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PADDLE ENGINES OF THE “BERBICE.” by means of two eccentrics, and are attached to of levers. The paddle shaft is 8ļin. diameter,

UR double page engraving this week represents the quadrants of the slide valve levers. Between tapered to Sin. diameter, having soats for whool were made by Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, of 36in. diameter and 2ft. stroke, worked from an in- The intermediate shaft is 8fin. in diameter, with Newcastle-on-Tyne. The cylinders are each 4in. termediate shaft and crank. The air pump, bucket, boarings 134in. long. The paddle wheels are each diameter and 4ft. stroke, provided with a steam trunk, and foot and delivery valve seatings, are of 18ft. diameter over rims provided with eighteon chest on either side. The slide valves are double brass. The bucket, foot, and delivery valves, are of radial floats, each 20in. broad and 6ft. 2in. long. ported and balanced on the backs. The expansion india-rubber. Each engine is provided with feed All the handles for starting, reversing, expansion, valves aro of the double beat variety, actuated and bilge pumps with rams each 6in. diameter and injection, &c., are arranged to be commanded from by means of cams. The reversing links are worked' 10in. stroke, worked from the trunnions by means 'the deck.



tion as to the performance of “oil boilers," does not cylinder-small engine, 20.5-horse power ; large Correspondence.

apply to the careful experiments made at Hackney engine, 51.38.
Wick, where every pound of oil and of water evapo We will, with your permission, now proceed to

rated was accurately measured during a five hours' show the comparative powers of the engines by the LIQUID FUEL.

trial. What has been done under a Cornish boiler, cube contents of steam used, and the quantity of OF THE - MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." and is being daily done, can clearly be repeated with water discharged through the jets, as it will show

marine boilers, if the heat-absorbent surface be a fair comparison, the water pressure being equal SIR,-We think that you will allow us to correct, properly proportioned to the fuel employed. If it be in both engines.' The small engine has a cylinby the light of Messrs. Wise, Field, and Aydon's proved that a less rate of evaporation is unavoidable der 7in. diameter, with 8in. stroke, making 115 experience, the statements made concerning what is with the same apparatus and the same fuel in the revolutions or double strokes per minute, giving known as the " Aydon " system in your article on present form of marine boilers as compared with 153-3ft. of piston, with a mean steam pressure liquid fuel on September 25. We do not propose to Cornish boilers, then we may have to reconsider the of 115lb., and water pressure of 95lb. enter into the question as to how far Mr. Richardson form of marine boilers, but the fault is clearly neither The large engine has two cylinders, each tin. succeeded or failed; it will be enough if we notice in the fuel nor in the apparatus used for burning it. diameter, with a stroke of 18in., making 58-5 the fact that the use of steam was not contemplated Yet we have no fear-without any alteration of double strokes, or 175-5ft. of each piston, mean by that gentleinan in his earlier efforts, and that not failure in showing, if not the full evaporative duty of steam pressure, 135lb. ; mean water pressure, 95lb. until he did use steam was the evaporative duty ob- the oil, namely, three times that of coal, at least such At the above speed the small engine would require tained which is referred to in your article. An error, an economy as to make it imperative that the use of 40-97 cubic feet of steam per minute, and the large which may be a clerical one, is made in the reference solid fuel should be abandoned for marine purposes. engine would require 86.65 cubic feet of steam per to Captain Selwyn's lecture, because he stated that -We are, Sir, yours, &c.,

minute; but as the pressures were different, the rethe reduction in cost of working the boiler at Hack

FRANCIS WISE & Co. lative volumes at a pressure of 115lb. would accord ney Wick was from 72s. to 5s. per day, not to 588., as Chandos Chambers, Adelphi, W.O.,

to the large engine 99.261 cubic feet of steam, or stated in your article. This apparently extraordinary

October 7.

2.422 times the quantity of steam required by the result is accounted for by the fact that the oil fuel [The error of 53s. instead of 5s. was purely clerical, small engine. now used was a refuse product of the works, and as could be seen by all who were acquainted with the In comparing the steam used and the jets projected had previously to be carted away. Yet another subject. With regard to the general question of under the same water pressure, we find that the small manufacturer at Stratford states that he is obtain accuracy, we may observe that our only object is to engine, with a jet of 11-16in. diameter, or equal to 1, ing 70-horse power at a cost of 8d. per hour, buying give correct reports of trials of new inventions. To the large engine with a jet of 14in. diameter, or equal the oil fuel.

do this we are, of course, dependent upon the facili- to 1.348, that the effective work done by the large As to the trial at Woolwich, twenty-five days-to ties afforded by inventors and others interested in engine was as 1.348 to the small 1.0, but with 2-422 which we referred in a recent letter to another such trials. In the case of the application of Messrs. times the steam used by small engine. Had the journal-aro not to be read as twenty-five consecu- Wise and Co.'s system at Lambeth, we had these work done been equal to the steam used by the large tive days, but as twenty-five timos of lighting the facilities; we saw the furnace at work, took our own engine, in comparison to the small engine jet-the fire, sometimes for two or three hours only, occa- notes, and were every way as satisfied with the proper diameter of jet should be igin.-which the sionally with coal, and at other times with oil. The results as, we take it, the inventors were with our large engine should deliver at that pressure. evaporative duty of 101b. obtained with oil as against report. In the present instance, we were made aware The theoretical discharge is given in the report that of 7jlb. with coal is regarded by all who have by the inventors of the fact that a furnace was being as-small engine, 183-5 gallons per minute ; large seen the boiler as being highly satisfactory; the re- adapted to a small marine boiler, and were promised engine, 370 gallons per minute ; but should be duction for the per contage of steam taken from the an inspection of the same when at work. The trials small engine, 209.88 ; and large, 361.9. This shows boiler has been officially ascertained, and is 8 per took place, but we had no intimation from the in- the discharge from large engine to be 1:72 times cent of the total steam generated.

