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PRspecting Rig voreastatic.noueritine ning of the range, we have copper in tamorphous to this web reply that many commission hadice

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He says:

that the intensity remains the same, then the tender after December 31, 1868. The bankfull range of the molecular conditions of the ing houses in all the cities and towns of the deposited metal could not be obtained. With empire might be constituted receptacles these conditions the range could extend only meantime for the condemned money, which from amorphous to reguline metal.

would then be readily transferred to the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Making the external resistance constant, Mint. In short, there would, by the exercise

and commencing with an external resistance of a little judicious management on the part

equal to the internal, then the deposit will of the proper authorities, be less inconveniLONDON: FRIDAY, JULY 3, 1868. be reguline and malleable. Now, if, on the ence caused in improving the silver coinage

one hand, we gradually increase the quantity, than arose from the remodelling of the copper we shall descend through porous to amor- currency at our instigation a few years since.

phous metal ; but if, on the other hand, we It may be urged in defence of delay, that a THE MOLECULAR CONDITION OF gradually increase the intensity and lessen the commission is now sitting and deliberating

ELECTRO-DEPOSITED COPPER. quantity, we shall pass through hard brittle upon the whole subject of the coinage, and ROFESSOR GUTHRIE, re

to crystalline , at one end that report not made public. contemporary, makes some remarks respect- powder, and, at the other, in crystals. In sat before on the same question without ing the electro-deposition of copper which do this case, the external resistance being con- much advantage finally accruing to the comnot exactly represent the relation between the stant, the molecular condition of the metal is munity from their cogitations. Moreover, be electric current and the molecular condition a function of the power of the battery, and the nature of the expected report what it of the copper deposited, and consequently in every case it is a function of the current in may, the step we propose is one only rememight mislead those who are not thoroughly motion,

dial of existing and patent evils and not inconversant with the subject.

volving a revolutionary change. That might “The second point raised by the President,

follow the deliberations of the commission, who expressed his opinion that the voltastat | THE SILVER COINAGE OF GREAT but it must be a work of many years, and was not applicable to weak currents, such as

BRITAIN.

“whilst the grass is growing the steed is are de conred remind gepositieaders chate the Sinom this question an important step las required for the of copper, I VINCE publication

starving."

It is too much to expect that a decimal tenacity of the copper film is not a mere been taken by the Emperor of the French in system of coinage will be recommended by the function of the power of the battery, but reference to the silver coinage of France. commission, or that it will be adopted by the also of the extent of the surface upon which By a decree of his Majesty, promulgated on

Legislature if it be so recommended.. That the deposition takes place, and that the the 18th ult., it is ordained that all old" such a system would be of the greatest poscoveted state of aggregation of the copper is two-franc and one-franc pieces, and all olasible advantage to the whole

commercial and attained by extending the receiving surface, fifty and twenty-five-centime pieces circu- trading community of the United Kingdom as well as by diminishing the strength of the lating throughout the empire and its depen- is, to our thinking, beyond doubt. A mouncurrent. Cæteris paribus, the deposited film dencies shall cease to be a legal tender after tain of prejudice, however, must be removed is more coherent when the deposition takes the month of October next. This is, in fact,

before any Ministry will be able to inauguplace more slowly... Given a current of a cer- doing for France precisely what we have rate it on this side the Channel, and assuredly tain strength, let the surface to be electro- been strenuously urging the British Govern- | none will feel disposed to undertake the Herplated be exceedingly small-the copper de- ment to do for this country. Unfortunately, reform can be instituted the public mind

culean task gratuitously. Before this great posited will crumble away as it is formed. Let however, it is exceedingly difficult to accomnow the current remain the same, but let the plish at home what can apparently be effected will have to be educated on the point to a surface be extended; then, in the same time, the by a stroko of the pen abroad. It has been much greater extent than, at present. The same amount of copper will be deposited, but clearly shown in our columns that the present been made is within immediate reach, whilst

minor improvement to which reference has being precipitated upon a larger surface, it will state of the silver coinage of Great Britain is be thinner: the deposition will have taken

place disgraceful in the extreme, and there are few its necessity and usefulness cannot fail to be more slowly, and the copper will be more persons who have not experienced annoyance

universally admitted. tenacious." This paragraph does not at all from coming into possession of, and then

It has been previously stated in the columns express the law of the electro-deposition of being unable to pass," worn shillings and of this journal that no crowns, half-crowns, or copper, or of any other metal ; besides, it sixpences. It is quite evident to all ob- fourpences have been coined at the Mint for contains a contradiction in the last two sen

servers that the rate at which new coins, of many years. It is to be. hoped, also, that no tences, beginning with,—“Given a current of these denominations especially, are issued more of either denomination will ever be a certain strength, &c.,” and in the last sen- from the Mint is by no means commensurate struck there again. There are serious objectence he says,

"Let now the current remain with the speed at which they deteriorate and tions to their existence in the family circle of the same, but let the surface be extended; wear out in circulation. The system now

British coins. The crown of nearly one then, in the same time, the same amount of practised for renewing the silver currency is, ounce weight is far too cumbrous for ordinary copper will be deposited, &c.;" and, in the indeed, ridiculously inadequate for its pur- use, and resembles a medal rather than an item last clause, he says that the deposition will pose. 'A certain sum is included yearly in of the circulating medium. Still greater is have taken place more slowly. But how the Mint estimates voted by the Éouse of the half-crown nuisance. In juxtaposition can that be, if the same amount of copper be Commons for covering the loss arising from with the florin it is fruitful of interminable deposited in the same time? Leaving this the purchase of worn coin, and the Bank an- errors.

