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tutes asphalte if the distillation be carried to a that it was also seen at Havre and Rouen. But that the body appears incomparably larger than it sufficient extent.

the most graphic account of this visitor is given really is. The light oils on rectification can be made to by a writer in “Le Petit Journal" of the 8th in Have you heard any detonation ?-Not more produco a still greater portion of heavy oil and stant, and of whose article we givo tho following this time than at others. crude naphtha. The heavy oils contain a number translation :

-Yesterday, about midnight, the late However, my cousin Bernard told me that ho of hydrocarbons of high boiling point. If the crude retirers of Paris were witnesses of one of those had heard two deafening reports, as those of a disnaphtha be agitated, the supernatant liquid on magnificent phenomena of which we often read. tant cannon - Another illusion. I never havo rectification gives rise to highly rectified naphtha, We refer to those celestial bodies that approach hoard anything of the kind. containing at least four or five oils, with specific very near us, and to which we give the name of You singularly upset my ideas, or, rather, the gravities ranging from •860 to 890, and with metoors. We have long known that these bodies universally accepted notions on the subject ?-I boiling points from 149deg, to 392deg. Fah. are strangers to the earth, that they come agree with you in that. The watery liquids produced in the condenser from space, and when thoy thus approach it near Have you soen onough to be able to affirm so during the manufacture of gas are employed for enough in their rapid transit through the atmo much of them ?- This is my 377th observation. the production of sulphate and chloride of ammo- sphere, their friction against the air is sufficient to But perhaps they have never passed near enough nium by a process of concentrating, crystallizing, heat them, or melt, or inflame, or even volatilize to you to be enabled to hear the reports ?-I have and sublimating the crystals.

them, so that on departing they leave behind them boon as near as possible. The retorts at the Ardsley Works, fifty in num a long train of luminosity, analogous to that of an Then you ought to have heard some sounds, or, in ber, are of an oval form, as shown in the elevation, enormous fusoe, and shedding a vivid light which a word, have had some debris of them ?-Never. fig. 3, and in plan in fig. 4. They are arranged in has often been compared to that of the moon. In Oh, but you joke ?-Me! not at all. I do not two sets of twenty-five each. Each retort weighs such of these bodies as have fallen on the face of deny that there have been showers of stones ; but about 2 or 3 tons, and contains from 10 to 15cwt. the earth we find no foreign substances. The I have never proved the phenomenon during the of coal, according to the nature of the material luminous train, or "sillage," enables us to know pretended fall of a meteor. I have read descripwith which they are charged. For condensing the the direction of their movement in a very exact tions describing the explosion of a meteor and the products of distillation after passing from the manner. Thus we ascertain that they move in a descent of showers of stones. I have always seen retorts, cast-iron pipes are extended along the wall direction nearly horizontal, that they have a velo- the meteors continue their course, and have not resting on brackets, as represented in the end city of twenty or thirty kilometres per second, seen them descend. elevation, fig. 5.

or 1,000 times greater speed than an express train. Do you believe, then, that those you saw The crude oil when received from the retorts is It is a velocity only comparable with the move: reduced to gas in the atmosphere, whilst others pumped, by means of the engine (which is repre- ments of celestial bodies. When they explode and were at a luminescent temperature ?—I do not sented in the plan), into the stills, which are burst into a shower of stones, it is with a noise know; only I consider the meteors and the showers shown in elevation in fig. 2, and in plan in fig. 1. analogous to that of a cannon or a peal of thunder. of stones are distinct phenomena. These stills, three in number, each have a capacity The stones are projected over å surface often This is beyond the subject ?-I tell you what I of 1,500 ga ns. A small fire is placed under tho larger than that of Paris. The number of these have seen only; I don't pretend to estimate their stills, but the chief part of the heat is communi- stones perhaps is many thousands, and their weight velocity, nor their height or movement. cated to the body of the oil by means of super- is often considerable.

Yes, but this is with reserve; the number apheated steam. A wrought-iron pipe is made to To see those bodies well the night is necessary, proximate has been given?—This is, again, much conduct the steam through the top of the still. but they are to be seen at all hours of the day and unauthonticated. It has not been ascertained. The pipe is carried nearly to the bottom, where it all periods of the year. To cite examples this Enough for to-day. I am afraid of too much forms a coil, which is perforated with small holes ; yoar. On the 30th January last, at seven o'clock in influence from your theories. Au revoir, and thank steam is thus blown into the body of the oil, heat- the evening, in the environs of Varsovie, a globe you. ing it thoroughly, and at the same time obviating of fire was seen of the apparent magnitude of the the necessity of employing a very fierce fire moon. It left behind it a pale train of light; the beneath the still, which would otherwise bo re- luminosity surpassed that of the moon, and it THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION. quired to make the heat penetrate sufficiently, passed successively in colour from bluish greon to danger, and also producing a great deal of coking. por second. After two extremely loud explosions which is found to give great pleasure and delight harger, and is exposing in the cast-iron vessel to deep red. The velocity was about fifty kilometres The Road Polytechnic, Regent:street, has comThe coil of pipe is represented by dotted lines in it terminated in a series of smaller ones, com- to all. Neither expense nor trouble seem to be the engraving, and communicates with a super- parable only to the fire of a file of well-trained spared to give value received for the price charged heater placed over a small fire-grate between the soldiers, and a whistling was heard, owing to the for admission, in the shape of instruction and stills, an end view of which appears in the rapid transit of the stones in the air. These

amusement; wonder is excited at the mechanical elevation.

