. By withdrawing the screw plug F the nipple may after being washed with cold water, to remove the ing from light to dark brown, which are easily

Both be removed and replaced by one of a larger or smaller sulphate of soda and excess of acid, it was put on broken, showing a dull earthy fracture. gauge, as required. For the protection of the water calico strainors and allowed to drain. A thick pulp colouring matters contain nitrogen, and they differ company this screw plug F should be sealed to pre-was thus obtained, which when dried assumed the therefore in constitution from true resins, which vent the gauge nipple being tampered with. By the appearance of a brown, brittle, horn-tiko substance they resemble in many of their properties. The above arrangement the admission of water to the translucent at the edges. In one experiment peculiar colour of the so-called " Nankin cotton" cistern will take place only while it is partially empty, 480lb. of yarn, made from East Indian cotton, of is probably due to a great excess of these colouring and when full the supply will cease. If, however, the variety called “ Dhollerah," yielded 0:33 por matters existing in the fibre. It is certainly not by carelessness the tap is left on, no more than the cent. of the dried precipitate. ' In another experi- caused by oxide of iron. regulated supply can pass through the cistern, and ment made with 600lb. of yarn, spun from Amerithus excessive waste will in any case be effectually can ootton, of the kind called in commerce the brown precipitate produced by sulphuric acid

The purification of the pectic acid contained in prevented.

"middling Orleans," 0:48 per cent was obtained. was not effected without difficulty. The best

The total loss sustained by yarn during the bleach- method, according to the author, consists in subON SOME CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON ing process amounts to about five por cent. of its mitting it to a simple process of bleaching with FIBRE.*

weight. Only a small portion of the matter lost is chloride of limo, by which means the impurity BY DR. E. SCHUNCK.

therefore recovered by precipitation of the alkaline consisting of brown colouring matter, which adheres extract with acid.

to it with great pertinacity, is destroyed. When is generally supposed that cotton, when quite This precipitate formed more especially the pure it has the properties and composition ascribed lose, and that its composition is consequently re- to consist almost entirely of organic substances, bably contains pectose or pectine, which is conpresented by the formula C12 H10 0.0. It is certain, and of these the following were distinctly rooog- verted into poctic acid by the action of the alkalino however, that in the raw state, as furnished by nized.

lye. About three-fifths of the brown precipitate commerce, it contains a number of other ingro

1. A species of vogetable wax.

consists of peetic acid. Of the remaining twodients, some of which occur so constantly that they

2. A fatty acid.

fifths, the colouring matters constitute by far the may be considered essential constituents of cotton,

3, 4. Colouring matters.

largest part, the wax and fatty acid being prosent viewed as a vegetable product. The object of the

5. Pectic acid.

in very minute quantities. The albuminous mattor bleaching process to which most cotton fabrics are

6. A trace of albuminous matter. was not isolated, but its presence was indicated by subjected is to deprive the fibre of these other in

The author described the method employed by the formation of a small quantity of loucine, which gredients and leave the cellulose behind in a state him for separating these substances from one took place when the brown precipitate was subof purity: Notwithstanding the importance of an another and obtaining them in a state of purity; mitted to the action of hydrate of soda. A large accurate knowledge of everything relating to cotton and he then gave an account of their properties quantity of oxalic acid was formed at the same from an industrial point of view, the substances contained in it along with cellulose have never been most interesting of these substances. It is inand composition. The waxy matter is by far the time, no doubt from the pectic acid.

In conclusion, the author makes some remarks subjected to a special chemical examination, and soluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. in rogard to the part which these bodies may be very little is consequently known about them: If a concentrated solution in boiling alcohol be supposed to play during the process of manufacturPersoz, in the "Traité de l' Impression des Tissus," allowed to cool, the greatest part is deposited, ing gun cotton. It has beon assorted that tho says that the woody fibre constituting the tissues of causing the liquid to assume the appearance of a instability occasionally, observed in gun cotton is cotton, hemp, linen, &e, is not pure ; it contains, thick white jelly, consisting of microscopio neodles to be attributed to the impurities in tho raw fibre, is more or less shiolded from the action of decolorizing it shrinks very much, and is converted into a bodies which decompose spontaneously at the agents by the bodies which accompany it, naturally coherent cako,' which has a waxy lustro and is ordinary or a slightly elevated temperature. The or accidentally ; second, a poculiar, resin, natural translucent, friable, and lighter than water. Its author's experiments do not support this view, difficulty in alkalies which plays the part of a At a higher temperature it is volatilized. When mitted to the action of the mixed nitric and sulin the fibre from the action of the agents which heated on platinum it burns with a very bright phuric acid of the strength employed for making ought to destroy and remove them; thirdly, a cer- substance covers the cotton fibres with a thin

