« EelmineJätka »
May can point to pieces of land which were covered of the coast of this State below the ocean. The ENCROACHMENT OF THE SEA.
with timber when they came into possession of whole amount of this subsidence is supposed to be N American paper notices the wearing away of the land, but are now covered with marsh, and the 17st. or more, and it is calculated that it proceeds
the coast of New Jersey, by the action of the timber has been killed out. Where the marsh at the rate of 2ft. in a century, or about a quarter seea. It appears that the dimensions of many farms abuts upon the upland, fallen timber is often found of an inch a year. This may seem slow, but when it have been seriously affected, and men are living buried, and the stumps of trees are seen standing is recollected that the major portion of the southern who used to plough lands which now cannot be with their roots in the ground where they originally part of the State has but little elevation above the found. It is stated that the seven mile beach grew. Large numbers of stumps of pine, cedar, level of the ocean, it will be perceived that great opposite Seavile has worn away 100 yards in the and other durable woods, are seen standing in the changes may occur as the subsidence proceeds. last twenty years.
Dennis Creek is said to have waters. In digging a ditch through a tide pond, lost more than a mile of its length by the wearing magnolia and huckleberry roots were found under away of the marsh at its mouth in the last seventy the mud. Then, after 4ft
. more of mud, large ping took part in the expedition to the North Pole have
WE hear from Christiana, that the Swedes who years. The tide is found to be rising to higher stumps were found, while cedar snags were found returned to Norway. The expedition proceeded as points upon the land than formerly, and the salt 4ft. and 5ft. under the pine. They were standing far as 81 42 lat. A storm and rough sea caused the grass is killing out the fresh grass and timber. with 4ft. or 5ft. of water above them at low water. vessel to leak, and prevented their proceeding Numbers of farmers along the sea-shore of Cape 'Other facts and cases are cited showing the sinking further north.
DOTY'S LIGHTHOUSE LAMP.
of the cylinder, Mr. Maquay–who, by-the-bye, is around and imbed the wrought iron either completely
first class diver-donned his 1461b. weight diving or partially in the castings. In order to bring THE great desideratum long sought for, viz., a dress. He went over the side of the vessel, and about a perfect union of the two different metals le bined with economy, for coast lights, seems at to “ blow away.” After the lapse of a few minutes, bars of wrought iron in order that when these are length to have been attained by Captain H. H. the sign was given from below to lower the cylinder; introduced into the mould the molten cast iron poured Doty, who has invented and constructed a "first this was done, when again there came a check, Mr. in shall in the first instance come in contact and order” concentric lamp for burning liquid hydro- Maquay finding that the cylinder had not landed in effectually combine with the cast-iron coating of carbon oils, the results of which appear to promise remedied, and after the lapse of half an hour up the centre of the barge. This was, however, quickly these bars.
This previous coating of the wrought iron is what has long been wanted to remody the irrogu- comes the diver again with the information that one effected by dipping it in a thoroughly cleansed conlarity attending the lamps now employed by mari- of the guy-ropes had broken, causing the cylinder to dition and treated with a suitable flux into a bath time nations to light up their coasts. The safety lie on one side, and that one end of the barge had of molten cast iron, and then withdrawing it. In and success of the commercial marine of every sunk into the oozy mud. This informotion caused particular cases a thin coating of cast iron is also nation depends largely upon, and is increased or much anxiety, as it was feared the cylinder might cast upon the wrought iron. The wrought iron may diminished by the number and distinctive character topple over and make the carboy burst before every- be cleansed for the above purpose either by pickling of the signal or danger-lights on the coasts. The thing was ready. After two or three such draw- or other known processes, or by the dipping process demand for good fish oils being beyond the supply, backs, which always occur on a first trial, the signal before mentioned. The iron is for this purpose first