stones were distributed on a surface of about six- ingenuity displayed in the automatic Leotard. The superheater consists of a coil or serpentine toon square kilogrammes; their number was many The late observations of the eclipse of the sun are pipe, on which is cast a block of iron. The block thousands. is maintained at a rod heat, and the steam made to On February 29, about half-past ten in the explained by Professor Pepper, while Mr. King

beautifully shown from photograph, and clearly pass through it on its way from the boiler to the morning, there was heard in soveral localities of gives an interesting lecture on some of the most still. This is a very valuable contrivance, effecting the arrondissement of Cassalo, Piedmont, a loud remarkable phenomena of nature, accompanied by its object as it does in such a simple manner. The detonation, which could only compare with the dis- dissolving views of a cast-iron block protects the steam pipe within it, charge of a piece of artillery, or the explosion of a Amusement is secured by the semi-theatrical re

very superior character. rendering the superheater exceedingly durable. mine. It was followed by many other detonations The amount of water introduced into the oil by resembling the rattling of distant musketry. - Maid of Orleans," which affords an opportunity

presentation of the “ Spectre Barber” and the the condensation of the superheated steam is While these disturbances were lasting, at a consi- of displaying the extraordinary optical illusions, inconsiderable, and is readily separated. The dis- derable height, a mass of irregular form was seon while the whole is accompanied by the latest modern tilled oil is collected in a tank from a coil laid in enveloped in smoke. At the same instant, a shower wonder, the electric organ. The performance by a cistern of cold water in the usual way. The of grains of sand and of stones fell on the ground, Herr Schalkenbach is excellent. The organ being retorts are all cast on the end, and the stills with but only a small number of fragments were found, placed in the roof, the performer is seated on the the bottoms down, which is the only mode of cast- the greater part having penetrated the earth at a ing that can be relied on for the purposes to which great depth, more or less owing to their great ve- instrument as any ordinary performer. The per

stage, and has the same power and control over the they are applied. The mode of casting the stills locity in striking the ground.

formances are a thorough success, and do full and the peculiar mixture of iron employod at the Since the memorable inquiry of Biot in 1803 on Kinning Park Foundry, where this apparatus was the shower of stones at l'Aiglo, Orno, the observa- credit to the presiding genii of the Polytechnic. made, renders them proof against the greatest tion of all these meteors following the shower of variations of temperature to which they are stones does not confirm the exactness of the deexposod.

tails furnished by that illustrious observer. Now, THE GERMAN NORTH POLE EXPEDITION.*

the description of all the phenomena of that nature THE RECENT METEOR.

THE following letter has just been received by Dr. is in some way based on the theories of Biot. In THI order to have the precise information, relating to

Breusing, of Bremen, from Herr Hildebrandt, A ve remarkable en el fere with intem abst Win the late meteor, from the Luxembourg, I went to thinlepon straits of Spitzbergen, expedition 26. a ted

bledon on the night of the 7th inst, about ten the court of the palace, and took the right hand 79deg. 201nin. N., and long. 20deg. 52min. E. :minutes before twelve o'clock. It consisted of a staircase, and soon arrived at the top-one step - Down to the middle of August we did all in our rod ball, emitting bright sparks, and exhibiting more and I was in the roof storey. a flaming tail of great length, illuminating the

M. Chapelas-Coulvier-Gravier,* if you please ?– power to reach the east coast of Greenland, running earth with great brilliancy, much as a flash of vivid He is here.

our little craft against blocks of ice to obtain an lightning might do. The colour of the light was

M. Chapelas was accordingly gracious enough to inch of westing, but all to no purpose. After buffetbluish. The sky was perfectly clear at the time, be put to my interrogation.

ing about for a long time we found our positions and the moon was shining brightly, but the light

You have undoubtedly soon the meteor of yester- to be 73deg. 30min. N. lat., and 18deg. n. long. of the meteor, which lasted for several seconds, day; you, who are always on the watch for these Wo saw the coast before us quite clearly, so that completely overpowered that of the moon, and cast things?--Assuredly.

we had hopes of getting in, and great was our actual shadows on the ground. This phenomenon

Will you give me the details of such ?-Very joy, when we got into clear water, but it did not appears to have been observed at Paris also. It willingly. It was a meteor of first grandeur.

last long, as behind it lay, as far as the eye is thus spoken of by “Galignani” in Friday's

Was it, then, much larger than the apparent disc could reach from the mast-head, a field of ice issue:-An extraordinary meteor passed over Paris of the moon ?-Oh, dear no.

that shut us off from coast, and all our further at

It was only as large tempts were baffled. We were in sight of Penduthe night before last, about ten minutes to twelve, as my fist ! and inundated the city with a bluish light like that

But M. Elysée Poraire, who saw it, told me that lum Island and Hudson's Hold-with-Hopo, and of electricity. The luminous globe proceeded from it had the apparent size of many moons, and could distinguish the features of the place, but the south to the star Alpha in the constellation of Gaborian belioved his house on fire? The effect of that was all. It was too provoking. It now beCepheus towards the north of the star Gamma of the dazzling light. The light is so great, and the the Little Bear. Its size was about that of the contrast so violent with the obscurity of the night, have reached the highest known north latitude cannot be

• The claim of the North German Arctic Expedition to moon, and just before its bursting, which was

sustained, inasumch as in 1780 Captain Souter was many marked by a loud roport, assumed the form of an

minutes beyond 82deg. The account of his voyage was Immense cone. We learn from the local journals * A celebrated observer of these phenomena. published in the Philosophical Magazine," in 1799.