Shopkeepers and others are contradiction, we do not agree with Professor nually withdraws from circulation and sends tinually and with great justice complaining of Guthrie that the results will be as he states, to the Mint a certain quantity of it. It con- the mistakes and losses constantly resulting taking the conditions as he assumes them,- sists nly of half-crowns, shillings, six- from the intermixture of half-crowns with First, given a certain current, and a certain pences, and fourpences, but the number of florins. The public who are not connected surface to receive the deposition, then en- defective pieces of these denominations in with trade are frequently put to inconvenilarge the receiving surface, and the amount existence at this moment forms the most ence by the same circumstance, and it is alof copper deposited will be the same in the severe commentary upon the homeopathicar- most universally conceded that either the one same time. Now, under these conditions, the rangement between the Bank and the Mint.

or the other denomination of money should amount of copper deposited would not be the The same in the same time, but larger in the we have indicated before, and which the

proper course to pursue is that which cease to exist.

No doubt the half-crown has its friends, second instance than the first, and for the fol- French Government has forestalled ours in but they are few and far between. In the lowing reason: the amount of metal de- taking, namely, the relegating at “one fell House of Lords that rather crotchety nobleposited is in all cases proportional to the swoop all old silver coins to the melting man, Lord Uverstone, has long been an advoelectro-motive force of the current in action, pots of the national money manufactory, and cate for its continuance, but until Monday and this is governed by the size of the plates supplying their places with new money week we were not aware that the half-crown in the battery, number of elements, and ex- as speedily as the Mint presses can be possessed a supporter in the House of ternal and internal resistance of circuit. If made to stamp it. The imperial decree Commons. Sir F. Ileygate on that occasion any of these be varied the result will be for effecting the needed reformation in asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer varied. Now, in the second instance, the re- France does not define what is to be under- whether “that useful coin was ultimately to ceiving plate being enlarged, the external stood by "old" coins, but, presumably, the be withdrawn from circulation.” In reply, resistance would be reduced; consequently, word applies to such as have been struck an- the hon. member was informed that “no new a stronger current of electricity would flow, terior to the reign of Napoleon III., and no half-crowus had been coined for fifteen years" and an increasing, quantity of metal would be doubt explicit instructions will be given in (we never heard that the Mint ever coinci old deposited up to the maximum power of the due season. Our own plan for effecting a ones), “ that the present supply was adequate battery which would be attained when the similar object throughout this country would to the demand, that half-crown pieces external and internal resistance of the circuit be the issuing of a Royal proclamation formed about 30 per cent. of the silver were equal. Moreover, the molecular con- making all silver coins of a date prior to that coinage,” and that there was no present dition of the metal deposited is not governed of the Queen's accession in 1837 a non-legal intention of withdrawing them from circulaexactly by the conditions the Professor sets

tion." How Mr. Ward Ilunt arrived at the forth. Assuming the same conditions, namely, * Vide MECHANICS', MAGAZINE, May 22, page 383,

conclusion that half-crowns composed 30 per

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cent. of the existing silver coinage, we are not but this article having undergone a long and done in the rear. After this round the 3-inch aware, but from official data in our own tedious improving process, has now come out iron mantlet was removed, and an examinapossession we are prepared to assert that 10 from the most severe trials a decidedly supe- tion was made, but no damage was visible in per cent. is much nearer the truth. As no rior substance to gunpowder for blasting and the proper wall of the target except where half-crowns have been stamped at the Royal mining purposes. As lately demonstrated by the 10-inch shot had gone through on the Mint for fifteen years, and many are annually us,* the safety gun cotton now manufactured previous day. Round No. 2 was a 7-inch • transformed at that place into florins and by Messrs. Prentice and Co. is absolutely Palliser shot which struck in section A (8smaller pieces, it is clear that the former are safe under ordinary conditions, merely inch plate); the shots broke away, leaving being withdrawn from circulation, whatever blazing up, and not exploding, upon ignition. the head sticking in the plate. Round No. 3 the present intention ” of the Government When, however, it is tamped weil home for was a similar shot to the last, and which may be in regard to them. It would be far work, its latent energy is fully developed. struck section on the 6-inch plate with better, however, were half-crowns extinguished On the one hand, it is safer than gunpowder, hollow stringer backing. The penetration suddenly and not allowed to die a lingering and on the other it is far more powerful. was 12ļin., the head breaking off 3in. in the death.

The presence of the element of safety is plate, and no damage being done in the rear. For the fourpenny-piece, though once a guaranteed by the fact that the North- Round No. 4 was also a 7-inch Palliser shot, popular coin, no one has a good word to say. Eastern Railway Company now carry the and which struck in section D upon the 4-inch In companionship with the threepenny-piece safety gun cotton as ordinary goods in plate with channel-iron backing. The shot it is simply detestable. It is also perishing covered waggons. We believe other rail penetrated 11fin., breaking off and leaving by instalments, instead of being put out of ways are following this sensible example, and the head in the plate. A 9-inch Palliser its misery at once. We recommend summary hope it will lead to the general adoption of shot was then fired at the 8-inch plate on the measures in regard to these three denomi- gun cotton in place of gunpowder for blast- A section, and, for the first time, the Palliser nations of coin, because their disappear- ing purposes. "For military or sporting pur- projectile buried itself in the target withance would be advantageous in all ways, poses it is not yet quite adapted, although out breaking up, about 4in. projecting and because, when transformed into shillings from experiments now being carried on, we from the base of the target. The sixth round or sixpences, a useful future would still be in hope to see it so utilized before long. We was another 9-inch shot directed at the 6-inch store for them. Convinced of the necessity will close with a note of warning to all nitro- plate with the pier at the back in section C. of such amendments of the silver coinage as glycerine users, who, with every precaution, It penetrated the target 17in., leaving, like have been advanced in this and preceding are in a far more dangerous position than the previous shot, the remainder projecting; papers, they will be persistently advocated, even with gunpowder. They may be ex- though in a shattered condition. It entered although at some risk of a charge of reitera- ceedingly careful at first, but the

very close to a bolt without injuring it, and four tion. It was a work of time to achieve the slightest deviation from the very greatest or five inches from a previous shot hole, withre-modelling of the copper coinage of the care, into which they may be betrayed by fa- out cracking, the intermediate plating. realm. Now that that work has been accom- miliarity with danger, may be attended by Another 9-inch shot struck the 6-inch plate plished, every one admits its value, and we the direst results.

and penetrated 19 in. cannot regret the time and space devoted to

The 10-inch gun, with a 60lb. powder its advocacy on the part of the MECHANICS'

charge, was then brought to bear upon the MAGAZINE.