flame. The author thinks it probable that this gun cotton, do not yield explosive compounds tain quantity of fatty matter, of which a very waxy film, and thus imparts to them their wellsmall portion is peculiar to the fibre, the greatest known proporty of resisting water. In its properand weaving; fourth, a neutral substance, either better known vegetable waxes, such as that obtained part being derived from the operations of spinning ties and composition it approaches very nearly the MACHINE FOR “ UN-WEAVING” SILK flour, starch, or glue, which has been introduced by Avequin from the leaves of the sugar cane, and

AND OTHER RAGS. by the weaver in sizeing his warp: fifth, inorganic that which is found on the leaves of the Carnauba TNVENTIONS having for their object the utilisaline matters, some of which belong to the fibre, | palm. The author thinks that the name cotton-wax while the others are derivod from the water and is sufficient to distinguish it from these and other ance, and often very largely and deservedly the matters employed in the dressing of the warp. nearly allied bodies. In the excellent article on bleaching in the new

remunerate the inventor. We do not think that

The fatty acid has the properties and composition this has yet been the case with the inventor of the edition of Uro's. - Dictionary of Arts,” there is a of margaric acid. It is white and crystalline, fuses ingenious machine we are about to describe, but fabric,s comprising all that was known at the time at 53deg. C., and gives with alkalios compounds we hope that it will be so sooner or later. This when the author commenced his examination.

soluble in water which are true soaps. It is, how- machine is for producing fibres suitable for being The object which the author had in view in an ever, probably not a natural constitutent of cotton spun from silken, woollen, or cotton rágs; and we dertaking his investigation was to endeavour to fibre, but rather an impurity derived from the have thought it well worthy of the accompanying throw a little more light on the nature of those oil of the seed which escapes and diffuses itself engraving and description. It appears to us to substances which are contained in or attached to among the cotton before or during the process of deserve the attention of all engagod in the textile the framework of cellulose ; of which cotton fibre ginning: It might also have hnd its source in the manufactures, and more especially of silk manumainly consists, and which are together with the oil and fat, used for greasing the cotton spinning facturers. By means of what we may term its latter produced by the plant. All foreign and ex- his experiments. Persons practically conversant different processes, distinct in a manufacturing

machinery, since the author employed yarn in all un-weaving action, it is able to carry out three traneous matter introduced during the process of manufacture was therefore left entirely out of con

with cotton spinning affirm, however, that if ordi- sense, though similar mechanically. These are : sideration. The author has further confined his nary care be takon, it is impossible that tho cotton 1, the separation of the fibres of silk rags ; 2, tho attention to those constituents of the fibre which can become contaminated with anything of a fatty separation of the fibres of woollen rags ; aná 3, tho are insoluble in water but soluble in alkaline lye, nature during its conversion into yarn.

separation of the fibres of rags made of silk or wool and are afterwards precipitated by acid from the periments are without doubt the substances to attempts which have been made to separato silk

The colouring matters obtained in those ox- upon a cotton weft or back. In the different alkalino solution. Whether cotton contains naturally which raw cotton owos its yellowish or brownish rags it has been found impossible to preserve the any substance soluble in water, or which being colour. The author was able to distinguish two staple of sufficient length to pormit its being reoriginally insoluble is rendered soluble therein by bodies of a dark brown colour, which occurred in spun. We do not know whether any silk rags the prolonged action of alkalies is a question on all kinds of cotton examined by him. Of these, one which the author pronounces no decided opinion.