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came apparent that the days were getting shorter above terminates in a similar form, reversed, and printing himself, so as to astonish the world by his and the nights colder, for it frequently froze ice when, by a gentle pressure of the right thumb, the low price; but on further consideration he determined an inch thick. How could we, then, under such two are brought together in a strong, drawing grip, not to incur so great a responsibility, not altogether circumstances, expect to force our way through the breech is securely locked and ready for firing, suited to him, and he contented himself with negothe ice barrier ? We were deeply enveloped by the plate, which is also the backbone of the stock, a plan his new press. It his he, therefore, who is in reality

The mechanism of both locks is secured to one tiating with the four competitors for the adoption of ice, and had great difficulty in working our way which admirably secures the locks against injury the printer of the " Moniteur Universel.” out again, and at one time we were in some danger and wear. The hammers are small and slightly of being shut in, but fortunately a fresh N.E. wind sunken in the face of the stock, so as to deliver a rose, which soon increased to a gale, and liberated central-fire blow upon a horizontal pin that discharges us from our unpleasant situation. We had already the cap. After delivering its blow, the hammer re

JONES' PATENT FURNACE. made one attempt to reach Spitzbergen, and we bounds automatically to half-cock, at which point it now resolved to make another. Wo have now pro- rests. This is one of the best features of the gun! IN theeanno xed engraving we illustrato a furnace I hope we shall get a few degrees more to the certain than this movement, which we have never street, Inverness. A large number of these foreast. The storm of yesterday has broken up the geen used before. After discharge, and when the naces are in very successful operation. The conice in Hinlopen Straits a few miles further, and tridgo shell half out, so that they can be removed consisting mainly of a partition or bridge in tko

breech is opened, an ejector throws the empty car-struction of the furnace is of the most simple kind to-morrow we will try and continue our voyage. with the fingers. Lley's central-fire cartridge is furnace, by means of which the flames and hoa : We are now lying at anchor in a bay that we have used at present, but it is intended to manufacture a are drawn downwards and pass through or ove : called German Bay,' because, though of great ex- cartridge in this city especially for use in this gun, tent, the Swedes have completely overlooked it, which will be much cheaper. The barrels are of and omitted to place it on their charts. Besides the finest Damascus twist of a small figure, and of this, there are several important corrections to a remarkably graceful shape or outline. They are make in the south-eastern part of the Straits, as bored so as to scatter or concentrate the shot as delaid down in the maps. If we should not succeed sired. The breech-plate is skeleton, to secure in discovering Gillis Land, we shall try to sail down greater lightness, and the whole finish of the piece the east coast of Spitzbergen, and return by some

is elegant and tasteful. other way. We have gained much experience on this voyage, and though Koldewey, Sengstack, and myself are longing to take part in a new expedition, STRAP OR BAND FASTENER. it must be done in a steamer, for we are determined not to start again in a sailing vessel. We bave AN improved band fastener is shown in the accoma made a good collection for the museum. Among

purposes to which buckles or such like fasteners are other things is a splendid walrus, that Sengstack applicable. It is the patented invention of Mr. W. and I killed in the water-a dangerous adventure E. Deverna, of Liverpool. Fig. 1 represents a top for those not accustomed to it. We were obliged to give him six bullets before we dared approach near enough to spear him. Captain Koldowey has

d FIA.3 sent you the bear skins by an English vessel.”'

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9 AMERICAN TELEGRAPHS.

the incandescent fuel. This partition or bridge FIG. 4.

may either form an addition to the boiler as a

FIC 2 DHE number of miles of telegraph line worked in the United States in 1818 was estimated to

water space, or be made of brick or any other

suitable substance. The fire bars and dead plates be about 12,000. In 1858 the number had increased to nearly 40,000, and before the close of this year

can be placed in any way, but it is preferred to set there will be completed and in operation about

17

them on an incline. There is a movable dead plato 120,000 miles of telegraph wire. Supposing the

at the bottom of the bars which serves to remove Same rate of increase to be kept up, it might be

any dirt from the fire at pleasure. supposed that 250,000 additional miles of wire, which would be necessary, might easily be put up by 1873. But there is a serious obstacle in the way; view of the fastener, and fig: 2 an under plan view; Even now, along every avenue, turnpike, and railroad fig. 3 being a side view, and lig. 4 a section. a repreleading from New York, says the ' Tribune," the sents the frame of the fastener, in which two aper

Correspondente. way is ordered with a forest of telegraph poles, tnres b b are cut for permitting the strap to be cross-arnis and wires. It has been found by experi- attached to the intervening solid portion of the frame;

SUGGESTIONS ON THE DEFENCE OF ence that every addition to the number of wires upon c is the fluted roller at the other end of the plate; a range of poles adds to the difficulties of working and d is the top finger plate pivoted at e, and con

FORTRESSES. and increases the danger of interruptions. In severe trolled by the spring f pressing on the under plate

No. VIII. storms they present so much surface to the galo of the frame. The tab of the strap is passed through TO THE EDITOR OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” that they are frequently blown down, especially the lower portion of fastener between the roller and when snow and ice adhere to them. For these and the under plate, and upwards through the space allusion was made (in a foot note) to the enemy

SIR,-In No. VII. (October 2) of above letters, other reasons it is evident that the wires cannot be between the finger plate and roller, then over the possibly employing specially constructed steam proindefinitely multiplied in number, nor, indeed, he finger plate and through the furthest aporturo b; pelled" boom-breakers," for removing or destroy; greatly increased, without creating serious difficul- 1 shows a portion of the strap as applied to the ing our harbour-defending floating obstructions ; but ties. It is not likely that the speed with which mes- fastoner. This fastener is applicable to all purposes it would be out of place in these letters to give even sages can be transmitted under the present system is to which ordinary buckles llave been applied, and is a mere general sketch of the nature of these aggressusceptible of any considerable improvement. A

especially suitable to saddlery and harness, as the sive contrivances, and they were alluded to simply good operator can send 2,000 words per hour, and leather is not so liable to wear under the compres- because it is a well-known rule that the best guido more will fall below this rate than go above it. sion of the roller and plate as when perforated and for devising measures of defence consists in presum; The most practicable way of getting over the diffi- fastened by the prong of a buckle.

ing the attacking enemy to possess and use the most culty appears to be the adoption of a species of short

varied, perfect, and formidable means and mode of hand. Some experiments have been made in England with figures standing for words, and even for com

attack, and to try on our part to meet and anticipate

such in our defensive preparations. In the said mon phrases, and a number of short messages were

PRINTING IN FRANCE.

letter, I mentioned three essential conditions which sent in less than half the usual time. This system may afford great aid to the telegraph, but it is a little

WHE minister, M. Rouher, having advertised for ten should be fulfilled by our harbour or channel-dedoubtful if it will be found applicable to the mes- Universel" and" Le Petit Moniteur" for the French condition being that said chevaux de frise, or any sages which have to be sent to the press.

