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SIDE-ACTION BREECH-LOADER. with a small mirror, placed with regard to each that insurers have been arbitrarily deprived This the in benti in ustrated Georges Jeffries, of THE gun we have illustrated on the previous page other in two perpendicular planos between thom, of any advantage properly purchased by their

so that when they were struck the vibrations com- premiums. A policy valuation table is published, Norwich, and is different to any other that we have menced, and reflected a figure in the opposite by which each insurer can ascertain for himself the The barrels turn sideways, working on a

mirror that always remained of a determined current realizable value of his policy for every broad stool-plate, extending across tho "under figuro, in consequence of the metals being exactly premium paid. Finally, the audit arrangements part of their breech ends, which is welded on. This in unison. One diapason was left without any are based upon such a simple and yet effective plate works in a dovetailed slot cut across the action addition, but round the second was placed a system that policy-holders can verify the statements to correspond. In front of this there is what is powerful bobbin of wire, actuated at will by a cur- of the amounts of Government stock standing to

The normal | their credit in trustees' names, solely for their termed by the inventor - a fork ” working in the rent from eight Bunson's elements. action, and the neck to which the guard lever is condition of the instruments would be, in being bonefit, and withdrawable by them at will.

Unquestionably, the Government security system fixed, passing through the stock. This part opens struck, that the reflection in the mirrors, from the the gun, and it is shut without assistance of the diapasons being in unison, would be identical, but imparts an entirely now and improved character to lover by merely jerking the gun like the ordinary immediately on passing the current through the life insurance transactions. It removes all doubt as breech-loaders. A stud is fixed under the fore- bobbin, exciting the second steel, and rendering it to the want of security and equity hitherto attachend of the barrels, which works in a slot cut in the The luminous circle that had previously been ob- as high a standard of value as Bank of England

magnetic, the following changes were noticed : ing to life insurance, and it elevates life policies to fore-end of the action, enabling the barrels to move slightly forward, and allowing their ends to clear served as constant, was noticed to alter immediately, notes. Under this system, policy-holders whether the face of the action. The oxtractor is worked form itself into an ellipse, and oscillate from right many or few in number, can at any time, if independently of the hinge or pivot, and is capable to left with a speed that enabled the new vibratory disposed, present the whole of their policies at of being pushed back with the cartridges. The

movement to be measured ; this speed was subse-once, and receive their full values for them in gun is reported to work remarkably well; a pin- quently noticed to depend upon the number of exchange. In short, the new system is equitable fire gun, which has been in constant use for two elements used, the greater quantity increasing the in its operation, affording in principle the best years, is perfectly good and sound.

speed of the new movement. Whenever the cur- security for the fulfilment of its engagements. It ront was interrupted the normal state returned, peculiarly recommends itself to the public, as the fixed luminous circle due to the diapason being supplying one of its most urgent wants, in that it

in unison re-appeared, to be disturbed again on offers all the advantages of a life insurance office, ELECTRICITY AND TELEGRAPHY. ro-exciting the steel. Having arrived at such a combined with some of those of a bank, improving

successful rosult by so pretty an experiment, money at compound interest. All this is effected THE manufacture of the French Atlantic cable, M. Trèves has determined to prosecute his in- by calculating the tables on the principle that

to be laid from Brest to St. Pierre, off the quiries into the change undergone by diapasons of money can be safely employed for long periods of American coast, and from that island to the United soft iron and of stoel of different sizes. These years to produce three per cent. compound inteStates, has fairly commenced, and is being rapidly results were handed in to the French Academy of rest. A higher rate, therefore, is not sought; proceeded with, at the Telegraph Construction and Science, with a note from M. Faye, that “this now risk is consequently avoided, and the conditions of

experimental method of M. Trèves had made a the calculations are complied with. Dr. Farr's Maintenance Company's Works, at East Greenwich. marked step in the science of magnetism, and the system is entirely original, and has, we understand, The portion at present being manufactured is the hope was raised that it would greatly facilitate been highly commended by Mr. Gladstone, Mr. deep sea section from Brest, the core of which is new researches that the science so little advanced Cardwell, Mr. Stansfeld, and other gentlemen being made at the Gutta -Percha Works of the same most certainly required.”

competent to form a correct judgment upon the

In the French Academy, M. Delaurier, who is so question. The British Imperial Association has company. Now that the work has been fairly com

well known for his investigations into voltaic piles, the countenance of the secretary of the Bank of menced, rapid and oven progress will be made suggests as an improvement of the Daniell battery England, the Accountant-General of India, and until the completion of the whole. The necessary, sulphuric acid, water, and of sulphate of coppor, Such, indeed, has been the success of this corpora

that the copper plate be immersed in a mixture of many of the leading merchants in Manchester. alterations to the "Groat Eastorn,” required for whilst the zinc would be in a diluted solution of tion, that it is about to be established in London, placing her in a position to receive the cable, are

sea salt. There is nothing particularly novel in under excellent auspices. The paid-up capital of also being proceeded with.