RECENT GUNNERY EXPERIMENTS square A of the casemate. The shot went
AT SHOEBURYNESS.

through the 8-inch plate and the concrete be-
NITRO-GLYCERINE.
EFORE entering upon the details of the starting, but not splitting, a bolt which it

yond, with a total penetration of 3ft. 6in., BE A.BOYT there were kireinee Stock avantazhich

second day's firing against the War grazed along its course, and distributing by a telegram from Stockholm which office casemate, at which point we left off

, some small fragments of concrete from the announced the explosion of a nitro-glycerine in our last notice, we would draw our readers' top of the pier. Round No. 9 was another manufactory and the death of a large number attention to pages 10 and 11 of our present 10-inch shot, which struck on section C, of persons. Since that time a discreet silence number, where they will find engravings of passing through the 6-inch plate, stringers

, appears to have been observed upon the sub- the objects of attack which have been pre- and backing, and flying in two parts far out

These consist of a to sea. ject—at least, we have not seen any details of viously described by us.

It scattered fragments of iron-plate the matter, although we have looked for them. front view of the entire structure, showing over the casemate floor, shivering the wooden This reticence may be favourable to the in- the Plymouth shield, with the extra

covering screen, and pounding the concrete and bituterests of the nitro-glycerine vendors, but the plate close to and at the west or proper left

into a dense cloud. At the rear dangerous character of the compound con- side of the porthole. Beyond this comes the large piece of ziu. iron-plating for holding in tinues to advertise itself-a terrible explosion War Office casemate, covered with plates of the concrete was broken away and thrown on having taken place at the close of last week various thicknesses, as denoted by the figures the floor of the casemate. The destructive at Quenast, in Belgium. It appears that a on our illustration. We also give a sectional effect was probably heightened here by the waggon, accompanied by M. Grillet, of a plan of the entire work and two sections, one bad arrangement of the stringers, to which Hamburg firm which manufactures this dau- through the Plymouth and the other through

we referred last week, and which, had it been gerous article, brought 2,000 kilogrammes the War Office casemate.

Turning to the second day's operations result. The tenth round was a 9-inch shot,

different, would probably have modified the (4,411lb. English) to the quarries belonging to M. Zaman, where it was to be used in against the War Office casemate, which took which struck the 4-inch armour-plating in blasting operations. The people employed place on Tuesday. week, we find that the section D), completely penetrating it, breakin the works and those in the neighbourhood structure stood a vast amount of heavy ing off three 24-inch bolts, and hurling 13in. had been persuaded that this chemical pro- pounding, and was only finally placed hors de of one of them to the rear. A 10-inch shot duct was more efficacious and less dangerous combat by a 6001b. shot. It will be borne in was next fired at the edge of the porthole, than gunpowder. That it is more efficacious mind that this target was divided into six which it struck, broke into fragments, and, we admit, but that it is less dangerous we main portions, each lettered fr A to F; glancing obliquely in an easterly direction, strongly deny. The waggon arrived at the and each being constructed upon a principle toppled over a couple of 6-inch armourquarry, followed by M. Grillet, three soldiers, slightly differing from the rest. For the de- plates, temporarily fixed at the side of the and two workmen to unload it; two car- tails of these principles we refer our readers casement, and went away out to sea. The penters were working at a little distance, and to column 1, page 481, of our last number, interior brickwork of the casemate was much a young girl was close by. Suddenly a tre merely observing that the principal feature smashed about by this shot. The twelfth mendous explosion took place. The

was the introduction of Mr. Hughes' well- and final round 'was fired from the 12-inch

persons just mentioned disappeared in an instant, known hollow iron stringers. They were Woolwich gun, the heaviest in the service. having been blown to pieces, and the shock originally invented by Mr. Hughes for | The shot, which weighed 6001b., and was was felt at Loth, eight miles off. A store armour-plated ships, and have promised so propelled by 761b. of pellet powder

, was diclose by was quite destroyed, and the houses, well that the War Office resolved to test rected against the left port jamb, which had trees, and fields within a circle of 500yds them to ascertain their value for coast de- been weakened by previous shots acting on were devastated. No other lives were lost, fences. It is claimed that as a system of the surrounding portion. We need hardly but had the explosion taken place a quarter backing it is superior to the combination of

say that this heavy round swept through of an hour later, when the quarrymen had iron and wood once so popular, and that, everything, making fine dust of the concrete. assembled, the catastrophe might have been by giving a minimum of inaterial with a and clearing all before it. The shot struck much more terrible, as 700 men are employed maximum of strength, it is much cheaper in such a position that four shot holes were in the works. In the face of the terrific acci- than costlier defences not a whit more efficient. battered into one large ugly gap. The plate, dents which have taken place since the intro- Another point in its favour is that, being a which was 1in. thick, cracked across on either duction of this treacherous compound, we are thinner structure, it takes up but little room, side of the aperture, and the bottom portion much surprised to learn that any can be igno- an advantage, however, that applies more to of the severed piece of plate was forced out rant of its dangerous nature. It is evident ships than forts

. The first round tired on in proportion as the top was bulged in. The that although much improved since its first the second day's trial was a 9-inch Palliser concussion that followed this was most disintroduction, it yet remains a highly unsafe shell, which struck the 6-inch armour-plate astrous to the heavy granite bas from explosive, and one by no means to be de- with hollow stringer backing (section C). The which two immense blocks were detached, pended upon. We thought and wrote so penetration was 164in., and no damage was while numerous fissures appeared in the reonce-and more than once-of gun cotton, * MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, May 22, 1868, page 381.