ventors that we might witness them; in fact, we the small, whereas the jets give but 1-348 times. The flame did not melt lead in the chimney, which were informed, not by the inventors, that the trials Therefore, but little reliance can be placed on the it did not reach, for it never passed out of the fur- were strictly private. Seeing them, however, dis- theoretic discharge. Theoretic discharge per cwt. of nace; the waste heat, which would have been ab- cussed in other journals, we made use of such in- engine per minute, in gallons, is given, as per report sorbed had the boiler been a longer one, or had it formation as we had at command in the production --Small engine, 6.99; large engine, 7•83; which shonld been provided with return tubes, did melt lead, and of the article referred to in the above letter, and the be corrected to-small engine, 7-92; large engine, 7-66. was the only cause why the full evaporative duty of result has proved unsatisfactory. Of course, inventors Estimated horse-power per cwt. of engine, as per the oil could not be obtained in this boiler. But if have a perfect right to withhold information, and to report, is given-small engine, 0.491 ; large engine, to "give sufficient heat to the boiler" be measured carry out their experiments in any way they choose. 0.55; should be-small engine, 0.87 ; large engine, by the success in raising steam, then, notwithstand. But if they do not give the opportunity of practical 1.087. ing the disadvantage we have named, the oil fuel did investigation, they must not feel very sore if they are In the third trial, the mean steam pressure was-of generate steam sufficient for the engines at 901b. misrepresented. Our sole aim is to place before our small engine, 1251b. ; large, 1381b. Revolution of pressure, which the best hand-picked steam coals readers a truthful account of the progress of practical small engine, 126 ; double strokes, 73. Water presentirely failed to do. There is no doubt that a long science, and we should be greatly aided either by sure, 901b.; double strokes, 90lb. Mean theoretic run of heat-absorbent surface is an essential feature being allowed to see for ourselves, or (if this be not quantity in gallons, as per report-small engine, 231; in developing the full power of the oil fuel. As for permissible, as it sometimes may happen), by receiving large engine, 410 ; but should be-small engine, 231-9; ash it is an utter mistake to suppose that there is å report, upon the authority of an independent and large engine, 451.6, which gives the theoretic quanany ash made or sent off in any direction. The competent person. With regard to individuals, it tity as 1 to 1.94. The jets were-small engine, Ilin. ; liquid fuel is completely resolved into its gaseous mattters not to us whether it be Wise and Co., Rich- large engine, 1gin., or as 1 to 1.49. The steam reelements. There is no intention whatever at pre-ardson, Pinkus, or any one else; inventions and not quired for small engine was 44-89 cubic feet ; large sent of using more than one injector in each fur- inventors are all we care about, and the latter are engine, 108.853, the relative volume of which, at the nace; when two have been tried, the only result was free to discuss the priority, or other points, of their samne pressure, 1251b., would be 117.561 cubic feet, to halve the quantity of oil fuel nocessary to be used inventions amongst themselves. Only this we or 2.63 times the quantity of steam used by the small per injector.

would add: we insert Messrs. Wise's letter with engine. The effective work of the large engine, in We cannot understand what is meant by the state- pleasure, and are always glad to afford inventors the comparison with the small one, in projecting the jets, ment that "on a full supply of oil being sent in by opportunity of correcting any errors we may unwit is as 1.49 to 1 of the small engine, instead of being the injector, smoke was formed and the rate of eva- tingly fall into.-Ed. M. M.]

2.63 times as per steam used, and under these condiporation was lowered." We have Captain Selwyn's

tions, to do work equal to the small engine, should authority for saying that no such thing ever occurred.

have projected a jet of 1fin. diameter. No doubt if we had thrown oil fuel into the furnace COMPARATIVE TRIALS OF STEAM FIRE

The theoretic discharge per minute, per horsead libitum, and allowed what would not burn to run out into a trough placed in front of the fireplace as


powerestimated, is given in report-small engine, 14-26

gallons ; large engine, 14.26 gallons. This should be has been done at Woolwich Yard with another SIR,-Referring to the report of the above trials in -small engine, 10-20 gallons ; large engine, 7-04 galboiler-some such phenomenon might have occurred, your impression of the 2nd inst., may we ask the lons. The small engine delivering per horse-power, and possibly even a coal stoker might succeed in favour of the insertion of the following remarks so per minute, 3.16 gallons more than the large one. "bunging up” his furnace by a liberal use of coals. as to enable your readers to judge for themselves as From these deductions, which are correct, it will All we can say is, that such experiments are utterly to the fairness of the conclusions arrived at. be seen that our engine is equal, and, in many points, foreign to both the practice and theory of the We received the invitation to send a medium size exceed, that of its rival ; also entirely unworthy the patentees we represent.

steam fire-engine but six weeks before the time of severe comments cast upon it in the report. After With regard to the quantity of creosote obtainable, trial ; having no engine ready, we applied for more the trials we have enumerated were finished, it was Captain Selwyn has a letter from a singlo oil broker time, but this was refused. We had no alternative arranged that a trial for vertical height should take in the City who contracts to supply up to 10,000 tons but to send our small size, weighing 26?cwt. to place next morning at Earl Grey's monument. of oil at a reasonable price on demand. This is a compete with a large engine weighing 47fcwt, and this trial the small engine projected a jet 50ft. above quantity more than sufficient for the probable re- the difference is more apparent taking into considera- the monument, the top of which is 133ft. high ; quirements of the Navy, were the boiler furnaces of tion that an engine weighing 60cwt. will do three whereby the large engine could only, after trying every ship now in commission to be fitted for burn- times the work of one weighing 30cwt.; from these several sized jets, reach the top of the monument. ing it. As to the supply hereafter of a largely-in-circumstances we consider this comparative test of but we cannot understand why this is kept out of the creased demand, it may be anticipated that the dis- little value. But the report of that trial now before us report, as various comments are made in the report tillation of bituminous coal at the pit's mouth will would lead us to believe that the rosults there shown respecting the working of the steam fire-engines at form an important item in the industry of the future. are fair and conclusive. Unfortunately, in the a fire which took place the following day. Should

Mr. H. Pinkus, like others long before him (as far anxiety of the reporters to favour the large engine, Messrs. Merryweather and Sons desire à fair comback as 1811), has tried or proposed a great number we believe the report has not been got up advisedly petitive trial, with engines of equal size, we will have of methods of burning liquid fuels, which have or in concert with thoso whose signatures are at- great pleasure in meeting them to decide the question never had any practical result as regards the naval tached to it, as the following errors in the report as to whose engine gets up steam in the shortest or commercial marine, and we may briefly say that will show.