the proposed arrangement, for the use of sea salt the corporation exceeds £11,000, subscribed in the From a remote period of telegraphy, numerous has been frequently tried, and to a solution of sul Manchester district, and held by upwards of 220 in schemes and patented inventions have 'at different phate of copper sulphuric acid has been frequently fluential persons. The novelty of the system we times been brought forward for solving the problem added.

have been discussing, and the sound and equitable of sending signals over a distance--and especially

mode of conducting the business of life and self across water-without the use of conducting wires

assurance adopted by the corporation, must procure reaching from one point to another. The solution BRITISH IMPERIAL INSURANCE

for it that success to which it is entitled and which of such a problem must be looked upon as the

CORPORATION. Utopia of telegraphy, the mere fact of being able

we heartily wish it. to dispense with the expensive system of land and JE have just received the first annual audit instruments enabling two operators at distant effected with the above corporation, which has its

SELF-ACTING STEAM STRIKER." points to be able to speak to one another at will, offices at 81, King-street, Manchester. This report By Mr. D. DAVIES, OF CRUMLIN. one cannot otherwise assume as of far too presents foatures of an unusually satisfactory and visionary a nature for any one to dream even of interesting character for such documents. On

HE object of this machine is to avoid the loss THE

of time by strikers waiting for heats. Many its accomplishment. Wo hear again of a new looking a little into it, we find the Association to of the machines have now been in constant use for invention to solve the problem, and accounts are involve principles of scionce which are of the first nearly three years, and have given satisfactory regiven of its successful application, but we cannot interest to the community, and which justify a sults. The machine is so constructed that it will but for the present accept it cum grano salis. Mr. notice at our hands. The plan upon which the busi- strike at any angle inclined to the face of the anvil, Mower, an American, has invented some peculiar noss is conducted originated with Dr. Farr, F.R.S., from the vertical to the horizontal direction on instruments for arriving at the desired result, and &c., the General Register Office, Somerset House, either side, and equally effective in all directions. from some experiments that have been tried in and who is the auditor to the insurance funds of the It will work on any number of anvils arranged in Amorica, successful results are reported. The corporation. In his twelfth report, Dr. Farr pub- a circle around the hammer. The machine is well scene of the trial was across Lake Ontario, one lished an elaborate paper on life insurance, and adapted for all kinds of light forgings required in instrument being fixed at Toronto and he other pointed out many serious defects in the ordinary bridge, ship, and engine work. It is entirely on the oppssite side of the lake, at Oswego, a system, for which he suggested remedies. He under the control of the smith, who can regulate distance of about 110 miles. Messages were trans- insisted on the necessity for life offices employing a by hand or foot the direction, force, and rapidity mitted across from one point to the other instan- true life table, for determining the premiums to be of its blows. The space occupied by the striker taneously, and for a space of about two hours, no paid by insurers-selecting the best security for is comparatively small, being about one-fourth of hitch or difficulty being experienced. The experi- investing premiums in-adopting an intelligible that required for hand strikers when working on ments were so successful, that Mr. Mower was system of audit-assigning a value to each policy the same number of anvils. The striker can be about to start for Europe, where experiments on for every premium paid ; and the absolute right of worked either by steam, compressed air, or watera larger scale would be tried by endeavouring to insurers to cease their policies at will, on condition power. It will work upon any height up to 6ft. speak across the Atlantic. The secret of the in- of receiving their full current values. These im- from the floor of the smith's shop, and as it can be vention is at present kept a secret by the inventor, portant considerations have found their practical raised through the same height in a few seconds but a supposition has been started, that the system realization in the Association whose report is now by opening å hydraulic cock, it can be readily of sending currents from the respective instruments before us. Under the admirable system here de- adapted for striking perfectly level blows on the into the earth is by projecting them horizontally veloped, we find that the usual practice of employ-anvil. The striker can forge shafts, bolts, &c., without allowing any vertical deviation. How far ing the insurers' money in miscellaneous and risky round without the use of swages. this may be correct, we cannot at present say, but securities has been abandoned. In its stead, the

The steam striker consists essentially of a certainly more definite and reliable statements premiums are invested in Government securities, hammer worked by a steam cylinder, either direct would be acceptable.