was given, and the balloon was lowered into the dipped and rapidly withdrawn, and then after treatother and inferior, oils have been used for light water, and firmly fixed to the chains placed at), wart ing it with a suitable flux it is again dipped for the house purposes ; the inferior quality and illumi- the punt. A thud was heard, proving the iron
car- coating process. nating power of these oils frequently involve the boy smasher to have been struck, and then all were necessity of trimming the lamps during the night, on the qui vile wishing to see the balloon inflate. an operation attended with danger to commerce, There was a great rush of air to the surface of the ACCIDENTS IN IRONSTONE MINES. and calculated to mislead the navigator and jeo-water, and many thought the balloon had burst, but pardize life and property. These disadvantages being this was simply impossible-for if too much gas came FROM the report of the Inspectors of Mines we common to every nation in the world are the cause out of the tube it would escape from under the balof many of the marine disasters almost daily loon; the commotion on the water was caused by 1867 by accidents in or about the inspected ironbrought under our notice. To obviate, as far as the escape of the atmospheric air which the bag con- stono mines of Great Britain, which, however, possible, these difficulties, and to bring into more
tained when it went down. Gradually it could be are only the mines of ironstone of the coal general use for coast lights the liquid hydrocarbon time discerned that the stuff of which it was made, measures worked in connection with coal mines. oils, is Captain Doty's object, and he has produced viz., canvas, with a coating of gutta-percha steeped The number of lives lost is eleven less than in a lamp by which these difficulties, will be entirely in naphtha, was not air-tight. The escape of gas, 1866, one more than in 1865. There were four
It is said that this lamp produces a however, was not commensurate with the supply, teen persons killed in the south-western district in more powerful light than any now in use, and will and at the lapse of eleven minutes the balloon, having | 1867— Monmouthshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset, burn the full service time with undiminished bril-detached the punt from the bottom, came up with a and Devon; six in South Wales ; five in the liancy, and without requiring to be trimmed, a jump, and rose 3ft. or 4ft. out of the water, the punt Midland district—Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, saving of more than one-half in the cost of fluid being suspended 18ft. at least from the bottom, and Leicestershire, and Warwickshire; eight in the being the result of Captain Doty's improved was being kept in suspense when our reported left, South Staffordshire and Worcestershire district, arrangement of burners. These burners contain showing that it could easily be towed into shallow twenty-three in the North Staffordshire, Cheshire, only about one pint of oil (without air space), and water and secured. The diver, on reappearing, was and Shropshire ; one in South Durham; and are supplied from a reservoir placed outside the greeted with three hearty.cheers upon his success, thirteen in Scotland. The number of separato lenses of a lighthouse through a syphon in was more successťul than even he anticipated. He fatal accidents in 1867 was sixty-eight-fifty in such a manner that a constant light and quan- only guaranteed that one balloon would raise ten the mines, fifteen in shafts, three on the surface. tity of fluid is always maintained in the burners, tons, but the manner in which it dragged up the No less than forty of the accidents in the mine and air is guided to the flame by adjustable punt yesterday, laden to the extent mentioned, and (four in every five) were from falls of roof or of flanged rings, so that the most complete com
overcame the suction which must exist between a ironstone; and falls caused forty-one of the seventy bustion of the carbon ensues ; and the application flat substance sunk into greasy mud, is a pretty con- deaths. Mr. Brough, reporting on the coal and of Captain Doty's lamp to, and its trial within, any vincing proof that it would have raised half as much ironstone mines of the south-western district, says first-class lighthouse, can be made without any again. It is calculated that to raise the City of that the deputies should be charged with the alteration in the structure or in its arrangement. forty balloons, but more, of course, can be used if setting up of timber, or, if that cannot be, the
special rules should provide for tặe planting of required.
numerous props, whether the top appears to
require it or not. Roofs that look and sound like APPARATUS FOR LIFTING SHIPS. ATMOSPHERIC RESISTANCE TO SHOT.