time, and does the most work, compared with weight no complicated apparatus in the furnace can ever The dimensions of the engines are in the report of machine and consumption of fuel. Apologizing stand the heat generated by the fluid hydrocarbons. correct, with the exception of our cylinder, which is for this intrusion upon your valuable space, - We are Messrs. Wise, Field, and Aydon rest their claim to 7in. instead of 71 in. diameter. This mistake is ours, Sir, yours, &c., SHANI), Masox, AND Co. the confidence of the public on practical successes being given at tho time from memory, and no opporwhich others have failed to attain ; not on any tunity being given before publication. This error originality of the idea that liquid fuel might be, and makes the report 13-horse power in our favour,

PARR AND STRONG'S PATENT. ought to be, burnt. They were the first to practically which we should deem unworthy of consideration, SIR,_With referenco to the honse recently erected demonstrate that liquid hydrocarbons really could but we think in common fairness the report should at Bickley, with our patent combination, and debe thoroughly burnt without residual products; and be made correct. In the report, the comparative scribed in last week's MAGAZINE, we beg to print out to show how an evaporation could be obtained, the powers of the engines are estimated only to half to you one or two items which require correction. very idea of which was, at the time you witnessed their powers, from their taking single strokes per Speaking of the two garden walls, 205ft. and 227ft. long the trial at Lambeth, ridiculed by authorities of high revolution, and brings the horse-power of the small respectively, the article says:The bond is mainstanding in the eyes of the public. Mr. Olrick's engine to '12-89-horse power; large engine, 25.91; tained throughout by the hoop iron straps.” Now, statement, that it is difficult to get accurate informa- whereby it should be, with the corrections for 7in. the fact is there is no hoop iron whatever in either

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of these walls; neither has hoop iron been used in the house in the usual way, but the external angles being in concrete, we have inserted iron straps to unite these piers with the hexagon walls. Where the foundations can be depended upon, this bonding at the angles is all that is necessary, for, as you say, “it is almost impossible for a hexagon wall to fail if the foundation is good, and the tubes set in cement." Where, however, bond would be required, as in the case of uncertain foundation, holes are left in the hexagon tubes, that the hoop iron may pass through the concrete filling, thus making a far more effective bond than the mere laying in the joint, as usual in brickwork. The iron standards mentioned as occasionally introduced in the 4in. garden wall, are let into concrete (not into " granite ") blocks, and the filling-in of the tubes is of concrete made with Portland cement, and not with lime.

We would take this opportunity of mentioning that we have found this system to offer many advantages not noticed in the article. Besides being drier and lighter than brickwork, it is also stronger and more quickly erected ; walls of tubes and concrete preclude waste, and the use of rubbish. Such walls are also more durable, because about 75 per cent. of external wall surface is composed of the most indestructible materials, namely, concrete faced with flint, granite, &c., whilst the remaining 25 per cent. is a burnt clay almost equal to terra cotta. For these reasons this "combination of materials is well suited for facing seaside houses, and in all damp and exposed situations ; whilst for the construction of embankments or wharf walls, we have had an opportunity of practically testing its value. Previous to commencing the house Bickley we made numerous experiments, and satisfied ourselves as to the advantages we have indicated. These experiments were officially inspected by Mr. Vulliamy, the architect to the Metropolitan Board of Works, and upon applying for permission to adopt this system within the district we immediately received the formal sanction of the Board. We are, Sir, yours, &c., 25, College-hill., E.C., PARR AND STRONG.

October 13.

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WEATHER PROGNOSTIC. SIR,--As a proof of the accuracy of the writer in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE of September 18 last, who says that the aurora is a sign of south-westerly gales, I may mention that I observed one on the evening of October 19, 1865. There was an annular eclipse of the sun near sunset on the same evening. The light was very visible, streaming off from the surface of the moon, of a slightly yellow hue. The air was clear, but loaded with vapour on the point of condensing. I infer that the light was absorbed in the upper regions before it reached the surface of the earth. As the condensation proceeded, it became refracted, as a number of concentric arches of different hues, in the N.E. horizon, from which streams diverged towards the zenith, mostly of a brilliant red or crimson hue. Those which take place in spring, during the prevalence of the N.E. wind, present the appearance of an irregular bank of light. It was followed by violent south-westerly sweep across the Atlantic to Europe. As such driving bands is also reduced. In applying thes3 gales at intervals, during the following six months. changes are due to the influence of the sun and improvements to machines of the present construcIt was also immediately followed by an increased moon, they recur in a cycle compounded of the two, tion, a small washer of flannel is placed around each coldness of the air. Taking it in connection with pre- or in about eighteen years. I am, Sir, yours, &c., spindle, and these washers bed on the lifting rail. ceding and subsequent movements of the atmo

DANIEL P. BROWNE. Above the washers is a sheet metal or other cover, sphere, I am inclined to view it as a sign of very

47, Clarence-street, Cork, October 8.

in which are tubes or grooves to convey the oil from extensive change in the magnetic condition of the

the edge of the cover to the small washers above earth. For as the spots the sun are supposed to be

referred to. By this arrangement the spindles can

THE BROOK BRACKET. caused by the influence of the planet Venus and the

be lubricated without stopping the machine, and the earth, and the perturbations in the latter are due prin SIR-I notice in your article on “ Telegraphs in washers when saturated imbibe sufficient oil to keep cipally to Venus, a corresponding reaction must be India," of Friday last, that in quoting Colonel Robin- these spindles lubricated for several days, whereas est in the distribution of light and heat on the son's report, it is stated that the bad working of the at present the spindles are generally lubricated twice surface of the earth. The period of these spots is better Indian lines was attributable to the department a day. eleven years, and the same period is assigned to being inflicted with the Brooke bracket and insu