under trust, as the property of the insurers. or through the medium of an oscillating lever. Some experiments performed by M. Trèves, an The channel of investment is well defined before the steam cylinder is fixed or cast inside of a officer of the French navy, have had a successful the insurance is effected, and cannot be departed horizontal cylinder. The two cylinders may have result in proving that a steel bar magnetized by from; thus insurers have the best possible gua-their axes inclined at an angle to each other, or an electric current undergoes some molecular rantee as to the secure basis of their policies. they may be parallel. The horizontal cylinder is change whilst magnetized. The result was proved Under this system, insurers enjoy the absolute made so as to be capable of revolving in bearings, in an exceedingly pretty manner. The experi- right of ceasing their policies at any time, and of carrying with it the steam cylinder and hammer. ments porformed were for the express object of receiving back about one-half of all premiums The hammer by this means is able to strike blows discovering what action took place in a steel bar paid. About 50 per cont. of the amount paid in any desired direction. The horizontal cylinder when electro-magnetized. selected two exactly identical steel diapasons, giving porary use, without cancelling the policy. There may be turned round in its bearings by hand, sounds precisely in unison. Each was supplied can be no lapsed policies, nor complaints

* South Wales Institute of Engineers.

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steam, or hydraulic power. The steam chest is at PROPOSED HARBOUR OF REFUGE AND

ANOTHER METEOR. right angles to the axis of the steam cylinder, and OYSTER PITS IN THE FIRTH OF FORTH. in it works a cylindrical double disc equilibrium ternal link, to which the writer invites special

welled Fishing Boat, Fisheries, and Fish the following remarkable meteor. At 12h. 44m. attention. The link has an irregular shaped oval Market Reform,” he shows the mothod adopted Greenwich mean solar time, it shot out from hole, in which a stud projecting from the piston rod by the French to cultivato oysters on the fore Pegasi towards B Coti, which it reached in about works; the upward and downward movement of shores, between high and low-water mark. To five seconds.

When passing a group of stars, the piston producing a lateral reciprocating motion better convoy the meaning of plan, Mr. Dempster which include w Piscium and à Piscium, a little in the link, by forcing the stud against the inclined has now added to his little volume a coloured below y Pegasi, it appeared to stop for an instant face of the oval hole, moving the link with the lithographed plate, oxhibiting a proposed site for and burst, immediately resuming its course and valve attached, and 'alternately admitting and oyster pits 1fft, deep at low water on the sands increasing in brightness, leaving a part of its train releasing the steam to the ports of the cylinder. abreast of Kinghorn, a small burgh town, situated at the point of retardation, which remained visible When required, the cylinder is fitted with sliding

on the Fifeshire coast, on the north side of the for twenty seconds. It appeared white at starting, plates at each'ond, for rogulating the length of Firth of Forth. What gives value to this site for and equal in brightness to a star of the first magnistroke and varying the force of blows to suit the oyster pits, tho projector says, is in consequence tude, changing to green on bursting, and nearly size and nature of the forgings under operation. of a fresh water stream constantly running from equalling Jupiter at its disappearance. In addition to being worked by the piston stud, the Kinghorn Loch on to these sands, together with the small portion of the train appeared to remain for link can be worked by hand, so as to admit steam way they are sheltered by two reefs of rocks, one two or three minutes, but the observer could not to the piston at any desired point, and give one or their west side. The two reefs run from the shore Jupiter rendering the small stars near him very

on the east side of the sands, and the other on be certain of this, on account of the light from more single blows. The writer is of opinion that the internal link combines the advantages of southward into the Firth, until their ends terminate indistinct; but some time afterwards he saw the a self-acting motion with that of a ready hand- in a depth of 12ft. or 13ft. at the lowest spring place which it had occupied quite clear or vacant. goar motion, and at the snme time provides an tido. The distance between the two reefs of rocks It may be mentioned that during the night sevenefficient mechanism for controlling the sido valvo, is 350yds., that being about the extent of the teen meteors were observed (the greater number which is necessary from the variety of blows re- sands from high to low-water mark. Mr. Demp- between 12 and 2 a.m.), and that at 9h. 26m. one quired to be given by the striker.

ster's plan to construct oyster pits at this site is— equal to a star of the first magnitude and of a red When the hammer is worked by an arm or lover, 60ft. south from high-water mark he runs a strong colour, having a long train, started from a Draconis, the hammer head is fixed on one end of the arm,

sea wall east and west, from the one reef of rocks and reached the west horizon at a point near a and the connecting rod at the other. A socket to the other. This forms a reservoir to catch the Hercules in five seconds. carries the oscillating arm, and is arranged so that fresh water constantly running from Kinghorn it can be raised or lowered relative to the centre of Loch. He then forms his pits, outside of this sea the horizontal cylinder, to suit the various sizes wall, into three different compartments—one for of the forgings, and for enabling round iron to be the first year's growth, another for the second IMPROVEMENTS IN BRUSHES. forged of any diameter. The bearings of the hori-year's growth, and the other for the third year's