Government, the conditions of which had been part thereof, could be easily removed and as easily previously published, made his adjudication a few replaced again by the defenders. It will now not be

days since. There were four tenders sent in, with difficult to see that the fulfilment of the said third A BREECH-LOADING SHOT GUN.

caution money duly lodged. On opening the tenders condition tends to insure to the defenders an amount

it was found that all four offered to supply Govern- of advantages so much the greater in proportion as ESSRS. SMITH AND WESSON, well known ment with Le Petit Moniteur" for each of the the skill and enterprise of the attacking enemy is of

which bears their name, are manufacturing a breech- minister then declared he would proceed to a new chevaux de frise would not protrude above the waterloading gun which is highly spoken of. The adjudication, which would be based on the furnish- surface, and would, besides-owing to their shape“Springfield Republican ” gives the following de-ing the greatest number of " Le Petit Moniteur" to the not indicate their presence by causing a local disscription of this new arm :-The double barrels are Government, independent of the numbers furnished turbance of said surface, still it is possible that a attached to the stock in the usual manner, with a gratuitously to the communes, in order that the clever enemy might discover their presence, and key. Just back of this key is the hinge upon which most important of them might receive extra numbers. plan his movements in such a manner as to avoid the barrels turn to throw up the breech. About 2in. M. Wittersheim offered to give, in addition to the them. On such occasions, now, our local corps of back of the hammers, in the small part of the stock, numbers to be furnished for each commune, 55,000; submarine engineers would be of especial usefulness, and precisely at the point where the thumb of the M. Peintel, 26,230; M. Charles Schiller, 25,005; by occasionally shifting said chovaux de frise from right hand naturally falls, is a little knob. A M. Plon, 25,000. The adjudication was given in one spot to another, so that thus the hostile ships slight forward pressure of the thumb upon this favour of M. Wittersheim, subject to the final appro- would strike upon our formidable submarine obstrucknob raises a short lever. By this movement the bation of the Minister of State. That the four tions unawares, on spots where-thanks to previously breech is unlocked, and a slight jar causes it to be competitors can offer such an enormous reduction, and carefully made researches--they were sure to find raised ready for the insertion of the cartridges. The shows a considerable progress in the art of print-only deep navigable water-space. It is on such cartridge slides easily in, and no especial care to pressit ing. The editor of “ Les Mondes " considers this occasions, now, when perhaps one or more of the home is necessary, the operation of closing the breech mystery is easily explained by the fact that M. hostile floating structures are rendered hors de doing all that. The rib of the barrels extends half Marinoni has invented a new press. In that rests combat and others entangled in our chevaux de frise an inch beyond the point of rupture, terminating the secret of this wonderful adjudication. M. Mari- and - artificial breakers," all being in great confuin a sort of letter 7. The locking lever mentioned noni at first thought of offering to contract for the sion and uncertainty, and the most carefully formed

lans of attack disconcerted in their most important sufficiently comprehensive, handbook on the subjects with suitable branch pipes and sluices, the valley of detail features, that the activity of our defending of which it treats." Why, then, it may well be the Clyde could be irrigated, getting rid of the solids, movable naval forces would reach its greatest inten- asked, destroy the value and authenticity of the and the purified water would flow into the impoundsity, and perhaps efficiency, by contributing towards book by mixing up with it, in a hopeless jumble, the ing reservoir and be flushed away at each tide. At the disconcerting of hostile plans, and assisting in crude opinions of some other person, who has pro- the outfall should be constructed an intercepting damaging and destroying the hostile forces. Very bably not enjoyed either the lengthened experience basin, so that the surplus would be precipitated conspicuous on such stirring occasions would also or the professional advantages of the original author. before the fluid finds its way into the river, but if become our system of guiding the fire of the guns The new matter so ruthlessly introduced will be the land on the banks of the Clyde is properly irriof all our batteries by means of orders derived from seen, for the most part, to take the shape either of gated, little or no solid residue will be deposited in the calmly-calculating officers who are connected commendatory notices of questionable inventions (a the basin. The advantages consist in rapidly fornwith our distanco-measuring observatories (situated thing I had, for obvious reasons, studiously avoided ing this important undertaking ; every shipbuilding on the previously-mentioned armour-plated watch in the book), or else of reckless assertions of quasi- yard could be brought to bear on it, so that it could towers, and other eligiblo lower-level stations); for scientific untruths, of which the following quotations be quickly finished. And I consider it is a somewhat presupposing the existence of a well-planned system may serve as examples. At page 165, the following plainer scheme than boring and tunnelling through of signals, both for day and night, between the actively. " revised " matter will be found:-" The law of at- the hills, to the Ayrshire coast. I trust your proengaged defending forces and said observatories, we mospheric pressure upon the barometer is not uni-fessional readers in Glasgow will do all they can to would be able to employ to the utmost the destructive vorsal ; it is subject to many exceptions which are forward it, resting assured that the scheme fully fire of our land and stationary floating batteries with not yet clearly understood. It is now well known carried out will effectually puify the Clyde.—I am, out running the risk of hitting any of our own ships. that when a storm blows from the north the baro- Sir, yours, &c.,

JOHN G. WINTON. As regards the preconcerted signals, they should of meter does not indicate the true atmospheric pres 13, Gladstone-street, Southwark, course be carefully adapted to the circumstances, and sure. In some places not far apart a difference of ten