In our engraving, fig. 1 is an elevation, partly in changes in the magnetism of the earth. The preva-lator. On behalf of Mr. W. Brooks, of Philadelphia, the section, of the spindle of an ordinary throstle spinlenco of magnetic storms, about once in the same inventor of the “ Brooks' Patent Paraffin Insulator," ning or doubling frame, and of the bolster or lifting period, is noteworthy. The phenomenon of the I beg to observe that it is not his insulator that and footstep rails, to which Mr. Taylor's improved aurora borealis and shooting stars, with accom-is referred to. I shall feel obliged by your giving mode of lubricating the spindles is applied ; fig. 2 panying meteorological disturbance, is also observed publicity to this, in your next number, as the is a plan of the same. a is the spindle ; b the flyer ; simultaneously in both hemispheres. I judge it, similarity of name may mislead many, and do Mr. c the bobbin; d the lifting rail, and e the foottherefore, to be a sign of an interchange of currents Brooks an injury, whose insulator is now being step rail, all' of which are constructed as usual ; of air between one hemisphere and the other. This almost universally adopted in America, and found to f is a small washer of flannel lying upon interchange may be going on at all seasons, but is be unequalled by any other kind.- I am, Sir, yours, ihe lifting rail and provided with a hole through more observable on some occasions than at others. &c., MATHEW GRAY, General Manager. which the spindle passes.

A band of flannel Supposing on this occasion the spots to be diminish Telegraph Works, Silvertown, Essex,

extending the whole or part of the length of th: ing, and the magnetism of the earth to be increasing,

October 3.

frame having holes through for the spindles to pass there will result an increased activity in the currents

may be used instead of the washers f. Above the moving over land and sea; aqueous vapours will be

washers f and resting upon them is the sheet metal collected in the neighbourhood, where such ocean LUBRICATING SPINDLES OF SPINNING cover g, to which are attached the spouts h, which currents unite and mix with land air, torrential


are enlarged where they project beyond the cover, rain, due to the phenomenon of absorbtion and radia

forming little dishes i, into which the oil is poured, the tropical regions of the earth, air will flow from engraving has been patented by Mr. s. G. the washers f, which are thus saturated and lubrione pole to another in the rear of these. Where Taylor, of the firm of Clare, Taylor, and Co., cate the spindles. The bobbins c rest upon the such an interchange of air takes place, the main spinners, of Tyldesley, Lancaster. It is applicable usual washer or belt i which lies upon the cover g; currents are observed to blow more uniformly, as to throstle spinning and doubling frames, and instead of on the lifting rail, as now customary: By in the case of the monsoons of India and China, and consists in an improved mode of lubricating the this arrangement the spindles can be lubricated by the circle of the Mauritius hurricanes, which precedes spindle bearings in the lifting rail, whereby pouring a little oil in each dish i without stopping these periodical winds. The influence of these both the lubricating material and the time for the machine, which effects a great saving in time, storms is propagated by changes in the temperature applying it are economized. The spindles being as at present the machine is stopped when oiling, of the ocean, to the West Indian Islands, where it more equally lubricated impart a more uniform and the oil is poured on the spindle between the gives rise to the hurricanes of St. Thomas, &c., which twist than hitherto, and the wear and tear of the , washers or belt j and the lifting rail.

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tion of this invention. In these views the parts

set running it will sound at intervals of a few seconds marked a dfg and h are similar to those already

continuously for a week if desired. described. The dish į is smaller, and projects less

A SIMULTANEOUS rifle contest has just been con

The number of inland bill stamps purchased by from the edge of the lifting rail d than in figs. 1 and cluded between Cheltenham, Marlborough, and the public advanced to 6,106,435 in the financial year 2; consequently, this arrangement is better adapted Rossall, with the following result :-Marlborough, ending with March, 1868, and the pumber of foreign for rooms where the passage between the frames is 266 points ; Rossall, 243 ; Cheltenham, 213.

bill stamps to 2,670,546. The number of penny stamps narrow. Fig. 5 is a section, and fig. 6 a plan of The advisability of abandoning Port Canning as for receipts, draughts, and other documents increased another modification of this invention, in which the a port is under consideration of the Government of to no less than 140,871,429, being nearer five than projecting dishes « are disponsed with, and the India. The Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal recom- four for every man, woman, and child in the United washers f rest upon a shallow sheet metal trough k. mends the course, and papers on the subject have Kingdom. The cover g bears upon the washers f and trough k, been published officially with a view to the question

The number of visitors to the South Kensington and in it are slot holes g placed between each pair being fully discussed.

Museum during the week ending October 10, 1868, of spindles; the oil is poured through these slots

We understand that the Secretary of State at War was--On Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, free, into the trough k, and thence it flows to the washers is about to contract for 300 iron shields. The from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., 16,596 ; on Wednesday, f. In constructing new machines the spouts h for principal manufacturers are to be called upon to tender Thursday, and Friday (admission 6d.), from 10 am. conveying the oil from the edge of the lifting rail competitively, with the understanding that each firm till 5 p.m., 2,345; total -18,941. Average of correto the washers f can be made in the lifting rail shall supply its own form of construction. This is sponding week in former years, 12,045. Total from itself, thereby dispensing with the cover.

decidedly unfair to Mr. Hughes whose shield has the opening of the Museum–7,832,719.
just carried off the palm against all others.

A MEETING of the friends of the late Parkin Jefi-
The Parliamentary return of merchant steam cock, Esq., who perished with a volunteer exploring
Legal Intelligence.

vessels registered in the United Kingdom shows party in the second explosion at the Oaks Colliery that on or before the 1st of January, 1868, there in 1866, was held in Sheffield, on Tuesday last, when

were registered 2,880 vessels of 892,429 tons regis- it was decided to proceed at once in the eraction of ADMIRALTY COURT,

tered tonnage, and 1,310,033 gross tonnage. Tower- a memorial church at Mortomley to accommodate October 13.

ing above all the others is the "Great Eastern,” with 260 persons. The very satisfactory plans of Mr. (Before MR. REGISTRAR ROTHERY).

its dimensions of 679ft. by nearly 83ft., its engines Butterfield were approved by the committee, and

of 2,660-horse power, and its gross tonnage 18,916 with a considerable sum already in hand, it was doGREAT EASTERN."

tons. Several other vessels have engines of 1,000-cided to proceed in collecting the full amount reIn this case a suit had been commenced at the in-horse power or more.