N improvement in the manufacture of brushes, fitted to the floor, or on the head of a hydraulic or

The compartments, of course, are surrounded and lately patented in England, consists in rounding pneumatic ram working in a casting. The hydrau- by stakos, hurdles, and trossel work to capture off to a blunt point the angular extremities of the lic ram provides an arrangemont for raising or the oyster spat during the spawning season. bristles, thereby substituting a smooth and polished lowering the whole machine, and enables blows to When the ebbing tide recodes from the pits, fresh surface to the harsh and irritating asperities of orbe struck at various inclinations, and also main water from the reservoir is then let into them dinary brushes. The face of the manufactured brush tains the effective fall on any thickness of forging from sluices. By constructing oyster pits on the is submitted to a grinding process, performed by n on the anvil. The upper part of the ram is made fore-shores, between high and low-water mark, hard close-grained grinding stone, and is afterwards a vertical axis, enabling it to be brought to work sun acting on their shallow depth, the effect might in this process may be either cireular or flat, a horiround, to allow of the whole machine revolving on when the tide has receded from them, and the polished off by a wheel armed with bristles similar on any number of anvils arranged in a circle. in some degree rarify the water, so as to make its zontal to-and-fro motion being in the latter case imThe compounding of the various motions enables tomperature advantageous to oyster culture. The parted to the slab by mechanism. For serrated a blow to be struck in any direction on the circum- bottom of the pits to be laid with shingle, tiles, &c. brushes a number of thin V-edged discs or slabs, ference of the circle, of which the hammer-arm is The pits can be stocked with oysters from exten- formed preferably of corrundum or other known the radius. The pipes for supplying steam to the sive oyster beds in the Firth of Forth which lies whetstone composition, are mounted face to face on cylinder are cast or fixed on the upper or lower within the burgh boundaries of the town Kinghorn. a central bar, or otherwise clamped together so as side of casing, and to provide for the rise and fall The two reefs of rocks that extend southward into to present a corrugated surface corresponding of the machine they are made telescopic, and pass or breakwaters, and Mr. Dempster says that at very moulded ridges of the required depth and form.

the Firth forms naturally the foundation for piers with that of the brush, but this arrangement, when through a stuffing box to keep them steam-tight.

little cost an excellent harbour of refuge could be The serratures being formed by this apparatus, the constructed here. Were that done, besides the longer bristles are ground to the required extent on

convenience for shipping, the oyster pits would be the plane faced stone in the same manner as the plain INDELIBLE DRAWING INK.

completely sheltered from the soa breaking on the or oval faced brush. The polishing and finishing is sands to annoy the oysters.

effected as before stated by a revolving wheel armed T has long been the cry of engineering and

with bristles, which at same time remove all the

powder which may have accumulated in the brush Indian ink to stand washing or colours, a stick of

during the grinding process. The improvement

GAS IN SINGAPORE. ink that washes only a little better than another

above described may be applied to nearly every being considered as a prize of great value. It THE Singapore Gas Works, which have given us description of hogs' bristle brushes, but will be found will, therefore, be interesting to such of our readers who are so circumstanced to know that Mr. Stan- gross satisfactorily, the natives continuing to appre- horse, and other brushes of like class. loy, the mathematical instrument maker, of Great ciate gas lighting, against which they formerly set Turnstile, Holborn, has just introduced a new ink, their faces upon religious grounds. In the report which will prove a great boon to them. It is of the engineer and manager, Mr. E. J. Wells, simply a solution of re-dissolved Chinese ink, to which has just reached us, we find some anxiety