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This experimental target has received thirty- Co., of Sheffield. About a month before the the Crystal Palace. Amongst the rest may two shots in its lower half, whilst the Plymouth opening of the bridge it was formally tested be noticed a working model of an aerial steam target has received twenty-two over its whole by the town council of the city of Prague. carriage, by Mr. J. Stringfellow, the whole, area. Looking generally at the results of the The test consisted in loading the footpaths including engine, boiler, water and fuel, two days'trial against the War Office structure, with bricks equal to a load of 80lb. per footweighing about 12lb.; cylinder, 1 3-16ths we find them favourable to the compound super. While this load was on, a double inch diameter; 2-ino stroke; works two backing as against the plates and bars of the line of vehicles, each loaded with four tons propellers, 21in. diameter, about 600 revoluPlymouth shield. The most telling shots of old rails, was driven on to the bridge, re- tions per minute ; gets up steam of 100lb. were those which were placed on the weakest maining there for about ten minutes. The pressure in five minutes. Mr. Thomas Moy, part of the target, which can certainly be total deflection obtained with the bricks and whose name is not unknown to our readers, strengthened by a more judicious combination the moving load was 7 in., the calculated exhibits a working model to illustrate a mode of the stringers with the plating. The use deflection having been 8in. After moving the of flying vertically, by direct action on the of concrete in such a structure has proved to loads a permanent set of fin. was registered, air, without any screw motion in the wings. be a misapplication of that material in every the test giving entire satisfaction. The bridge This model will ascend in a vertical line. He respect, and cannot be defended upon any is 820ft. long between abutments, and 32ft. also has a working model to illustrate natural principle. It possesses no resistive value, wide. The total cost was £57,000. Both in flying, the wings being used to propel and and is decidedly noxious in the wide and design and construction the bridge reflects sustain; the tail to sustain only. This model liberal dispersion of its constitutent pebbles great credit upon the engineer and all con- will fly horizontally for a short distance. Mr. when broken out by shot, or blown wide- cerned. It constitutes an ornamental feature Moy also exhibited a mariners' kite for use cast by the explosion within its mass of loaded on the river at Prague, besides being an in rough weather, to communicate from one shells. With regard to the quality of the eminently useful structure.

ship to another, or to the shore. It is plates, there can be no question of their high

rectangular, and stretched between two vercharacter, which was maintained thoughout THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF tical sticks on one horizontal stick, to which more decidedly than it ever had been pre

the loop is attached. The kite is ballasted viously. The new 10-inch and 12-inch guns

GREAT BRITAIN.

and attached to a float. It has two strings : have proved themselves too heavy for the N our notice of the opening of the Aero- one regulates its height from the float, and target, and this at once points to the necessity last week, we stated that the present was exhibited, by which one string only, or both, of adopting the maximum thickness of plate only a preliminary to a great exhibition, can at the same time be let out, held fast, or now produced, one of which-John Brown and which it is proposed to hold next year. This wound in again. Co.'s 15-inch plate-stood fire so well the week being so we must not expect to find it either

Professor Ansell sent a model illustrating before last, unbacked and nearly unsupported. very perfect in its general character, or very a proposition to omit ballast in balloon Against the 7-inch and 9-inch rifled guns this interesting in its details: There are, how- ascents. By this proposition gas would be structure possesses ample security; but more ever, some machines which show a consider- withdrawn from the balloon by an air-pump, than this is required in the present day, and able advance in the science of aeronautics, which would compress the gas into a chamber under the present conditions of artillery. whilst all bear evidence of thought and patient carried in the car when a descent becomes

Finally, with regard to the Rodman 15-inch labour, although unfortunately it has not necessary. An ascent will be obtained by smoothbore gun, we confess that its early trials always been applied in the right direction. opening a tap, and thus allowing the cominspired us with confidence. But we waited The general impression left on the mind by pressed gas to escape from the chamber by a for competitive experiments with our own the exhibits is one of incompleteness and tube into the balloon. The advantages of rifled guns to obtain a fair value of its merits. impracticableness. In some instances we this would be that the natural balance used We now have this, and find our confidence have machines very well designed for aerial by fishes would be applied to balloons, gas shaken. It is urged that the material of the flight, but which require the impossible addi- being reserved for use, instead of escaping, shot is inferior to that of our. own deadly tion of great power to sustain them in their as now obtains.

The Duke of Argyll exprojectiles. Here, then, is a chance for the fight. On the other hand, there are excel- hibited a working model, showing progressive friends of the Rodman gun to save it from lent engines light enough perhaps for practical motion by flapping action of the wings. By utter discredit. Let them cast some spherical flight, but too light for safety. All seems winding up a clockwork arrangement the shot, on the Palliser principle, and then have model and theory, and there is really very little wings Happed away beautifully, and the whole a fair stand-up fight with our 10-inch or beyond. It is, however, well that such an machine, which was suspended by grooved 12-inch rifled gun. Should it still lag behind, exhibition has taken place, as it will give wheels from a horizontal wire, made about we opine the only thing to bring it up to its each an opportunity of examining into the 12in. of progress.