October 19. should be of more than one kind, in case of one or inches ” (sic) has been observed in the height of the other failing to answer its purpose. At night the mercury in two similar barometers at the same (the time most favourable to the defenders, thanks time. Colonel Sykes, M.P. and F.R.S., states that he to their carefully-devised preconcerted arrangements) had known the barometer to stand at twenty inches"

OCEAN TELEGRAPHY. our actively-engaged naval forces might indicato (this is printed in letters) " at Malabar, while at SIR, -I have only just returned from Alexandria, their exact position by means of coloured lights, en-Coimbatore, only about 106 miles distant, it was at or should have taken an earlier opportunity of closed in conical reflector-lined tubes, whose mouths thirty inches." This is something like a fall answering Captain Rowett's letters. When I wrote vould be always kept directed towards the far-off Again, at pago 167, it is thus written:—“An excellent to you on July 20, it was not with the idea of enterVsible electric central lights of the watch towers mode of depolarizing iron ships has been discovered ing into a discussion with Captain Rowett, concern(trere should be more than one such light on board by Mr. Evans Hopkins. By the application of two ing the most suitable form of cable for deep sea teleeach vessel), and, besides, and in case said lights be Grove batteries of five cells each, with their electro-graphy. My object was simply to point out to the destroyed by hostile fire, care should be taken to magnets, to the bow and stern, the vessel is com- Captain that he is quite mistaken in supposing that have arrangements ready for skyrocket signals ; only pletely depolarized in the course of a fow hours "- in his patent of 1858 he was the first to suggest the it would be necessary to have such skyrockets most ridiculous and untrue statement. At page 168, form of the outer covering of the present Atlantic anchored, by means of one or more thin, but strong, we read as follows, in an attempted description of cables. I then stated, and now repeat the assertion, hemp Ines (the part exposed to the fire of the rocket Ruthven's hydraulic propeller :—"The force of the that specimens of cables, some covered with hemp being wire, * so that said rockets would only rise to expelled water from the nozzles acting against the only, and others with hemp and iron combined, in a certain given height, and thus more exactly indicate external water is the propeller," whereas every ap: every respect similar to the present cables, wer the position of the vessel whence they rose. During prentice knows that the propelling power is derived made and publicly exhibited in 1855 and 1856. Does daytime, the position of the vessels engaged would from the reaction of the issuing water against the Captain Rowett believe or disbelieve this statement be almost certain of being easily ascertained by the elbow of the nozzle, which is generally placed above If the former, he will of course admit that he has no staff of officers watching in our observatories, as in the water line of the ship altogether! Once more, claim ; if the latter, then I shall be most happy to variably parts of the masts, &c., would protrude above at page 170, line 22, we are informed that “the skin furnish sufficient proofs.- I am, Sir, yours, &c., the smoke ; but even then I should suggest the em- of the hull” (of the ironclad « Black Prince," 6,009 Wharf-road. Oct. 20. WILLOUGHBY SMITH. ployment (say) of the above-mentioned anchored (or tons)“ varies in thickness from fin. at the keel to gin. captive) skyrockets, with the difference that the sky- at the gunwale." What has her builder, Mr. Robert rockets which are to be employed at daytime should Napier, been about ! contain in the composition of their charge such in I could multiply instances of the extraordinary

TO CORRESPONDENTS. gredients as during combustion would cause a dense blunders of my reviser," but probably, enough THE MECHANIOS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to subscribers black smoke, so that thus they would clearly indicate has been quoted to show you the insult which has of £1 18. 8d. yearly, or 10s. 10d. half-yearly payable in the position of the ships whence they rose. It is been offered to my poor little book. A further in- advance. hardly necessary to remark that care should be taken justice has been done me by this edition, dating from

All literary communications should be addressed to the to conspicuously mark, by colour, &c., both day and the present year, whereas my last revision was made Editor of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Letters relating to night, rockets in such a manner that they could at in the year 1858. By this means I would appear to the advertising and publishing departments should be ad once be distinguished by the men who let them off, ignoro altogether the advance which has been made tressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles, MECHANICS MAGAso as to avoid mistakes.-I am, Sir, yours, &c., in marine engineering during the last ten years, be- ZINE OMice, 166, Fleet-street, London, October 5.

G. J. GUNTHER. sides being deprived of the right of modifying my To insure insertion in the following number, advertise

views of various matters by the further experience ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on gained during that period. I have only to add, as

Thursday evening. an obvious deduction from my letter, that, if pub We must absolutely decline attending to any communi. MURRAY'S TREATISE ON MARINE lishers' morals are so elastic, it becomes a very seri- cations unaccompanied by the name and address of the ENGINES, &c.

ous matter for any author, but more especially for a writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of good SIR,-Will you kindly allow me a small space in with his copyright without due discrimination.-I professional man with a reputation to lose, to part faith, Ed. M. M.;

Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGAyour valuable columns to state, as concisely as I can, am, Sir, yours, &c., a literary offence which, if allowed to pass un

RobT. MURRAY,

ZINE, at the rate of 6d, per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inser challenged, may possibly become a procedent of much

Surveyor of Steam Ships to the tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists

of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same rate

Board of Trade. import to all writers on professional subjects; and

as type. Special arrangements made for large advertiseI am sure, from knowing your high sense of what is

17, Tower-buildings, Liverpool, October 14. right and honourable, that you will willingly afford

We have just been informed that in the steam fire me your support and assistance.

engine trials at Newcastle, reported in our issue of the About fifteen years since, lI wrote a treatise on

2nd inst., when Merryweather's engine was pumping water PURIFICATION OF THE CLYDE.

through 400ft. of delivery hose, the nozzle, after six marine engines and steam ships for the series of

SIR, -In a short paper I have submitted to the minutes' working, was changed from lžin. to ifin. in Weale, to whom I sold the copyright of the book. Lord. Provost and Town Council of Glasgow, pro- This, it will be seen, makes a material difference in the Upon Mr. Weale's death, this copyright became the posing a scheme for the utilization of the sewage and data.