SCREWING MACHINE. which a chemical mucilage is added, which renders expressed as to the supply of coal, as rates of TE herewith illustrate a neat and efficient screwresult is that any colour may be passed repeatedly however, that the English management will be Sharpe, of Providence, U.S., and which is in use in over it without blurring or washing it up. We able to close a contract for a term of years for the many of the largest shops in the United States, have given this ink a fair trial, and the results supply of coals for the works from Australia, as and has given much satisfaction. This machine is are highly satisfactory. It takes ox gall and plain they have been tried, and give every satisfaction. suitable for making from bar iron all kinds of colour with equal freedom, and will prove a great Thọ cargo which arrived from Australia in May screws and studs ordinarily used in a machine shop. desideratum in cloth tracings, inasmuch as it will last fully answer Mr. Wolls' expectation; they pro- The makers state that one man with this machine enable the tracing to be coloured on the face, duce 9,200 cubic feet of gas per ton, of thirteen and will produce as many screws as from three to five instead of on the back, as is done at present. This a-half candles illuminating power, and 40 bushels men can make on as many engine lathos, and they ink is moderate in price, and will prove economical of good hard coke. The engineer reports that the will be more uniform in size. Nuts can be drilled, in use, as it need not be poured out on the purifying by the ammoniacal liquor and oxide pro- tapped, and one side faced up, and many parts of palette. The drawing pen need only be dipped cess is all that can be desired. The oxide (Hill's sewing machines, cotton machinery, gas and steam in it after breathing between the nibs, therefore and Riley's), which was forwarded out in 1864 is fittings made on this machine with a great saving only the quantity actually used is required to be still at work, and to all appearances will last for of time and labour. withdrawn from the bottle. We understand that years ; when revivified under the new process it The bed A, which is of cast iron, is very heavy, it will not decompose, and if it thickens by expo- will purify a larger quantity of gas than originally; and has at one end two uprights cast solid with it, sure a little water may be added to thin it. Chinese 180 bushels have recently purified 2,500,000 cubic containing bronze boxes to support the spindlo. ink being pure, finely-divided carbon naturally feet of gas. The report states that during the The front box B is made in four parts that it may settles by its great specific gravity, so that the first half of the present year fifty-five houses have be closed up to compensate for wear, the two bottle requires to be shaken before use, and this been lighted up with 299 lights ; additional, 330; middle pieces being forced in horizontally towards is the only trouble to be taken. It is true, solu- total, 629 lights, four boiling stoves, and two pri- the centre of the spindle by the screws on each tions of Indian ink are prepared by several artists' vate lamps. The corrected returns show for July 1 side of the box. The spindle is of steel and has colourmen, but they are that, and notbing more; that the Company had at that date actually lighted only one flange or collar, which is outside of the consequently, they wash up like the stick ink, and up 623 houses and public buildings with 5,838 front box. Between this fange and the end of the decompose if kept in solution by water only. On lights, 353 public lamps, 28 toiling and cooking box is a hardened steel washer. The cone pulley the other hand, Mr. Stanley's liquid ink is indelible, stoves, and 35.private lamps. Upon the whole, the C is kept from turning on the spindle by a spline. and possesses all the other advantages we have company may be congratulated upon the satis- Back of the pulley is a nut by which it can be named, which will secure for it a rapid sale and the factory position of their affairs, which still promise forced forward and its hub kept up to the rear success it deserves. to make further progress

end of the front box. By these devices the front




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journal can readily be kept tight though considerable wear should take place. Should the spindle heat by continual use it will not bind ondwise, nor will its expansion lengthwise affect the accuracy of the work done on the machine. The spindle is hollow, the hole being 1 in. diameter, and has on the front end a steel chuck with screws and jaws for adjusting and holding the iron bar or wire from which the screws aro made. On the rear end of the spindle is a leading screw and in the hand lover I a section of a nut, which fits into this

The bar H is fitted to slide endwiso in bearings parallel to the spindle, and carries on its front end a toolhead J, and to the rear end the lover I is attached. A screw thread can be cut with this device on a bar projecting from the chuck on the front end of the spindle with a tool held in the head J, on the front end of the bar H. At the other end of the bed of the machine, resting upon two V-shaped ways, is a rectangular piece D, which can be fastened at any point by two screws from underneath,

Upon and attachod to this is another piece, which is fitted to slide in a direction parallel to the bed, and is moved by the hand wheel K, connocting by means of a pinion and rack, or for light work, by the hand lever E, substituted for the hand wheel K. On the end of this sliding piece nearest the spindle a round head F is so arranged as to revolve horizontally. In the edge of this head are seven holes which serve to hold the mills, cutters, and dies used in making screws. The head is held very firmly in its place, while the cutters are operating by a steel pin which comes up through the piece on which the revolving head rests, at the point nearest the line of the spindle. This pin is hardened, and slides through a hardened steel bushing, and the upper end, which is tapered, enters into hardened bushings in the bottom of the revolving head. These steel bushings are ground inside and out after hardening, and the pin is afterwards ground into them so that the point fits them all alike. When the revolving head is moved back this pin is withdrawn by means of a short lever, the fulcrum of which is attached to the sliding piece which supports the revolving head, one end being connected with the pin and the other striking an inclined plane in the lower piece D, which is fastened to the bed. The extreme back motion given to the sliding piece carrying the revolving head by the hand wheel K, brings a star wheel on the under side of the revolving head in contact with a dog projecting upward from the lower piece D, which causes the head to revolve far enough to bring the next tool in a position ready to operate on the screw. When the rovolving head is brought forward the star wheel slips over the dog and the pin enters the hole in the head, being forced up by a spring acting on the rear end of the short lover, after which the iool commences to operate.