But we are not at all work will be to hand it over to Major various principles presented to his notice, sure that this progress was not due to the Palliser to convert; when he has broughtit into and may eventually lead to a practical result. vertical vibratory motion of the wire. a fit state to swallow some of his chilled pro- At present, while giving all credit to our Indeed. his Grače does not imitate the jectiles, we may hope for better penetrative inventors and improvers, we have really got action of a bird's wing, to begin with, as results.

but little beyond the old Nassau balloon of we can prove, if he considers it worth while

twenty years ago-except, of course, in disputing. Mr. Shill sent an ingenious OPENING OF THE FRANZ JOSEPH theory, The balloon, “ Le Captif, ." of 1-horse power turbine injector steam engine BRIDGE AT PRAGUE.

M. Delamarne, was the only aerial vehicle weighing less than 121b. with inclined

in which the public were invited to mount vanes showing its adaptation for aerial purstruction of a new suspension bridge sentative of practical aeronautics came to Steam here injects water against the turbine, over the River Moldau, at Prague. This grief on Saturday by burning. This event and the force of impact is said to do all that bridge is built on the rigid suspension prin- is to be regretted, as it was one of the prin- can be desired. The inventor told us he had ciple of Mr. R. M. Ordish, of Westminster, cipal attractions of the exhibition, and was worked the machine, but he could not admit the application of whose system in the pro- to make ascents daily to the height of 1,000ft. that he had obtained any available power posed Albert Bridge over the Thames at On Saturday, M. Delamarne made an attempt from it. Mr. Spencer showed a flying machine Chelsea was described and illustrated by us to inflate the balloon by his new process, which, being attached to the body, enables in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE for January 13, and the arrangements were inspected by a person to take short flights. The exhibitor 1865. The Franz Joseph bridge at Prague several engineers acting upon the exhibition of this machine says he has, with less perfect has now been completed, and was formally committee and council in the interest of the apparatus, accomplished flights to the extent opened on the 21st ultimo by the Emperor public. The stupendous machine appeared of 160ft., rising from the ground by a of Austria in person. The day after the to be fully inflated in twenty minutes, and preparatory running action ; we may, thereopening, the Emperor, in an autograph letter then commenced to oscillate. Upon the fore, expect great things of the present apto the mayor of Prague, Baron Von Kellers- fourth oscillation, the heating apparatus (the paratus before the exhibition closes. perg, expressed the pleasure he felt in open-whole weight of which rested upon the car) The merits of the various machines, and ing the bridge, and observed that the city was overturned, when instantly the balloon the practicability of aerial navgiation by of Prague had chiefly to thank Ritter Von caught fire upon the south side, where it means of a flying machine, were discussed Belsky (the late mayor) for having promoted burst, then fell to the ground blazing, where on Wednesday evening at the Society of and brought this undertaking to a successful it lay and smouldered to ashes. The sym- Arts, in the Adelphi. Mr. Moy, whose plan issue. The bridge, as already observed, was pathy which was shown to H. Delamarne chiefly called forth the criticisms, gave a designed by our countryman, Mr. R. M. by those around very gratifying, mathematical description of his machine, by Ordish, on whom the Emperor has conferred and Mr. Coxwell, mounting an extemporized which he believes it possible to float the Austrian gold medal of Arts and Sciences. platform, soon collected together a good through the air at pleasure, and at a speed The resident engineer, Mr. Charles Wessely, nucleus for a subscription, which he handed of 150 miles an hour. The wings of his received the Austrian golden cross of merit

. to Mr. Brearey, honorary secretary of the apparatus he proposes to work by steam, Several other decorations were given by the Aeronautical Society, to whom we refer those with one of Field's or Jordan's engines. A Emperor on the occasion. The general con- of our readers who may wish to assist in 14-horse single cylinder engine to the ton tractors for the bridge were Messrs. Ruston and compensating M. Delamarne for his disaster. would be required, and the machine itself Co., of Pragueand Vienna; the steel links were We have said that there are a few exhibits would have two wings and a tail, each exertsupplied and erected by Messrs. Howell and which are a step in advance of the rest at lng a third of the rising and propelling power.

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He had no confidence whatever, he said, in who, from unforeseen circumstances, have but for the whole work. Our space does not the screw or balloon, and thought he should little knowledge of mathematics. We are permit, or we would willingly linger over this be able to attain any altitude, or simply skim not aware that M. Guillemin has published subject and endeavour to give our readers the surface of earth or water, just as he liked, his work with the intention of being made some idea of the gratification we have perand descend at will. In a word, he would useful in juvenile education, but from what sonally received in perusing the pages which have the same means as an eagle or albatross we have seen of it ourselves we consider it the author throws-assisted by the artistof flying to whatever spot he might select, pre-eminently qualified for that object, to so much light on. Amongst the various and to sail and steer through the air with which the excellent manner in which it is matters entered into under this heading we the same security and ease as a steamship produced, together with the copiousness and find colour, the rays of the solar spectrum; gets over the sea. Mr. Wenham (one of the beauty of its illustrations, would no doubt solar, calorific, luminous, and chemical radiafew practical disciples of Icarus) approved, contribute in a great manner.