quired, which is about £2900, stance of the Liverpool Steam Tug Company,

A LIBEL has been filed in the United States A CAREFUL census has been recently taken, of claiming upwards of £400, and no petition had District Court, New York, against Mr. John Laird, which the object has been to estimate the amount of been filed. Recently, an application had been Oushing and Willjam Cushing, of Newburyport, land. The “ British Medical Journal” states that in

jun., as builder of the “ Alabama," by John N. cretinism in the valleys and mountains of Switzermade for the release of the vessel from the custody owners of the ship " Sonora," claiming to recover the nineteen cantons there were found 3,431 cases of of Mr. Evan Jones, the marshal, in respect of a 119,000 dollars damages for the destruction of the cretinism, and 6,258 cases of insanity; and as the pop!!claim exceeding £30,000, and the Court directed ship by the “ Alabama” in December, 1863. The lation of the country amounts to 2,032,119 inhabithe removal from Liverpool to Sheerness on policies libel alleges that the "Alabama" was fitted out by tants, it follows that these 10,058 persons of weak being effected for £36,000. Instead of policies, Mr. Laird, in violation of law, for the purpose of mind give the enormous proportion of one mentally bail had been put in for the amount mentioned, preying upon American commerce, and that he is diseased person in 202 inhabitants; and even this is and the ship was at Shearness to take on board the liable to the libelants for the damages. An order believed to be below the truth. now cable. The plaintiffs in the suit by the Liver- for an attachment was issued on application of A MISSISSIPPI newspaper gives this pointed dopool Steam Tug Company had entered a caveat, the libelants' proctor, on the 23rd ult., and it is stated cription of the difference between a " scalawag " and

a carpet-bagger," two classes now frequently heard and the present application was on the part of that funds of Mr. Laird's have boen attached by it. the ship, that the suit which had been pending so Infantry is carrying out a change of accoutrements Northern thief who comes South to plunder every

The Woolwich division of the Royal Marine Light of in American politics. The carpet-bagger is a long should be dismissed on tho ground that no consequent upon the Snider rifle being issued to every white man who is a gentleman of any property petition had been filed.

that force. A plain peat waist-belt with an improved or respectability, and get all the offices he can. The On the part of the plaintiffs, it was stated that ammunition pouch, which can be put on or taken off scalawag is a Southern-born scoundrel, who will do the case had been before counsel to consider as required, supersedes the old cross belt. The cross all the carpet-bagger will, and, besides, murder the whether the suits should be consolidated, or belt, which had the clumsy ammunition pouch at- carpet-bagger for the gutta-percha ring his sister whether a petition should be filed by the plaintiffs. tached to it, is to be entirely done away with, and gave him when he loft home. Counsel had just returned to town, and the poti- percussion caps being no longer required with the The reported sinking of the south-eastern shore tion would be prepared,

Snider, the cap pouch forms no part of the new of Hawaii is confirmed. The same occurrence was It was urged in support of the application to accoutrements.

observed at Port Hilo. The subsidence at Hawaii dismiss the sait that on the last motion day the Dyer's pattern are to undergo an important altera- from six to seven feet, while at Hilo the greatest

The existing stores of C percussion fuzes of in some places was from three to four and in others Court had ordered a petition to be filed, and up to tion, in order to prevent their liability to premature subsidence noticed was eight inches. Advices to the the present time no petition had been filed. It explosion. The alteration consists in the insertion 5th of September state that in Hilo, Pura, and Kanwas, therefore, a cause which should be dismissed.

of a lead cup between the pellet and the bottom of the froll one to five earthquakes occurred daily. ConThe learned Registrar thought it was a case in fuze, and is to be applied to all fuzes of the nature siderable smoke was arising from Kilanan, though which the plaintiffs should pay the costs of the in question in store, and in possession of the Royal but little fire was visible. Oscillations of the sea at application and be directed to file a petition in a Artillery at the various stations at home and abroad. Hilo on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of August were week; othorwise the suit to be dismissed, with A eode of instructions for effecting the alterations remarkable. For three days the sea rose and fell

has been approved and promulgated for general in- from three to four feet every ten minutes. After a discussion, an order was made as formation.

A BRISTOL journal records the death, on Monday suggested. It was drawn up by Mr. Registrar

night, of Dr. W. D. Herapath, at his residence, Rothery.

Manor House, St. Michael's, Bristol. Dr. Herapath Lliscellanea.

was a man of high attainments, and, like his father,

was celebrated for his analytical skill. He was taken Pleeting for the week. As many as 1,127 persons died from snake bite in ill about a week ago, and though he had been Oude last year.

attended by most of the principal medical gentlemen Mon.--Society of Engineors.--Discussion on the paper on the "Screw Propeller," read on the 5th inst, by in different parts of Cornwall during the past week. Four woodcocks are reported to have been shot skill could suggest, yet their efforts proved fruitless.

of the city, and everything had been done that their Arthur Rigg, Esq., jun., at 7.30 p.m. THE eruption of Mount Vesuvius is increasing in

The cause of death was jaundice. The deceased was intensity; the flow of lava is more copious, and the



dynamic action of the cone more vigorous.

ANOTHER important Oriental railway project, that TAE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to subscribers 27,892,769 newspaper stamps were issued from the have been arranged. The Turkish Government has

In the financial year ending March 31, 1868, of connecting the East with the West, is stated to of kl 18. 8d, yearly, or 108, 10d. half-yearly payablo in Stamp Office, giving free transmission of newspapers granted a concession for the construction of a new by post in the United Kingdom.

line to an Anglo-Belgian company, of which Count All literary communications should be addressed to the

The number of visitors to the Patent Office Zichy, Austrian Privy Councillor, is the president. Editor of the MECHANICS MAGAZINE: Letters relating to Museum, South Kensington, for the week ending The route of this line will be from Constantinople, dressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles, MECHANIOS' MAGA- October 10, was 5,776. Total number since the via Adrianople and Nissa, to Belgrade on the one ZINE Office, 166, Fleet-street, London,

opening of the Museum, free daily (12th May, 1858), side, and on the other from Constantinople to Varna, To insure insertion in the following number, advertise1,408,927.

joining tho projected trunk line from Bucharest ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on

The present price or wheat is two-thirds what it and Jassey and Suczawa to the Lemberg-Czernowitz Thursday evening.

was last year at this period. The weight of a sack Railway. The Austrian Government, it is said, We must absolutely decline attending to any communi. of wheat of this year's growth is 301b. above the regards the construction of this new line, both from cations unaccompanied by the name and address of the average, and owing to the quantity of flour it yields, a political and commercial point of view, with great writer, not necessarily for ipsertion, but as a proof of good tho millers are netting £4 a load in addition to their favour. ordinary profits.