There is an arrangement whereby any wear in the centre hole of the revolving head can be compensated for, and there are two jibs, one on each side of the sliding piece, carrying the revolving head, to adjust its position or to close up for wear. At the outer end of the sliding piece, projecting underneath it, is a screw L, which can be set to limit its motion. The tools in the revolving head are each held by two screws, by which they can be adjusted as required for the different cuts on the work. Shoes are inserted underneath those screws to prevent the tools they hold from being injured. Between the spindle and revolving head, and attached to the bed, is a slide rest operated by a crank M, attached to a scrow, or for light work by the hand lever G. It has two tool posts, one at the back sliding in a groove parallel with the ways of the machine, and one in front sliding in either one of two grooves, side by side, but which are at right angles with the one at the back end. Both of these tool posts can be raised or lowered to adjust the tools. The bottom piece of this rest is planed on the ways of the bed, and can be moved upon them to any position required. The tools in this rest may be used for cutting off, pointing or grooving, and their movements may be limited, by set nuts upon a screw underneath the rest. Oil is supplied from the can placed above the revolving head, to the cutting tools, when the machine is in operation. The machine is set upon an iron table having a channel around the edge to catch the oil, which is conducted by tubes to a pail hung underneath the machine. The overhead work, which is shown in a reversed position on the floor front of the machine, has two of Brown's patent friction pulleys, by which the motion of the spindle can be changed at will.

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NARROW GAUGE RAILWAYS. practically so erroneous and vicious is permitted to light, reflected from the bead, describes a curvo TO one who has reflected upon the facts and argu-take root.

ments put forward by the advocates of narrow gauge railways, and combines the results of his re- have been frequently laid before our readers ;

The particular advantages of the small gauge lines expressing the resultant action.

The ratio between the vibrations of the two flections with the insolvent condition of many of numerous papers have been read before various parts of the wire can evidently be adjusted, or our great lines, can help arriving at the conclusion professional societies, and the whole subject dis- alterod, by raising or lowering the point clamped that the capabilities of the latter are in excess cussed in extensn. We shall, therefore, not do more in the vice. The same end may also be obtained of their requirements. As a rule, wo are not than glance at them--not for the purpose of deny- by loading the free portion of the wire by a little favourable to the adoption of narrow, or more ing them, for they are indisputable, but to point out sliding weight. properly, small gauge railways; they appear, as it that too much stress is placed upon them in com- I have tried with some success.

Both these means of adjustment were, to constitute å bar to the future development parison with counterbalancing, demerits. In fact over, prepared to find that an alteration in the

I was not, howand extension of commerce and traffic. We would the subject of small gauge railways in connection angle of the bent wire would yield a more satisgreatly prefer to witness a large and important with that of main routes of communication can only undertaking designed and executed upon a scale be approached in a narrow-minded light, for al- factory result; but so it is.

When the wires are somewhat exceeding the proportions actually neces- though they may suffice for the present they permit parallel* and even in length, a combination of sary, than to witness it carried out in a manner of no future. If å line A have a narrower gauge than

1 to 1 is obtained, and the bead describes a circle that barely sufliced to meet the exigencies of the B it will, cateris paribus, cost less for construction passing into an obliqne line ; but on opening the moment. There is a medium between building for and working, and it will, provided there is a free limb to an angle of about 30deg., the figure posterity, between concerning ourselves about the suflicient difference in the gauges, be possible to run changes into the complex curve given by the ratio probable state of our coalfields after the lapse of half the one in localities from which the other would be of 4 to 5.

Opening the angle still further, the a dozen centuries, and constructing works so that excluded. These advantages have been made the they should be, in the main, capable of answering mosť of by the advocates of the small lines, and then at 45deg. 2 to 3 ; and at an angle of 75deg.

curvo expressing the ratio of 3 to 4 is obtained ; their intended purpose for the next fifty years. To have been unquestionably very much overrated. the figure of 8 comes out, expressing the ratio 1 to 2. each generation belongs its own duty of construction, Particular stress has beon laid upon the circtmreconstruction, demolition, and alteration, and it is stance that the reduction of the width between the In fact, by varying the angle, an entire series of unjustifiable to incur a heavy extra expense in order rails would afford incrensed facility for running combinations, more or less perfect, can be prothat " a thing may last for ever.” Are we, then, round sharp curves, and, in fact, render the line more duced at will. awakening to the conviction that we have spent manageablo than one designed upon a wider track.