thick cast iron or rock of vast depth will fall withWHE following account of a trial of an apparatus
out the slightest warning. The prudent course Fof
XPERIMENTS have been recently made at would be to set up much more timber; if the place extracted from the “Geelong Advertiser,” of July 15: resistance of the air to the motion of projectiles. appears to require three props, set half a dozen. -The first public trial of Mr. Maquay's ship-lifting The instrument used was the chronograph invented As the timber can be used over and over again, the apparatus was made yesterday, in Corio Bay, and by the Rev. Francis Bashforth, B.D., which is on the real loss of material would not be so very great. the success attained was so complete as to fully justify all the expectations of the company who have consists of a cylinder covered with paper made to
same principle as the Greenwich chronograph. It become the proprietors of the patent, and, on the revolve under two markers, which trace spiral lines strength of it, have, we believe, bought the sunken on it. One marker is worked by a clock, and is
LATHAM'S SEWAGE DISTRIBUTOR. steamer the "City of Launceston." A barge was jerked aside at each second; the other marker moored about a quarter of a mile from the shore, in registers the passage of the shot through ten screers
HE present system of distributing sewage over five fathoms of water; at the stern of this barge a placed 150ft. apart. The accuracy of the measure affected by means of open channels or trenches cut smaller one, 20ft. in length and 10ft. broad, laden ments is proved by the remarkable uniformity of with chains and stones, to the extent of ten tops, the results obtained from the experiments conducted in the ground. These trenches collect
a considerhad been sunk, and it was this heavy mass which by Mr. Bashforth, assisted by artillery officers ablo deposit of focal matter, and require to be dug it was proposed to lift bodily from the muddy bot- attached to the Royal Artillery Institution and out afresh three or four times during the year. A tom. The following is a description of the apparatus Royal Military Academy. The important questions great improvement upon this system has been employed: -A strong iron cylinder, 3ft. Gin. in to be solved were how far the resistance of the air invented and patented by Mr. Baldwin Latham, height, with a diameter of 2ft. Gin., is half filled with depended upon the diameter of the projectile, and C.E., of 6, Westminister Chambers, Victoria-street, water, in this are placed 50lb. of zinc and a carboy how the resistance of the air really varied. containing 1121b. of sulphuric acid. The cylinder, view to solve these problems, says the " Times," an and irrigation works led him to conceive the idea
With a Westminister. Mr. Latham's experience in drainage which weighs about a ton, is then lowered on to experiment was arranged by the Ordnance Select of covering up the carriers, which he does in the the vessel it is proposed to raise ; two large circular Committee with bores of Žin., 5in., 7in., and 9in. manner shown in the accompanying engraving. pieces of prepared canvas, 22ft. in diameter, laving Cored and hollow shot were prepared for each gun He lays closed channels either upon the surface rope, been formed into the shape of balloons, with of the solid shot. lower ends being gathered together round circles of fired with charges from 1-12th to 1-6th of the weight or sunk into the surface of the land, but with the
The experiments for elongated top surface covered, and through which the sewage a capacity of 240 cubic feet each, are lowered down, shot are complete, and show that for
a limited range is caused to flow, escaping on to the surface of the and, by means of angle irons and chains, firmly of 1,200ft. the resistance may be supposed to vary land through side openings or perforations. For affixed to the sunken body. All having been made as the cube of the velocity. But for velocities vary directing or cutting off the flow of the sewage, Mr. roudy by a diver, he strikes an iron bar passing ing from 900ft
. per second to 1,600ft
. per second the Latham introducos valves at any required points, through an aperture at the top of the cylinder and exact law is an extremely complicated one, which is formed as throttle valves so as to be turned bearing upon the glass carboy of sulphuric acid, shown by a diagram, but can scarcely be expressed by a rod passing through the pipes. Where the which it smashes, and causes the acid to mix with by mathematical formula. It is expected that when pipes or ducts have butt joints, he merely introthe zinc and water, and thus coming in contact with the spherical shot have been fired a more precise law duces thin metal plates across the pipes at the joints. the oxide of zinc quickly causes hydrogen gas to will be obtained, because there will be no question generate. This is then conveyed to the two balloons of their steadiness.
Fig. 1 shows a sido elevation, and fig. 2 : through two india-rubber tubes affixed to two taps
transverse section of a pipe A made of earthenon the cylinder, and the balloons becoming inflated
ware, the rounded lower surface of which is sunk with a gas fourteen and a half times lighter than
into the soil, while the flat upper surface projects the atmosphere we breathe, quickly rises to the surface of the water that is to say, if the dead weight
MANUFACTURE OF IRON CASTINGS.
somewhat above it in order that the sewage may
flow through the side apertures B B on the soil. they are fastened to is not too heavy-and it is calculated that each of them, when fully inflated, will A N invention has recently been patented by Mr. The lengths of pipe are connected together by
William Thompson, of Rathbone-street, Canlift ten tons of dead weight through water, though, ning Town, Essex, which has for its object the half socket joints C. In place of making the whole judging by yesterday's experiment, they will lift a combination of wrought iron or other metals with pipe of one piece the top flat side is made separate great deal more than this. As the weight required cast iron in the manufacture of castings as to afford as a cover, as shown in the section at fig. 2 where to be raised yesterday was only ten tons, only one great strength and durability to the castings. For the cover. A rests upon the projecting parts balloon was called into requisition, and only half a this purpose he introduces into the mould for the cast between the apertures B. of the part A, and is charge of acid and zinc placed in the cylinder. ing bars, rings of wrought iron or other metals, and provided with ribs a on its inner surface fitting Everything having been got ready for the lowering then pours the cast iron into the mould so as to sur-I between the sides of the part A so as to hold it in
position. Figs. 3 and 4 show an edge view and a Second, being a slide valve, it works itself clear, structed as usual, except that the condensers profront view of the stop-back plates, which are in- and is therefore not liable to leak. Third, its ease ject some distance in front of the box, which must serted between the butt joints of the pipes for the of application, as it can be applied to any locomotive not be too broad; and the object glasses are purpose of cutting off and directing the flow of the having a slide throttle valve, without changing the elevated upon a brass stand on the end of a sliding sewage through the carriers. This system is steam pipe. This simple, valuable, and
inexpensive bar 24in. wide, which slides smoothly and lightly
improvement will recommend itself, and as it has admirably adapted for flat lands where no fall can proved every way satisfactory to those who have in a groove cut for it under the bottom of the lantern, be obtained. The sewage which is hidden from tried it, we can have no doubt it will soon become and can be clamped in any position required. generally adopted.