are now ever passed-at least on a large scale

In is easily soluble in cold alcohol, and is left, on through the machine called “the devil." For the purpose of obtaining the substances which he proposed to examine the author employed evaporation of the solution, as a dark brown, attempts in this direction the rags were found to cotton yarn, which he preferred to unspun cotton

shining, brittle, amorphous resin, which is trans- be, not combed out or un-woven-but ground upparent in thin layers. In boiling water it softens a fact easily intelligiblo when the construction of

and melts to a pasty mass, which becomes hard " the devil” is remembered. In this machine * Literary and Philosophical Society.

and brittle again on cooling. When heated on pla- textile rags held between a pair of rolls in front of

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MACHINE FOR “UN-WEAVING” SILK AND OTHER RAGS.

BY MR. GILLES.

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a circular cutter or brush with spikes, revolving been attempted. Many thousand pounds have, we cumference. It must be noted that several layers at a very high velocity, and grinding away the believe, been expondod in experiments for destroy- of silk—about twelve—and of wool, in numbers fibres in its rotation. The resulting silk fock, or ing the cotton weft, so as to leave the wool intact varying with the thickness of the fabric, can be that which could be gathered, had to be largely and able to be worked up again. A short time , fixed on the brush. As the rags, with one of their mixed with raw silk before it could be spun up. ago a company (limited) was started at Leeds to ends fixed in points below the tops of the brushəs, The silk rags worked up in this machine can be work a chemical process for destroying the cotton slowly pass under the roller, the points enter the manufactured again into spun silk, just as so much and preserving the wool, but it failed with exten- fabric, opening the threads, and combing away the raw silk waste, thus turning an article worth, say, sive losses. It was found that the produce was fibres that lio parallel with the longitudinal axis at the most ten shillings per cwt., into a material unsaleable. We understand that this process is of the roller. Above this roller-somewhat similar, saleable at the rate of perhaps two shillings or now carried out in practice to a very limited but much milder, in its action to that on the more per lb. As regards working up woollen rags, extent, but not, as might naturally be expected, devil" machine—is a rotating brush, which the devil machine has now been in operation for without this injurious influence on the wool. revolves at a much higher speed. Its function is years, employed by shoddy breakers in producing Rags of this mixed kind have, in fact, little or no to clear the pins on the roller of threads, in order the well-known shoddy, which really is woollen value, from the supposed impossibility of entirely to prevent their gradual accumulation therein. flock or dust. As a proof of the mechanical imper- utilizing them, as they cannot be placed in the Another smaller rovolving brush is placed in front fection of this machine, the woollen rags submitted “ devil without giving a worthless compound of of the roller, in order to guide and keep the strips to it have to be previously oiled, in order to pre- wool and cotton, of no use to either the cotton or of fabric being operated upon on the surface of the vent the ground-up woollen fibre from flying the cloth manufacturer. In this machine the fibre brush. The series of brushes are made to travel about. As with the silk, again, new wool must be is perfectly preserved, and both wool and silk in guides by means of toothed wheels working mixed with it even to produce shoddy cloth. Mr. from it have been spun up without the admixture jointed racks fitted to their under sides. Other Gilles' machine does very good work in separating of any other material.

plans could, of course, bo adopted for the same the fibres of woollen rags, though it is possible that The leading idea of Mr. Gilles' machine is purpose, such as fixing the brushes on an endless his machine has a wider field before it in unravel- remarkably simple, and, like most things of the chain or band, or even a wire rope of steel, or ling the costlier fibres required in the silk trade. kind, the wonder is that it has not been brought otherwise, worked, or not, by a clip drum. In No machine, for instance, is now in practical use out before. It merely consists in fixing the rags order to hold the pieces of fabric, each brush has a for separating the wool woven upon a cotton weft. to be brushed out, unravelled, or what we have row of vertical pins along its back edge. Each Very large quantities of goods of this kind have termed “un-woven," on the surface of a brush of brush has also a friction roller, and can be easily been made of late years, but no plan for mecha- bristles or bass, and then causing it to travel under- disconnected from the frame on which it is nically un-weaving the materials seems to have noath a revolving roller fitted with pins at its cir- fixed.

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