In order to avoid the probable breaking of the millions upon railways in endowing them with But, it is forgotten in this assumption that a decrease wire by repeated bendings, I had a light hinge properties that are self-destructive ? There is no in width is synonymous with an increase in length. joint made at the bend; but it was less satisfactory doubt that such is the fact in the case of the Great If tlie locomotivo bo narrowed it must also be than the simple bent wire, which, if well annealed, Western line, and it is a fortunate circumstance for lengthened to furnish the requisite steam power, will bear innumerable bendings, and can be rethe invested capital of the country that the “ battle and the capability of traversing curves is in the in- newed in a moment if broken. To obtain a steady

resulted in favour of the four-feet- verse ratio of the distance between the axles, or eight-and-a-half track. Before we condemn the soli- what is termed the wheel base of tho engine, which figure, it is better to make the final adjustment tary instance of the adoption of the broad gauge, or is again dependent upon its total length. This by slightly raising or depressing the fixed wire. the universal introduction of the narrow, it should be subject of narrow gauge railways is deserving of Fig. 1 shows the instrument. The wire is capable kept in view that the conditions which guided the great attention at the present moment, when many of being firmly fixed at any height in a support selection of either have never been fulfilled – the parties, both at home and abroad, are ready to anticipations respecting them never realized. One commit themselves to the system without bearing of the reasons influencing Brunel in his recommen- in mind the warnings of experience, or having due dation of the “ seven feet" gauge was, that by thus regard to the exigencies of the future.—“ Building enlarging the base of the rolling stock, increased News.”


FIG.2 stability would be obtained, and a speed ensured higher than that which would be compatible with

RECTANGULAR VIBRATIONS. safety upon a narrower track. Time has shown

BY MR. W. FLETCHER BARRETT. this reasoning to be fallacious; the trains upon the

THE with greater security than those upon other lines. hibiting the combination of rectangular vibraSimilarly, by its own supporters the four-feet-eight- tions was read before the British Association in and-a-half gauge was considered the narrowest August last, by Mr. W. F. Barrett, lecturer on that could be employed with safety, bearing in mind physical scionco at the International College :the great velocity that was expected would be ul Physicists are well acquainted with the elegant timately attained upon it. It is needless to mention experiments of M. Lissajous, in which the vibrathat thò velocity anticipated never has been attained tions of two tuning forks, placed at rectangles, are on either of the gauges. Both Stephenson and bility of running trains at a speed of a hundred cessively reflected from a mirror attached to each which is attached to a heavy stand, more conBrunel, it is well known, contemplated the proba- optically combined by viewing a ray of light sucmiles per hour, whereas the average maximum fork. A regular series of curves is thas obtained, reached is barely half this amount, and the minimum which give a perfect optical expression to each of venient in use than a vice.

Not only may this arrangement be used for exis something less than what was the usual pace of the musical intervals, the curves augmenting in hibiting the combination of vibrations, but it also the old “fast coach."

complexity as the dissonance between the forks shows very prettily the formation of nodes and From the foregoing statements, speaking generally, increases. Instructive and beautiful as are these exthe conclusion may be deduced that as our railways periments, the extreme costliness of the apparatus behind the instrument, or casting its shadow on a

ventral segments. Placing a piece of white paper do not carry out the purpose for which they were necessary for their proper exhibition has hitherto designed, it is now discovered that the assigned debarred many from repeating them.

screen, the vibration of the wire may be distinctly dimension is beyond what is required. It must not

seen by a great number of people. The fixed arm

A more simple method of combining rectangular will then be noticed always to vibrate as a whole, be understood that we consider this conclusion to vibrations was long ago devised by Mr. Wheatstone and the bend always to be a ventral segment. But apply to all our railways. and importance to the London and North-Western, who employed for this purpose a slender prismatic

on the free arm an instructive change is seen to constructed upon a gauge of 3ft. or 3}ft. would rod of steel, fixed at ono end, and free to vibrate at take place in the position of a node which is there be a miserable failure, but a double line upon a the other. One of the sides of the rod was filed formed. When the arms are equal and parallel, similar width of track to convey the coal traffic from away, until the vibrations were quicker in one

and a ratio of 1 to 1 obtained, the node is near the Newcastle to London might not only present a direction than the other by a certain definito ratio free extremity of the bent wire ; as the wire is different appearance, but prove a very remunerative When pulled aside, the rod compounded these raised and the angle increases, the node rises nearer speculation. Australia is the largest and most im- vibrations, and the resultant motion became appa- to the bend. portant country which has had the wisdom or the rent by the movement of a silvered bead attached in any combination, the distance of the node from

It is also well worth observing that, folly to adopt ab initio the system of narrow gauge to the freo extremity of the rod. The labour of the free extremity of the wire, compared with its careful of its expenditure ; it should construct its filing away the steel, and the necessity of having distance from tho bend, is approximately the same works and routes of intercommunication in accord- a separate rod for each combination, has practi- as the ratio of the interval depicted by the figure. ance with the demands of probability rather than of cally provented this instrument coming into use.