ERRATUM.—In the article which appeared in our issue property of Messrs. Virtuo, the well-known pub- purification of the Clyde, I have expressed myself

of the 9th inst., on Crossley's anemometer, we stated that lishers of Paternoster-row. 'At that time, three edi-as being fully convinced that tidal flushing, in comtions of the book had been issued, and Messrs. Virtue bination with the gravitation of the sewage under Mr. Sax had made several sets of the cup apparatus for continued the sale of tho third edition until the pre-prossure, is the best plan that can be adopted. Mr. the Meteorological Society. This was an error, they were sent year. A fourth edition has now made its somewhat different than what I have advocated in precise information on the subject of rendering cast irou

J. JONES (Bolton). We cannot tell you where to obtain appearance, and not only have I been completely ignored in its production, but my text has been re- your pages, for the metropolis. He gravitates the malleable. vised”

by another hand (Edward Nugent, C.E., sewage into a reservoir, and after treating it chemi- method, and this they keep to themselves. A good plan as I am informed by the title page), and interpolated cally he proposes to run the partially purified fluid is to heat the casting in an iron oxide and then to cool it with now matter, which is, for the most part, entirely into the river, and to flush it away with water im- again, but the process requires care and experience, or it at variance with my own professional views. pounded with the flow of the tide, a mid-wall dividing

RECEIVED.-J. P.-H. G.–J. D. B.-R. S.-A. R. C.I think, Sir, you will allow that it must be very navigation channel. I think the scheme fully carried S. K.-M. B.G.-R. L.-S.G.C.-R.K.-6.H.-W.S

the river into an impounding reservoir and a free R. M.-T. W.T.-R. J.-G.J. W.-J.P.-R. H.D.-A.J.ing thrusts in nolens volens, and without any distin-out is a good one, so I would propose to form the G. E. P.-T.C.-G. W. H.-S. E.-E. D.J. F.-T.T. guishing mark, amongst his own work, with a bit of mid-wall of wrought iron and concrete or brickwork R. CJ. B. L.-R. J. S.-F. R. E.-M. R.-S.L-T. P. D.

-J. K.-M. and Co.-D. and L.-H. F. adverse criticism introduced here and there by way

laid in cement, a modification of the Channel tunnel of variety; such a procedure appears to me to a given in a back number of your magazine. The not only most unfair and injurious to the reputation plan slumply consists in formlúg the wall hollow, an of a professional man, but (apart from the question plastered over with tement, so as to form a smooth Mabal, Military, and Gunnery Stems. I read in the “ advertisement ” which is prefixed to surface, covered over with a casing of wrought iron, this spurious edition (my own preface to the former the space between the casings being filled up with

ANOTHER trial of Messrs. Welch and Bourchier's on marine engines and steam vessels has, since its ciently high above the water at full tide, so that a be made with a smaller and more compact buoy. editions being supprossed) that “Mr. Murray's treatise concrete. It would be of an elliptical form, and suffi

patent life buoy has been ordered, the experiment to first publication, held, in the estimation of engineers pathway would be laid down its entire length. This generally, the first place as a clear and concise, yet Robertson.

I propose to sink in the line laid down by Mr. THE expense of the Sheerness Steam Factory

Into this great culvert, surrounded having been found to be in excess of the naval

with water, and lying in the bed of the river, the estimate, a further reduction of the number of hands * By giving to this metallic wire portion the shape of a sewage would simply flow through it, that from the employed is expected to be made. spiral spring, we should completely neutralize the jerk high-level intercepting sewers would be conveyed into We learn with pleasure that the United States the limit of the length of line allowed for its flight, and it by (say) cast-iron pipes, and the low-levol drain-Government have granted the sum of £20 to each of which jerk, without that precaution, might cauy the age, if necessary, pumped up a stand pipe. Then, the four widows of the coast-guardsmen who lost breaking of the line.

instead of precipitating the sewage into a resorvoir, their lives in their noblo efforts to save the craw of

ments,

Patents for Inventions,

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the American ship, “R. II. Tucker," which was The other day as the workmen were engaged in wrecked on the Blackwater Bank off the coast of excavating the ground for the foundation of the new Wexford, on the 17th of September last.

Temple Hall, they discovered a portion of a gilt door Last Wednesday being the sixty-third anniver- of the 14th century, the gilding and the stonework sary of the battle of Trafalgar, the members of the being in excellent preservation. These ancient relics

ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF Royal Navy Club of 1765, celebrated it by dining the principal foreman of the works. were taken care of, and are now in the possession of

PATENTS. together at Willis's Rooms, King-street, St. James's. of the many naval officers present, there was only vance of 106-85 metres during the past month. The inventions roser, in the following tahle. By the system

THE Mont Cenis tunnel excavations made an ad-classified, according to the subject to which the respective

THE Abridged Specifications of Patents given below are one who had participated in that great battle namely, Captain Geary.

Vice-Admiral Sir Edward position of these works up to the 30th was as follows: of classification adopted, the numerical and chronological Belcher, K.C.B., presided.

--Length driven at Bardonneche, 5,211•10 metres ; order of the specifications is preserved and combined with

length driven at Modane, 3,631.50 metres; total all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be THE vessels forming the Sheerness steam reserve length of tunnel driven, 8,842-60 metres ; length re

understood that these abridgments are prepared excluare to be divided into three divisions, each of maining to be driven, 3,377-40 metres'; the total sively for this Magazine from oficial copies supplied by which is to be placed under the charge of a chief length of tunnel being 12,220·00 metres.

Proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby engineer, who will reside on board one of the ships, The number of visitors to the South Kensington warned not to produce them without an acknowledg. to be called the divisional ship, and he will with his Museum during the week ending October 17, 1868, ment:the vessels forming his division, and be held re- from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., 16,631 ; on Wednesday, CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY-1082, 1086, 1117, 1124 staff make a poriodical inspection of the engines of was--on Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, free BonLERSAND FURNACES1085, 1116, 1137, 1072 sponsible for their being maintained in a complete Thursday, and Friday (admissior. 6d.), from 10 a.m. CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural implestate of efficiency for service. The remaining ships to 5 p.m., 2,286; total-18,917. Average of corre ments and machines-1125 will be, in naval parlance,“ locked up. sponding week in former years, 11,025. Total from ELECTRICAL APPARATUS__1092, 1132, 1149, 1155

FIBROUS FABRICS, including machinery for treating Albre, A New ironclad frigate of 24 guns, the “ Petro- the opening of the Museum–7,851,636. pavlovsk," returned to Cronstadt last week from a Ar a meeting of the Societe Imperiale d'Acclimati

pulp, paper, &c.-1072, 1109, 1121, 1139, 1141, 114, 1150, trial voyage in the Baltic to test her sea-going quali- zation, it was stated that i mule, twelve years old, Food and BEVERAGES, including the apparatus for preties. The “Cronstadt Messenger” says that the had dropped a male colt at Monte-de-Marsan ; it ordeal was passed most successfully, and that very was born at full period, and perfectly formed. The FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils difficult evolutions accomplished in heavy weather dam gives milk, and the foal sucks, but the mother time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &cprove her seaworthy under any circumstances. manifests a profound indifference for her offspring: GENERAL MACHI NERY—1050, 1081, 1084, 1088, 1996, 1997, Another ironclad with three turrets, to be named and does not exhibit the slightest yearning when

1100, 1104, 1106, 1110, 1111, 1115, 1118, 1127, 1152, 1154, after Admiral Tehichagoff, was recently launched separated from it.

1156, 1163, from the building yards of Messrs. Semianikoff and

At the meeting of the Society of Engineers, held LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING—1094, 1098, 1184, Politika.

on Monday, the 19th instant, Mr. Baldwin Latham, A STEEL 7-inch 5-ton rifled gun, built of Firth's - that the members of the society desire to express president, in the chair, it was unanimously resolved | Merals, including apparatus for their manufactare

1071, 1073, 1074, 1076, 1078, 1091, 1095, 1102, 1130, 1131, best cast steel, tempered in oil, and manufactured by their sense of the loss they have sustained by the MISCELLANEOUS-1070, 1075, 1077, 1079, 1090, 1103, 1108,

1133, 1146, 1148, 1157, 1167, 117 Messrs. T. Vavasseur and Co., London Ordnance death of Mr. F. C. Reynolds, a member of council ;" Works, Southwark, was tested last Friday at Wool- also that this resolution be entered in the minutes

1122, 1126, 1128, 1135, 1136, 1143, 1144, 1145, 1151, 1158,

1164, 1166, 1168 wich, with battering charges of 221b., large grain of this society, and a copy of the same forwarded to ROADS' AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and carrifle powder, and a 1161b. shot, having previously his relatives.”

iages, saddlery, and harness, &c.-1087, 1093, 1112, undergone the usual proof of firing two rounds with THE “ Russian Gazette" has received intelligence

1113, 1140, 1159, 1165 charges of 27 lb. of powder and a 1161b. shot. The from Soukhoum Kale that the rails are already laid SHIPS AND BOATs, including their fittings—1089, 1119, gun is now to be sent on board H.M.S. “ Excellent," down throughout almost the entire length of the line STEAM ENGINES-1120, 1123, 1153 at Portsmouth, to be further tested on a wrought-of railway between Poti and Kutais, and that there is WARFARE—1083, 1107 iron carriage constructed by Mr. Vavasseur, and now little doubt but that the embankments will be fitted with his self-acting compressor. completed in the course of the current year as far

1056 W. E. NEWTON, Chancery-lane. Engines for oblainDuring the last week thirty-four shipwrights and as Tiflis itself. The work of constructing the new ing motive power by means of sleam, &c. (A communication.) ten labourers have beon entered in Sheerness dockyard port at Poti, on the Black Sea, however, is not ad-Dated March 27, 1868.

This invention consists of a peculiar arrangement of for the purpose of breaking up the useless wooden vancing with equal rapidity.

motive engine or machine, the characteristic features of hulks that are now rotting in the harbour ; and fifty

The Swiss Federal Council has just issued a cir- which are, first, the whole of the moving parts are additional labourers have been ontered for 'yard duty, cular to the various cantons, requesting aid for the grouped around its central axis. Second, tho cylinder making a total at present of ninety-four new hands. sufferers from the inundations in the Ticino, Grisons, has a rotary motion, and inside this cylinder turn pistons The first hulk to be demolished is the “ Hermes " Saint-Gall, Uri, and Valais. The document describes having an alternating motion. Third, a novel arrangement

We cannot quote the details of formerly the “ Minotaur," which was rechristened the present catastrophe as the most disastrous that this invention.-Patent completed. upon the advent of her more formidable iron rival of has occurred in the country for centuries. In the

1057 H. JONES, jun., Soho-square, and W. W. F. DE LA the same name ; she is already in the hands of the village of Loderis alone not less than fifty lives have Rue, Bunhill-row, London. Whist counters. Dated March breakers, and is at present in the large basin, but been lost. Many places are still under water, and 27, 1868. when a sufficient portion of her upper works have in the Ticino the loss to the state is estimated' at a Here the patentees employ a rectangular tablet con

structed of cardboard, or it may be of metal or other material. been removed to reduce her to the water line, she million francs. will be shifted into dock for complete demolition.