tions ; phosphorescence, double refraction of and admitted all the data, but thought the With regard to our remarks, and also to light, polarization, and chromatic polarization, power of flight could be tested by less expen- the subjects treated of, let M. Guillemin and, finally, the eye and vision. From this sive means, and suggested that the Society speak for himself. “Gravitation, sound, book we make the following extract, which should for the present confine its attention heat, electricity, light, such are the classes introduces the chapter on colour :-" The to demonstrating that a man could fly by a un:ler which the phenomena, whose descrip- light which professors take as a type of all single pair of wings. Mr. Stringfellow en- tion is the object of this work, range them- the others from the point of view of colour is thusiastically declared that the world should selves. We do not, however, limit ourselves that of the sun. yet see that he could fly with his own machine, to a simple exposé of facts. We have en- “ The light of the sun is white. A very and this opinion seemed to be universally deavoured to grasp their intimate relations simple experiment demonstrates it. If, in held by those present. Mr. D. J. Brown | - in other terms, their laws-a task perhaps the interior of a dark room, the solar light be suggested that a better agent, because less a little arduous when we do not call to our received direct on a screen of white paper, expensive and easier of carriage, would be assistance a language so clear and so simple after it has passed through a hole pierced in liquefied gas obtained from carbonic acid, as that of mathematics. We have conceived the shutter, the image of the sun on the but this view was controverted by Mr. Ansell; and arranged this new work in the same paper, as is well known, will be a spot round and so the various features of the plan con- spirit as our work on astronomy called “The and white."'. " But this white light is not tinued to be canvassed until the time for Heavens ;' that is as much as saying that we simple. It is composed of a multitude of auljournment arrived, which was somewhat have neither had the idea nor the pretension colours or of tints which are themselves so late. And here the question rests for the of writing a course of physics. We have en- many simple colours. This fact has been present. Next week we shall have to record deavoured to remove obstacles from the path placed beyond doubt by a series of experithe awarding of the various prizes, and any of those who wish to push their studies ments varied in every form, but which, for further conclusions that may be arrived at. further; wholly, in giving to the people of the most part, are due to Newton.

the world a sufficiently clear and correct idea “Let us indicate the most conclusive. A of science.” A work given to the world with triangular prism of flint glass is placed, in

such laudable intentions would, even if un- the course of the solar rays, after their pasTHE PHENOMENA OF NATURAL

successful, command our respect. That the sage through the round hole in the shutter of PHILOSOPHY.*

volume before us carries out largely the the dark room in such a manner that its THE human mind has ever felt the im- author's pleasing language, we trust the edges are placed horizontally, and that the which regulate physical phenomena, to grasp will sufficiently prove.

one of its faces. Then you perceive upon the Nature, to seize her in her most mysterious Passing the first part on gravitation, which screen, instead of the round and white image operations ; in a word, to render itself master, contains most excellent chapters on gravity of the sun, and at a certain distance above so as to make her useful as well to the wants specific gravity, and the weight of air and of the point where it formed before the interof material life, as to those of the moral and gases-we must not omit some excellent de position of the screen, a bright elongated intellectual. Such is the noble enterprise to scriptions of barometers—we come to the streak formed of a succession of extremely which the greatest minds have devoted them- second part on “Sound,” which may be bright colours. It is this streak that is called selves."

looked upon, from the matter dealt with, and the solar spectrum.”. Amongst the illustraWe have thought that the above extract the way it is illustrated, as being second to tions upon this subject we may specially from the preface of M. Guillemin's work none in the book. Introducing the subject mention the coloured ones, that of the soap on Natural Philosophy, having formed the of the phenomena of sounds in Nature, the bubble, forming the frontispiece, being one introduction to his book, might not inaptly author remarks :-—" The absence of all sound, of the most remarkable coloured illustrations form that to our review. It is not a very of all noise, in a word, absolute silence, is we have ever seen. usual custom on our part to notice new books for us synonymous of immobility and of The remaining books are devoted to heat, that appear printed in a language other death. We are so accustomed to hear, were magnetism, electricity, and atmospheric than our own, but when we happen to have it only the noise we make ourselves, that we meteors. Under the last-named book we find before us a work on such a subject, and can with difficulty conceive the idea of a a variety of atmospheric phenomena, such as written and produced in so excellent a world completely silent and dumb, such as optical meteors, the rainbow and mirage, manner, we wish to present to our readers the moon appears to be if we believe the notions hygrometry, clouds, rain, and snow, crystals of an opportunity of indulging in a gratifica- of astronomers. The continuation of this snow and ice, electric meteors, lightning and tion in which we ourselves have already chapter is beautifully written, and the ideas thunder, and the aurora borealis. The indulged.

clothed with elegant language, which the heading is not sufficiently comprehensive, The study of natural philosophy in all its book items with throughout. Some interest- for we find subjects treated under it that branches has been one that formerly had not ing details are given of various experiments properly do not belong to that subject. that attention given to it in our educational performed for the determination of the speed Under electricity, we find frictional and establishments that so interesting and neces- of sound through air and through water and current electricity well explained, electrosary a subject required. We are glad to say other bodies. On sonorous vibrations we magnetism and induction, and an exceedingly that in this respect we are progressing, but have full explanation, and a series of most interesting chapter on the electric light as even yet there is great room for improve- interesting illustrations, giving the peculiar produced by means of ordinary friction mament, for we find this study postponed in a forms assuined by a combination of move-chines and by induction coils, and the voltaic great measure until students have advanced ments. Of the optical effects of sound we arc as produced between carbon points, by a a great deal in age. Were the subject to are treated to numerous illustrations, amongst series of voltaic elements.

We cannot pass form a part of earlier education, we doubt which we cannot but notice the peculiar effect without notice some very pretty experiments not beneficial results would follow; it is, of sound upon flames, which formed, as many on the effect produced by the discharges perhaps, in some measure owing to the fact of our readers may remember, some of the from the two coatings of Leyden jars upon a that the principal and fundamental laws of many interesting experiments shown by Pro- resinous cake peculiarly prepared, which physics depend upon mathematics for their fessor Tyndall at the Royal Institution. demonstrate the distribution of the two kinds elucidation. Now, as mathematics are, to Sound is further described in its relations to of electricities. our great regret, rarely taught in our general hearing and to the voice, the accompanying In a work of this sort, where we find so schools, except to pupils of advanced age, illustrations explaining very carefully the much to praise, it were almost invidious to the study of physics becomes naturally more physical formation of the human organs make extracts from any one part rather from ditficult. Works, therefore, that tend to the concerned.