I have now, in conclusion, to refer to another possibility, but at the same time, it is an exemplifi- Beyond a most ingenious mechanical contrivance cation of the old adage “ Penny wise and pound for representing the combination of vibrations, i arrangement for effecting the combination of

to have no regard for the future, to incur am not aware that Mr. Wheatstone has designed simple than the one just described, has the merit of the chance of impeding future progress, of cramping any simple instrument for effecting this purpose. and restraining the growth of traffic, and of checking

Upwards of two years ago I found a method of being more easily adjusted and more permanent

in character. the prosperity of a new colony, One of the worst obtaining any desired combination by an extremely has been adapted by Mr. Ladd from an instrument

This arrangement, shown in fig. 2, features attendant upon the introduction of the small gauge lines in Australia is that they are not iden- steel wire, about No. 16 gauge, and some 12in. or of steel are here welded at right angles to each

simple arrangement. A piece of straightened devised by Professor Helmholtz. Two flat pieces tical in the different colonies. By what particular blunder, or by whose fault, this almost inconceivable boin: long, is first well softened in a flame at a other into a single rod.

The upper part (a) is would be as vain as useless to inquire. This is one then bent downward:.. The 'extremity of the tapering, and on its summit is fixed a polished of the evils, and a very serious one, as Australia will longer portion is fixed in a vice, a silvered bead silver boad, . The lower part (b) is capable of being

According to cemented by marino glue on to the summit of the height at which b is clamped, so a correspondtion of small gauge railways. It is generally ad- the bend, and the instrument is complete. The ing portion is allowed to enter into vibration. A mitted that an imperfect standard is better than no whole system is thrown into vibration by smartly combination of the vibration of a with that of b standard at all. Granting that the four-feet-eight- tapping the wire near the point held in the vice, can thus be obtained in any given ratio. Complets and-a-half gange is an imperfect standard, yet nobody and in a direction oblique to the plane of the two commanil of any figure can be had by marking its will deny that it is preferable for all the English wires. The vibration travels up the wire, rounds railways to be uniformly constructed upon standard than to include some balf dozen different the bend, and throws the inclined arm into motion. position on the lower strip of steel ; and so nice an

adjustment is possible, that an almost absolutely gauges among them.

With small gauge railways The latter, being free, vibrates more easily than steady figure can be secured with a little care. It there is no standard. Every engineer selects that the portion which is fixed at one extremity; a com

I may presume to suggest a name, I propose to which he considers the best, and, as a difference of a pound motion is thus the result, and the spot of call the instrument described in this paper a couple of inches is sufficient to isolate any two tracks as effectually as if one width was a multiple Wheatstone would collect and republish his numerous

May I here be allowed to express a wish that Mr. Tonophant. of the other, it is not difficult to predict the lament- papers ? So scattered are they, that I have searched in * That is, nearly parallel, which is obtained by making able results that must ensue wherever a system I vain for the original description of the Kaleidophone.

a round bend.

[merged small][merged small][graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

APPARATUS USED IN HEATON'S STEEL- figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6, show d * rent parts of the plate, which is placed upon the nitrate of soda. CONVERTING PROCESS.

apparatus in plan; A A are cupola furnaces, in Fig. 5 is a horizontal section of a converter, show

which the metal is melted; FF in fig. 1 are ing the perforated plate in its position. Fig. 6 is E have on another page given a description of tuyores for supplying air to the cupola; G the a sectional plan of a converter, showing the The accompanying engravings afford a general with metal and coke from a platform with an to the body of the converter whilst the converting notion of the very simple andinexpensive apparatus inclined tramway leading to it; B C are con- process is going on; these cramps are shown also by which these operations are carried on. They verters, into which the metal is run direct in figs. 1 and 2. represent the latest plant constructed at the from the cupolas, and from which the melted Langley Mills Steel Works, in the Erewash Valley, steel is run into the balling furnace C. Dis near Nottingham, under Mr. Heaton's direction. a steam boiler, heated with the waste heat boys were recovered in the Oaks Colliery, after hav

On Monday last the bodies of one man and of five The figures are drawn to a scale of one ninety- from the reverberatory furnace. Fig. 3 is, a ing remained in the pit since the great explosion, sixth. Fig. 1 is a side view of the apparatus, horizontal section of the removable bottom of a nearly two years ago. One of the bodies was idenshowing also a vertical section of one-half of the converter, showing the fire-brick lining d d d, tified, but the others were in a condition which alcupola A ; fig. 2 is a front view; and the same which, when charged, is filled with a layer of most absolutely precluded recognition by their letters refer to the same parts in both views; nitrate of soda. Fig. 4 shows the perforated metal relatives or friends.


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