The ploughing matches in connection with the Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGA. MESSRS. PEACOCK AND BUCHIN, the well known Peterborough Agricultural Society took place on ZINE, at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inser inventors and manufacturers of successful composi- Wednesday week on Mr. Little's farm. The soaking tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists tion for ships' bottoms, have been awarded a silver rain of the previous days made the land very sticky of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same rate and a bronze medal by the jurors of the Royal and difficult to work, and only the most improved 18 type. Special arrangements made for large advertise- Havre Exhibition. The prizes will be distributed by ploughs could clear themselves of the soil. No less T. T. (Sheffield). If you will inform us what instruthe Empress on the 26th instant.

than forty-seven teams competed in the various ments are used, the length of circuit, and description Art, Science, and Literature, which was established field was won by Mr. Goodyear with one of Ran

The ninth session of the Crystal Palace School of classes. The prize for the best work in the whole battery, we can probably help you out of your difficulty. SUBSCRIBER (Preston) should apply for the particulars valuable resources of the Crystal Palace for educa- offered to farmers or their sons over 21 years of age.

by the directors for the purpose of utilizing the some's prize ploughs, as was also the silver cup he requires to the Secretary of the Admiralty, Whitehall. tional purposes, commenced yesterday, when the The work in this class was considered most excel,

RECEIVED.-0. G. W.-D. P. B.-J. H.-D. and B.- lectures and various ladies' classes were resumed.
W.P. W.-J.T.-W.J. A.-R. S.-J. A.-W.R.-J.P.-

lent. During the past week, Messrs. Ransomes' J. G, W.-W. C. and Co.-J. D.-W. J.-T. T.-F. 0.

An American has invented an advertising bell to ploughs won five matches, open without any restricJ: H. J.--S. K.-F. W. B.-H. M. T.-G. J. G. -R.T:- be attached to bulletin boards, walls, fences, and so tion to all England, whilst in two single days local 4. W. H.-A. J.-S. W.-J. F. B.-G. E. P.-W. D.forth, to attract attention to the advertisements ploughmen won upwards of £53 in prizes with the M.G.-C.C.J.-E.R.B.-R. A.S.-J. N.

pasted thercon. It is operated by a coiled spring same makers' implements.




Pateuts for Juventious,

plumbago, and gum. Fourth, a mixture of nitrate of silver, ascertaining temperature. The details of the invention plumbago, resin, and fat or paraffin.---Patent abandoned. are voluminous.---Patent abandoned.

978 G. F. GUY, Bury St. Edmund's. Suffolk. Manufae 985 A. V. NEWTON, Chancery-lane. Thrashing machines. ture of sugar, &c. Dated March 23, 1868.

(A communication) Dated March 23, 1868. The patentee claims, first, the cooking of the roots of This invention is not described apart from the drawings.

the beet by steam or otherwise before expressing the Patent completed. ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF

juice therefrom. Second, forming the pulp from which
the juice has been expressed into cakes, and desiccating it Brixton, Surrey. Holders for lamp shades or glasses. Dated

986 H. TREVERTON, Smithfield, and E. H, FOWLER,
in order to its preservation.--Patent completed.

March 23, 1868. THE Abridged Specifications of Patents given below are

979 C. LEROY, Paris. Grease cups or apparatus for lubri The object here is to construct the frame or holder in classified, according to the subject to which the respective

such a manner that the glasses or shades may be divided inventions refer, in the following table. By the system cating machinery. Dated March 23, 1868. of classification adopted, the numerical and chronological

This invention relates to grease boxes or cups whose into sections or plates of suitable form and convenient order of the specificatious is preserved and combined with lubricating medium is not liquid, such cups or boxes being size, which may be placed in the frame in which, ir all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be

constructed either of metal, crystal, or glass, which latter desired, they may be held without the necessity of using understood that these abridgments are prepared exclu

admit of seeing the working of the apparatus without the springs or catches.-Patent abandoned. sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by necessity of taking it to piecus, and consists, first, in the

987 J. S. FARMER, Kilburn, London. Transmitting the Government, and are, therefore, the property of the application to the cups above mentioned of a piston with Proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby stamped leather working in the body of the box, and signals betroeen the parts of a railway train. Dated March 24,

1868. warned not to produce them without an acknowledg, without causing a vacuum in the interior; and, second, in employs a horizontally vibrating V-frame or lever of furnished with a leather valve admitting air into the body,

According to one part of this invention, the inventor ment:

the adaptation of a spring of some kind of a counterpoise, suitabile shape, having one end mounted on a stud BOILERS AND FURNACES—990, 1020, 1039, 1047 BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS—1016, 1088, 1045, piston for compressing the grease employed for lubricating near to the inner edge of one of the rails that, when

80 regulated as to exercise a constant pressure on the Axed upon a sleeper or block, and placed sufficiently 1061 CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY-983, 1050 -Patent completed.

the arm is so inclined that its outer end or the point CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural imple

980_A. W. RAMSCAR, Gray's Inn-road, and F. W. WIL- thereof is in contact with or near to the rail, there ments and machines-985, 1004, 1037

SON, Edgware-road, Middlesex. Breech-loading firearms, de. is sufficient space between the outer end and the rail ELECTRICAL APPARATUS—1026 Dated March 23, 1868.

to allow of the pendant end of a rod or bar from the FIBROUS FABRICS, including machinery for treating Abre,