At a general meeting of the Royal Horticultural concealed the counters for scoring. Along one side of the

It is made double, and between its two thicknesses are From the Clyde we learn that Messrs. Henderson, Saunders, F.R.S., in the chair, Lieut.-General Sir the progress of each game is marked; each counter has a

Society, held on Tuesday last, Mr. W. Wilson tablet are arranged in a row the four counters, with which Coulborn, and Co. have lannclied a composite steamer Edward Lugard, G.C.B., was elected a Fellow, and stud fixed in it projecting through a slotted hole in the of about 650 tons burden, for the China and Japan the Birmingham Horticultural Society was admitted upper surface of the tablet, 80

by moving the stud trade. She has been named the “Ocean Queen,” and into union. The meeting was remarkable for a very appear beyond the edge of the tablet. The counter is rounded is fitted by her builders with compound surface con- large and fine collection of fruit, including out-door at the end, and has a disc upon it resembling closely the densing engines of 80-horse power nominal: The grapes, apples, and magnificent specimens of the ivory counters now commonly used in marking. At one “ Hengist," screw, of 800 tons burden, built for the Beurre Clairgeau pear; also a collection of potatoes end of the tablet are three markers formed as narrow Aarhuus Steamship Company, by Messrs. Henderson, from Mr. Robert Furn, of Woodstock. Some minia- rectangular strips rounded at the end. They are also prohas made a favourable trial trip. She is intended to ture fruit trees loaded with fruit, from Messrs. Rivers truded forward beyond the edge of the tablet by studs ply between Aarhuus and London, and her engines, and Son, attracted great attention. Amongst flowers markers are used to register the single game, the double, which are on Messrs. Henderson's compound surface there was a new hardy climber from Messrs. Veitch and the treble. At the other end of the tablet there may be a condensing principle, are of 110-horse power nominal. and Sons, and a collection of new coleus from Chis-counter with a figure five upon it to adapt the instrument The game firm are about to lay down for the wick.

to the marking of long whist.-Patent completed. Aarbuus Steamship Company a large paddle of

The intelligent eating of fungi (the expression is

1058 J. G. JONES, Blaine Iron Works, Monmouth. 200-borse power, för mail traffic between Aarhuus amply warranted, says the Gardeners’ Chronicle, ") Aparatus for hauling mineral in mines. Dated March 27,

is advocated by the learned in fungi, and by philan This invention is not described apart from the drawings. thropists in general, on many grounds, amongst --Patent completed.

others these two specially :-First, that the rich or 1059 W. W. HUGHES, Porchester-terrace, London. AppaMistellanea.

the well-to-do neglect, through ignorance, dainties ratus for propelling and steering vessels, &c. Dated March 27, and delicacies which if they were as difficult as they 1868.

are comparatively easy to obtain, would be greatly For propelling vessels the patentes employs a wheel or It is reported that a few days ago a fisherman of sought after. Well! we have already indicated one

turbine mounted on an axis driven from a steam engine, the village of Oldbury-on-Severn caught an eel over potent means of overcoming that difficulty. The tho centre of the wheel around the axis, and is thrown off 80lb. in weight. i artiste" cooks in this instance should offer no

at the periphery by the action of inclined blades or arms MESSRS. GREEN AND Sox, of Wakefield, request obstacle, but, as familiar with the materials and with which the wheel or turbine is furnished. The wheel us to state that it was not one of their fuel econo resources of their art, may be expected to help the or turbine is enclosed in a casing concentric with it, and mizers which recently exploded at Preston, nor was movement. Secondly, that the poor-sadly, cruelly of such a size that an annular space is left around tho it one constructed upon their principle.

deficient, not only in the quality but even the wheel or turbine of an area equal to or greater than the The amount of money coined at the Paris Mint quantity of their nutriment--are deprived of vast the water is thrown off. It is preferred that the discharge during the present regime up to the end of 1866 quantities of excellent food.

pipe or pipes should be of the same sectional area as the was: Copper, 59,300,000f. ; silver, 260,382,510f. ; In Algeria, where considerable ravages have been casing, but the area of the discharge pipe or pipes should gold, 5,323,724,415f. ; total, 5,613,406,925f.

produced by locusts, the “ Gardeners' Magazine in most cases be as large as the area of the periphery of The number of visitors to the Patent Office says that the most signal advantages were derived the wheel or turbinc.-Patent completed. Museum, South Kensington, for the week ending from the importation of a bird called by the French ture of cut pile fabrics. Dated March 27, 1868.

1060 S. C. LISTER, Manningham. Yorkshire. ManufacOctober 17, was 6,471. Total number since the the martin triste, the result of a first experiment

This invention has for its object improvements in the opening of the Museum, free daily (May 12, 1858), being so favourable that the Imperial Government manufacture of cut pile fabrics, and the improvements 1,415,398.

is about to renew it upon a larger scale. In the are chiefly applicable when two pile fabrics are woven The mountains in the Lake district, and those in Mauritius the martin triste did most effectual ser- together face to face, and are then cutasunder. According the immediate vicinity of Kendal, were covered on vice, entirely freeing the country from the host of to the invention, the inventor secures the formation of an Saturday morning with a thick coating of snow, gluttonous intruders with which it had been for even length of pile by letting off the warp which is to which is the first that has been seen in that locality some time infested. The Italians would do well to the warp between feeding rollers, or by giving a positive this season.

turn their attention towards this useful ally, and to motion to the warp beam, as described in the specification RAILWAYS have greatly altered the faco of Spain encourage the introduction of various other breeds of of a patent granted to G. Davies, on November 1, 1858 within a very few years, and there are few corners insect-eaters, for there can be little doubt that the (No. 2429), and in combination with such an arrangement of that land in which the chief of Cosmopolitans, in wholesale destruction of birds which has been going for securing an even length of pile between the fabrics he the form of the British contractor, with his staff of on for ages on the Italian soil has not a little contri- cutting edge about the breadth of the piece to be cut but engineers and his corps of nayvies, has not made his buted to aggravate the damage occasioned by these he prefers to have it wider), so that a slight to-and-fro appearance. poriodical visitations.

movement of the knife will cut the whole width of the

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