In my earlier experiments, I used a somewhat difFIGUI,
feront arrangement of the object glasses, but tho plan above, which is a modification of one devised
by Professor Albert R. Leeds, works most satisPICKERING'S PULLEY BLOCK. factorily.
The lantern thus constructed is mounted, like the A VERY ingenious application of the sun-and
planet motion to practical purposes has telescope of a theodolite, on an axis turning in a been effected by Mr. Jonathan Pickering, of Stock - pair of vertical posts, which rise out of a circular
This disc is ton-on-Toes, in a pulley block, which we illustrato disc of wood 22in. in diameter.
in elevation and in detail. The arrangement is ex- fastened loosely at its centre by a bolt with a screw, FIG. 3. FIG. 4, ceedingly simple, and equally effective, and so suc- to the top of the operating table, and thus can be
cessful are the working results that we understand turned completely round in a horizontal plane, and IFIG.2 Α ́
they are being mad in large quantities. Mr. clamped by the screw whore required. On ono Pickering uses a common chain pulloy with a
end of the axis of the lantern, and outside of the upright post, is a circle of brass Sin. in diameter, by which the lantern can be clamped at any anglo of elevation or depression by screws set in a pair of brass clamps on the post. A square prism (made eithor solid of glass, or hollow of brass, with glass sides, and filled with bisulphide of carbon) is mounted so that it can be slipped into the front of
the object-glass mounting, and turnod upon an sight flows through freely owing to the surfaces of
axis as usual. the carriers being glazed. For the same reason
To show the vibrations in Chladni plates, a narthere is no adhesion of fæcal matter. The system
row clamp, carrying suitable glass plates, is screwed is applicable to any crops, a slight alteration in
to the upper part of the front of the lantern, so form being all that is necessary to adapt it to
that the centre of the plate is directly before the different purposes. The merits of the arrangement
centre of the condensers. The lantern is now are self evident, and that they are appreciated is
turned on its axis until the front is horizontal and shown by the fact that they are fast coming into
the square prism slipped into the front of the obextensive use.
jective, so that the light is reflected upon the screen. The plate is then focussed, sprinkled with sand,
and touched as usual with the how. The sudden RICHARDS' THROTTLE VALVE.
appearance of the nodal lines is very beautiful.
Any figures which can be formed on glass plates WE TE would call attention to an improvement in the throttle valve for locomotives, invented by
can thus be shown with great ease to the largest Mr. George Richards, of Boston, U.S., which, after au
audience. The retarding influence of a solution of extended trial upon the engines of several leading
gum on the sand can be shown in action, and the railways in America, has been proved of great value, sunken chamber in the periphery to receive the
curves studied in detail. and a description of which will interest our mechani- links of an endless chain. On one side of this fully shown in the same way, omploying a plate coated
The magnetic phantom can also be most successcal readers. The annexed cut-for which and for our description we are indebted to the U.S. " Railway chain pulley is fixed a crank pin or eccentric, and with albumen to prevent the filings sliding too much l'imes”-shows the upright steam pipe as arranged upon this eccentric a toothed wheel is fitted, which is in a body. Numerous other similar
experiments, for the common slide throttle valve. On this pipe is made to revolve loosely upon the eccentric, and is which willoccur to every operator, can be readily and placed a slide valve D, similiar to the common valve, made to revolve with the chain pulley also, thus de- beautifully performed. The waves produced by but having a small port through the bar or part scribing the sun-and-planet motion. This planet striking the surface of mercury in a suitable dish, the which covers one of the ports in the steam pipe. toothed wheel is surrounded with two internal colours of thin plates obtained from the action of On this valve is placed an additional small valve A, toothed wheels, which are each half the breadth of oils upon water, &c., can be readily shown by dewith small port B, which opens and closes the small the former wheel, and are the size of the orbit of the pressing the front of the lantern, without the obport in the large valve. The small valve A is inner planet wheel. These two orbit wheels areject glassos, and receiving the light reflected from attached to the lever E in the usual manner, but the made with teeth, different in number, but each the dish of fluid upon a proper focussing glass than the lever, or in such a way as to allow the fitted so as to allow the inner planet wheel to work and thus upon the screen. small port to be opened before the lever shall act therein.