The first part of this invention relates to improvements under side of a carriage, brake-van, or engine to enter pulp, paper, &c.-974, 1000, 1010, 1011, 1018, 1019, 1021, ) in breech-loading firearms. The inventors make the between them, and, by coming in contact with the inclined 1022, 1033, 1042, 1044, 1051, 1060

breech end of the barrel open at the rear for the insertion face of the vibrating frame or lever, to change its position, FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including the apparatus for pre- of the cartridge, and close it by means of a quadrant- and cause it to move through a limited arc, whereby the paring food for men and animals-978, 1080, 1048, 1063

shapod plate pivoted below the breech, and working other inclined face or outer arm of the vibrating frame or FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils

transversely in a recess made therein at oue side. In lever is made to present a still greater angle with one or time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c

order to load the gun, the plate is drawn outwards to one both of the rails, and, in doing so, it will be set in a posi999, 1036, 1043

side of the gun by partially rotating it on its axis by tion to come in contact with any projection from the under GENERAL MACHINERY-975, 979, 998, 1005, 1007, 1008,

means of a thumb-piece with which it is provided in con side of guard's van or other carriage where it has been 1009, 1012, 1015, 1027, 1028, 1029, 1032, 1040, 1053, 1058 venient position to be acted on by the hand, when the suitably arranged and disposed for the purpose of receiving LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING—976, 986, 988

barrel will be opened at the rear, and the cartridge may the signal.-Patent abandoned. METALS, including apparatus for their manufacture

then be inserted. The quadrant plate is then pressed
backwards, so as to enclose the cartridge, and close the

989 H, BURGESS, Battle, Sussex. 994, 996, 1025

Rails for railways and SCELLANEOUS 977, 981, 984, 989, 993, 1001, 1002, 1003, rear end of the barrel, a projection on the said plate tramways. Dated March 24, 1868. .006, 1017, 1031, 1011, 1049, 1055, 1057, 1062

This invention consists in certain improvements in the taking into a slot made in the opposite side of the breech. ADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and carA catch is further provided on this plate engaging with a

construction of rails for railways and tramways. whereby iages, saddlery, and harness, &c.-987, 992, 995, 1013 recess in the breech, so as to hold it in place when shut. greater strength is obtained in the junction thereof, whilst HIPS AND BOATs, including their fittings-997, 1059 At the lower part of the quadrant plate is pivoted an arm, they are rendered more capable of bearing the pressure STEAM ENGINES—982, 991, 1011, 1033, 1034, 1035, 1046, 1052, the end of which is wedge-shaped, and works in a slot in and strain to which they are subjected than rails as ordi1056

the opposite side of the breech to that of the plate. Upon parily constructed. The ends of the rails are respectively WARFARE—980, 1024, 1054

pulling the plate outwards, as before mentioned, for the formed with a step or steps arranged in an oblique line, purpose of opening the breech, the wedge-shaped nose or

80 that, when two rails are placed end to end for the pur971 T. POPE, Twickenham, Braces. (A communica- and engagos with an inclined slot formed in the under other. The rails thus connected are further secured by

end of the arm is projected from the side of the breech, poses of connection, the steps fit into or overlap each tion.) Dated March 23, 1868. The object here is to combine shoulder braces or straps hall cock (the hammer being cocked by motion in a side of the hammer, the effect of which is to lower it to being " fished” in the manner well known. --Patent aban.

doned. and suspenders in such a manner that while the panta- downward direction.) The gun being loaded, the breech 990 W. E. GEDGE, Wellington-street, Strand, Smoke loons or other garments are thereby securely supported, is closed by returning the plate to its position, as above consuming fireplace or furnace. (A communication.) Dated the chest of the wearer is thrown forward, and the body described, which withdraws the projecting wedge, and March 24, 1868. caused to assume a perpendicular position-Patent com- permits of the hammer being lowered to full cock by hand. pleted.

This invention, consists, essentially, of a case intended The gun may then be discharged in the usual way, pro- to be filled with coal, and presenting at its lower part an 972 W. R. LAKE, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane. vided the breech be completely closed, otherwise the opening by which escape the gases drawn by the chimney: Metal lies or bands." (A communication.) Dated March 23, wedge-shaped nose over which the hammer passos in In order that the fireplace may be smoke-consuming, it is 1868.

cocking would project from the side of the breech, and necessary that this opening be lower than the layer of This invention is not described apart from the drawings. prevent the rise of the hammer for the discharge of the burning coal. The invention is not described apart from -Patent completed.

cartridge. The second part of the invention relates to the the drawings.- Patent completed. 973 S. HOLMES, High Holborn, Lamps. Dated March 23, arms above described. The cartridges resemble what cartridges for use with the improved breech-loading fire

991 W. R. BOOTHBY, Adelaide, S. Australia. Mechanism 1868. This invention comprises, first, apparatus to ensure by a tube of similar size closed at the outer end, and comare known as pin cartridges, but the pin is replaced to produce rotary molion in engines. Dated March 24, 1868.

From a point on the surface of a cylinder or drum of perfect safety from explosion or risk by fire in lamps mencing at the other with the charge of the cartridges threads are cut at a pitch equal, or nearly so, to the cir

hard metal, right and left-handed grooves, worms, or burning oils and spirits, by insulating the parts of such lamps which are liable to become heated from all con- ignited, the ordinary cap within the cartridge being dis- cumference of the cylinder, the length of the grooves, nection with the fittings of the vase of the lamp containing pensed with. The cartridge is introduced at the open end or the distance between the points of their intersection, the oil or spirit by surrounding the wick tube, or other heated parts, with a cylindrical or other shaped recess

of the barrel, as before mentioned, the tubular pin being being equal to one half the pitch. The ends of the grooves received in the slot made in the side of the breech for its

or threads are rounded off as they approach their points filled with air, or other non-conductor of heat, of such reception, so as to slightly project. In this manner the

of intersection. This cylinder ha eft through it, to length as to reach to the bottom of the lamp, so that the hammer, when rising, strikes the pin or tube, whereby it which it is firmly fixed, the shaft being free to resolve in supply of oil for barning is taken from the bottom of the is compressed against a small anvil or projection formed thrust blocks at each end of the cylinder: At an angle of vase of the lamp at all times during the burning of the lamp, while all lateral passage of hoat is provented by contained in the tube, and so effect the discharge of the shaft, two planed sides with steel faces are placed ; within interruption of conductive continuity. Second, the inven- cartridge. -Patent abandoned.

these slides are sliding blocks with axles through them, tion consists in improvements in mechanical arrange

which point through the grooves of the cylinder towards ments for regulating and extinguishing such lamps as

981 W. R. LAKE, Southampton-buildings, Chancery: the centre of the shaft, and have stoel rollers on them free

lane. burn materials in a state of vapour generated by their own

Metal ties or bands. (A communication). Dated to work in the grooves of the cylinder; opposite the ends heat in burning.-Patent completed.