any other. We have been content, therefore, to elucidation of natural philosophy and its The third book is devoted to “ Light," and describe generally what the book contains laws, that are not entirely dependent upon we really cannot find terms sufficiently ade- rather than dilate upon some few pages; those mathematics for their explanation, must bequate to express the manner in which the who wish to enquire inore minutely into any especially welcome, not only for the instruc- subject is elucidated, particularly as regards of the various subjects will be amply repaid tion of the young, but for those of riper and the diagrams and illustrations. The various by an investigation into the book itself. maturer age, and for those of advanced life forms of reflection and refraction, even to the Suflice it for us that the task of giving this,

explanation of the “ ghost mystery,” are care- and noticing the work, has been from begin* " Les Phenomenes de la Physique." Par AMEDEE fully set forth. Diagrams are given of the ning to end a source of great gratification and

Ouvrage illustre. achette et Cie. Boulevard Saint Germain; and French angles formed and images produced, and, in- pleasure. There is often to be heard the constant Hublishers, 18, King William-strect, Charing-cross. deed, this part alone is worth the value paid | cry of " they manage these things better in

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FOR GILDING GLASS--SIMPLE MODE OF GETTING
A COATING OF COPPER ON IRON OR STEEL.

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France;" now, as a rule, we have never held of caustic soda in 100 cubic centimeters of dis- side and rough on the other to represent the grain to that opinion, feeling sure that we can do tilled water. For the third or roducing solution and flesh sides of the leather. The addition of the things over here equally as well, but, in the two grammes of pure glucose are dissolved in 24 raw fibre with the tanned filaments is in certain propresent instance, we are bound to make cubic centimeters of distilled water and 24 cubic portions, according to the quality of the leather an exception, and record our opinion that contimeters of alcohol, and to these are added 24 required, from five to twenty per cent. can bo

This safely employed. It gives vitality to tho tanned amongst the various scientific works we have cubic centimeters commercial aldehyde. ever met with that have been published in solution must be prepared on the day on which it fibres by agglutinating them and imparting the

be . When the vessel to be gilt is albumen and gelatine which has been destroyed England, we cannot remember one that has ready, its capacity must first be ascertained, so by the tannic acid. To rendor the compressed been produced in so excellent a manner as that none of the solution need be wasted. Then leather more supple or flexible it is necessary that now before us. Whether we take the it is to be half filled with a mixture composed of occasionally to incorporate about one pint of beauty and clearness of the language, the four volumos of the gold solution (No. 1), one glycerine to a hundredweight of mass. In tho manusimplicity of the explanations, or the volume of the soda solution (No. 2), and one-six- facture of shoos, boots, and similar articles, and wondrous perfection of the illustrations, it is teonth of a volume of the reducing solution other purposes for which leather is employed, the the same. The work throughout is illustrated (No. 3). As soon as this mixture is introduced, compressed leather will become of groat importance in a hitherto unparalleled manner.

The

the globe must be moved rapidly about so that the from the fact-and we speak advisedly, having soen diagrams, descriptions, and pictures are most whole of the interior surface may be kept wet, and, some specimens--that it is less permeable than carefully done ; many of the illustrations are be given to the whole surface. As soon as this is more compact, and can be sold to the consumer at

in a very short time, a brilliant coating of gold will ordinary sole leather. It is also harder, closer, and drawn with that care and finish that we alone deposited, the excess of solution may be poured out, fifty por cont. less than the natural hide.

It is see in that special class of book, the “ gift the globe dried, and a coating of varnish applied not suited for machine bands,

or harness, but in book,” such as poetic illustrations, and so to give permanent protection to the gold." If a the manufacture of boots and shoes, espocially for forth. With regard to the coloured illustra- thicker layer of gold be desired, the process may nailed soles and heols, as also for inner solos, it is tions we can only say that they are unequalled. bo repeated two or three times—of course, before also superior to much of the materials at present We cannot close our notice without thanking any varnish is applied. When wo spoke of waste employed. On the whole, we are much pleased the author for so fully carrying out his just now, we meant of solution ; none of the gold with this invention, which is a stop in the right laudable intentions, and giving to the world need be lost

. What is not deposited upon the glass direction, and proves that in another great depart80 valuable a work. We can only regret that will be left floating in minuto flocculi in the solu- ment of economic industry the importance of it is written in French instead of in English, Incineration of the filter will, of course, give the trust that the results of the inventor's ingenuity

tion, and can easily be separated by filtration. utilizing waste matorial is fully recognized. Wo as thereby many of our countrymen are gold ready for solution in aqua rogia and another will be duly appreciatod, and that success will deprived from reading what would be at once Operation. When a flat surface or mirror is to be attend his efforts to inculcate the practical lesson to them a source of enjoyment as well as of gilded, it is only nocessary to form a shallow tray that Nature teaches us of knowing no waste. instruction.

and keop the solution in movemont as above do-
scribed.

We have already published several methods of
NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DIS- giving a thin coating of copper to iron and stoel.

THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL The following, which will not give so good a coatAPPLICATIONS.

ARCHITECTS. ing as Grager's, which we published some months

ago, may still be recommended for the oxtrome MEANS OF MAKING PAINT TO ADHERE TO ZINC—A NEW ALLOY FOR STEREOTYPE PLATES—A PROCESS iron or steel, made perfectly clean by scouring with Conduit-streot, wore thronged by those who atcase with which tho end is accomplishod. The ON Wog.nesdaktio vening best the rooms of the

Royal Institute of British , in a scratch brush, is then moistened, and powdered tended the conversazione of tho prosident, Mr. cream of tartar, dronched with a saturated solu

W. Tite, M.P. The rooms were tastofully decoadhere well to zinc, which rapidly oxidizos face with a hard brush. Tho copper covering is whilst oil paintings and water-colour drawings,

said to bo pormanent and oven. A somewhat when exposed to air and moisture ; and, as most similar process to this wo romember to have been There woro numerous objects of interest besides

architectural and otherwise, covered the walls. engineers know, galvanized iron goes very quickly in vogue somo years ago, but this is a decided tho purely architectural or artistic contributions. whon once the covering of zino has decayod. simplification.