March 23, 1868.
This invention is not described apart from the drawings. piston rods firmly fixed into the sliding blocks, the ono

of the slides are placed cylinders with the ends of their 974 C. JE. BROOMAN, Fleet-street, City. Machinery for -Patent completed. the manufacture of lace.' (A communication.) Dated March

being at full power, or half way down one groove and

982 C. DE BERGUE, Strand. Locomotive engines. Dated slide when the other is at either end. Steam or other 23, 1868.

March 23, 1868. This inventiou has reference to a previous patent granted

medium of power is admitted to act on either side of the

These improvements in locomotive engines consist in piston by means of a smaller screw or cylinder with grooves to R. A. Brooman, bearing date April 19, 1865 (No. 1087.) constructing them with a pair of rocking shafts in line placed on the end of the shafts nearest the cylinders, and According to this invention, certain inconveniences which

one with tho other with lever arins thereon, driven from having friction rollers working in the grooves attached to occurred in the carrying out of the former patent are the direct action of the steam cylinders, and with other the ends of levers connected with the valve spindles. This removed by causing the thread to issue at the centre of the carriage, and keeping it separated between two points, necting rods, and through these directly or indirectly to

lever arms thereon delivering the so received power to con- smaller screw is free to revolve on the shaft through half which necessarily insures the raising of the twists as they the engine wheels, and in addition to, or instead of, the distance, the motion of the engine is reversed. With a fly

a revolution, so that, by turning the same through that are produced by the warp thread at the right or at the engine wheels delivering the power received by the firstly wheel the engine may be worked equally well with one left of the carriage.-Patent abandoned.

mentioned lever arms to suitably fexible or jointed con- piston and sliding block.--Patent abandoned. 975 H, PAULUS, Paris. Pile driving engine with modin- necting or driving rods for transmitting power. The able length of stroke of the ram. Dated March 23, 1869. second improvement consists in constructing the tender

992 T. W. FULLER, Leamington. Carriages. Dated

March 24, 1868. This improved pile driving engine or rammer works and carriages (either, or some, or all) with a continuous without any loss of time for bringing down the catching system of dexible or jointed reciprocating connecting or buses or other close carriages provided with roof scats,

The patentee claims forming at the front end of omnihook, which usually carries up the ram or monkey. The driving rods for transmitting to them the power they inventor altogether does away with such hook, and carries

a door opening inwards, and forming at the front of the up the ram by an endless chain, each link of which is otherwise, and with rocking shafts with lover arnis upon carriago a series of steps, the said door and steps, and the capable of catching the point of a H-shaped sliding bolt, them for receiving motion from the said driving rods, and roof seats over the said door, being constructed and

described and illustrated,

arranged substantially as suitably arranged for that purpose on the top of the ram directly the said ram has given its stroke.- Patent aban- driving the wheels of the tender and carriagos (either, or whereby ladies or other persons may ascend to the root some, or all), and so converting them into driving wheels.

seats from the interior of the omnibus or carriage.-Patent 976 J. BRONXER, Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Germany. -Patent completed.

completed. Construction of gas burners. Dated March 23, 1868.

938 E. VIGNIER, Fowkes-buildings, London. Distilling watches, chronometers, and clocks.

998 C. D. ABEL, Southampton-buildings, Ohancery-lane. The patentee claims, first, the exclusive use of a slit and reclifying spirits. Dated March 23, 1868.

(A communication.) as aperture to a gas burner, the top exterior surface of the In carrying out this invention, the inventor proposes to Dated March 24, 1868. head of which is concave or funnel-shaped, substantially filter the wash or liquor before it enters the still for the

This invention has for its object to prolong the action of as and for the purposes set forth. Second, the combina- purpose of removing impurities therefrom, and he makes watches, chronometers, and clocks, so as to cause them to tion of two gas burners thus made; in other words, of two the said filter in two parts, so that the one shall be in go eighteen or twenty days without having to be wound fish-tail slit burners to form a compound economic or action whilst the other is being cleaned by passing steam up. For this purpose the ordinary spring and barrel are double burner, or of one such fish-tail slit burner with an therethrough, which extracts the alcohol. The details of dispensed with, and are replaced by two spiral springs ordinary burner, substantially as described. Third, the the invention are voluminous.-Patent abandoned.

without barrels, situated in recesses formed in the pallet use of the fish-tail slit burner bead or insertion constructed

plate of the watch, chronometer, or clock. These springs and applied substantially as set forth.-Patent completed.

984 A. BARCLAY, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. Barometers and are fixed at their outer ends, while the inner ends are thermometers. Dated March 23, 1868.

attached to spindles, to which they impart their motion 977 C. M.DERMOTT, Devereux-court, London. Indelible The essential object of the first part of this invention when wound up, acting, therefore, in a contrary manner pencil for marking linen, dc. Dated March 23, 1868. consists in combining a barometer with an ordinary to the ordinary spring barrel. The spindles are connected

The inventor has four methods of producing this inde-pocket watch. The two instruments so combined show to two toothed wheels by means of spring pawls carried by lible pencil. First, he takes a mixture of nitrate of silver, the dial of the watch on one side of the case, and the dial the latter in gear with ratchet wheels fixed on the former, sulphate of baryta, plumbago, and gum. Second, a mix of the barometer on the opposite side, or one dial may be which toothed wheels are in gear with each other, while ture of nitrate of silver, fuller's earth, plumbago, and gum. arranged for both purposes on one side of the instrument. one of them is at the same time made to actuate the Third, a mixture of nitrate of silver, nitrate of lead, The second part of the invention relates to the arrange minute wheels and escapement of the watch or clock, by alumina or pipeclay, or any other clay or clayey substance,"ment and construction of instruments to be employed for which means both springs are made to act in union upon

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