For instance, Mr. Tite lont a collection of all the Many moans have been tried to obtain the firm

earliest editions of Shakspearo's works in single and close adherence of paint to zinc. The last

COMPRESSED LEATHER.

plays. This unique collection is almost pricoless we have met with is due to Dr. Bottgor, who pro

in its value. The books are all single plays, puhfesses to have completely succeeded. He makos

N noticing this invention, wo are actuated simply lished separately, and of the earliest date, from
IN byticdesire to place before oue readers danother lished

Several of them include what are now a solution of one part of chloride of copper, one instance in the progress of science in utilizing the considered as not being Shakspeare's own works. part of nitrate of copper, and one part of chloride refuse and waste cuttings of leather, which have Still they were published in his name and during

boon considered almost valueless, but which are his lifetime, though these antique proofs yet leave of ammonium in sixty-four parts of water and one

now being converted into a valuable article of the correct autograph of the great poet's name as part of commercial hydrochloric acid. This solu

The inventor of the compressed doubtsnl as ever, for not more than one or two tion acts as a sort of mordant. It is paid with a leather, Capt. J. H. Brown, R.N., has devoted his agree in spelling it as it is generally received at wido brush over the zinc, which immediately be- enorgios for somo years past to converting the present. In a caso close adjoining was a copy

refuso cuttings of animal hides and skins into of the “ Times' comes of a deep black colour, forming, according useful products. We remember his patent parch- years as those kept in the archivos of the " Times"

of 1793, not so old by some to the Doctor, a basic chloride of zinc, and what ment and vellum skins, which, during the excise offico, but still old enough to illustrato by comhe calls an amorphous brass. The black colour duty on paper, were brought before the Court of parison the stridos by which the “Times" has changes in the course of 12 or 24 hours to a grey, inventor objected to the impost on the grounds "the lay gospel of England.”. Exchequer as being subject to that duty. The gradually risen to be wbat it is called in France

There was also and upon this grey surface any oil paint will dry that as it was made from animal skins, and not a splendid book of illuminations from the hand and give a firmly adhering coat. Summer heat vegetable fibres, it was exempt from the duty, as of Mr. Owen Jones, and an interesting selection and winter rain will have no effect in disturbing parchment and vellum skins were. In the course of chromo-lithographic views. The band of the this covering, which affords complete protection to of the trial, sheets of the patent parchment wore Coldstream Guards enlivened the procoedings

exhibitod-some of them engrossed. The court with well-selected music, and a very agreeable the zinc.

admitted that had they not seen the specification evening was passod. A very hard alloy, fit for stereotype plates and they would have called it parchment, but being for backing up electrotypes, may, we read, bo made manufactured in a paper mill, and being reduced by melting together 500 parts of lead, 300 parts of into a fibrous pulp and fabricated into sheets in tin, and 225 parts of cadmium. It is said to be a the same manner as paper was, it came within the

THE QUEKETT MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. harder alloy, and better for the purpose than that meaning of the Act of Parliament, and therefore made bismuth, will cortainly be cheaper. was subject to duty. This had

MEETING of was held on One thing has to said against it only to this point de bie preventing the proches decis

innufacture A "Friday evening. Vabte, wat schitersity College, when remelted some of the cadmium will be for a time, but since the abolition of the paper Arthur E. Durham, Esq., F.L.S., president, in the volatilized, and thus the composition, and, to a cor-duty the works have been resumed, and in addi-chair, when thirteen new membors were elected, tain extent, the properties of the alloy, will be tion the compressed leather is being produced at ten gentlemen were proposed memborship, and changed. By a little care, however, to melt at as the Abbey Mills, Romsey, Hants.

numerous presents were announced. Several low a temperature as possible, and by adding a The modus operandi in the manufacture of the interesting communications were also roceived small quantity of cadmium, the composition may compressed leather is the roduction of cuttings or from societies on the Continent and in America. bo kept pretty uniform.

waste of shoemakers into fine filaments, cleansing A paper on tobacco was read by Mr. Archer, in A process for gilding glass in the liquid way, them, in the first place, from dirt and foreign which he entered into the particulars of tho growth, similar to that adopted for silvor, was devised some matters. In the next place, the cuttings or refuso culture, and preparation of the plant, as well as its years ago by Wernicke. It was, however, uncer- of ox and similar hides, which are generally unfit structure, constituents, manufacture, and adultoratain, and has been recently improved by Dr. to tan, and are sold to the gluo makers, are also tions, the subject being illustrated by a fine spociBottger. He makes throo solutions,—the first by reduced to a fibrous mass. These are combined men of a living plant, numerous driod samples, dissolving one grammo of gold in aqua regia, and together with water, to which is added one part and some well-oxocuted drawings. At the close of carefully evaporating so as to drive off the excess of sulphuric acid to one hundred parts of water, tho meeting the president announced that the of acid, and get as neutral a chloride of gold as until it assumes a plastic mass, when it is pressed annual general mooti of the club would be held possible. The residuo of chloride is dissolved in into moulds of tho size and thickness requirod. on July 24, and the proceedings terminated with 120 cubic centimeters of distillod water. The When dried in a steam-heated room they are a conversazione, at which a varioty of interesting socond solution is made by dissolving six grammes passed through heavy pulp rolls, gluzod on one microscopic objoets wero exhibited.

commerce.

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