In spectrum analysis, the arrangement gives upon the large valve. The operation is as follows:- the framework of the apparatus, the other runs great facility, especially by mounting the prism
loose upon the axle which passes through the box, by J. P. Cooko, jun., so as to slide into the front frame. *A second chain pulloy is attached to the of the object tube. "To keep the edge of the prisms axle, and fixed to the loose orbit wheel. A chain parallel to the slit, a notch is cut in the front of passes over this second pulley, by which tho the object tube, and a corresponding projection weights are raised. It will be seen that the powe
screwed into the sliding end of the prism box. Tho is obtained by the motion communicated to the arrangement proposed has the advantage of simfirst chain pulley running on the axle, carrying plicity, and gives the greatest facility in the uso of round with it the toothed planet wheel, which gears the lantern for ordinary purposes as well as in tho into the orbit whoels. The difference in the num- class of experiments described. ber of teeth in the orbit whools gives a correspond
Of course the condensers should not be subjected to ing roduced speed to the socond chain pulloy. An the vertical current of hot air from the lime or electric oxamination of these pulley blocks leads to the fol- light until they have been thoroughly warmod. lowing conclusions:—They are simple, strong, and with this procaution there is no danger. I would powerful. They sustain the load, and cannot slip. remark, in conclusion, that this mode of mounting They are very easy to work, and not liable to get the lantern was devised in the spring, and effected, out of order. The lifting chain being supplied in all its essential features, in the autumn of 1867; with a hook at each end, no lowering is roquired and has been used with great satisfaction in refor a fresh loud. Longer or shorter chains can be sults ever since. changed by simply unscrewing the bolts. The working parts run on steel, and being internal are not liable to accident, and are free from dust or
dirt. Havin: two chains independent of each THE PENNSYLVANIA STEEL WORKS. Upon moving the lever E, the small port B is opened, other, it is stated that they work with much less THESE works were the third started in the United the steam passes into the steam pipe, and presses up friction and more speed than has been attained by against the parts of the large valve which cover the any other pulloy blocks, enabling one man to lift Bessemer process, and in extent and capacity for proport, thereby relieving the valve of such amount of from 15cwt. to 20cwt. With these advantages in duction are far in advance of all others. The compressure as is due to the ports. A continued move their favour, these blocks cannot fail to make head- pany is formed of heavy capitalists, prominent railment of the lever moves the large valve to the de- way with the public.
way men and engineers, and is presided over by sired position. At each end of the large valve stops
S. M. Felton, Esq., late president of the Philadelphia, are cast. In applying this improvement to throttles
Wilmington, and Baltimore Railway. The worksin the smoke arch, connect the throttle rod to the
for the description of which we are indebted to the small valve A. We show also an outside finished
ON THE CHLADNI PLATES.*
“ American Railway Times". - were built upon the view of this improved valve. The advantages of
BY MR. J. S. CHEYNEY, A.M.
plans, and under the superintendence of Mr. A. L. this improvement of Mr. Richards' are easily stated:
Holley, now chief engineer. H. S. Nourse, late
THE First, its easy movement, allowing steam to be let
is on at such time and in such quantities as may be
effective mode of showing the vibrations in manager of the Bessemer department, and chemist. desired, thus avoiding the disagreeable, and very ex- Chladni plates, &c.
, to a large class, by the use of The Bessemer department was started in June, 1867, pensive, jerking motion in starting trains, which, be- a calcium or electric lantern. The lantern is con- and has been in constant operation. The ingots prosides being uncomfortable to passengers, is very
duced were mostly rolled into rails, at the Cambria destructive to every part of the rolling stock. # " American Journal of Science and Art." Iron Works, Johnston Pa., until the starting of the
Pennsylvania Steel Company's rail mill in May, and run upon the lift, and hoisted to the ample cupola- way running from a turntable in the main siding to 1868. The annual capacity of the present Bessemer charging floor, 17ft. by 25ft., and 29?ft. high, or to the other wing of the mill, in which there are two plant (two 5-ton converters) is about 10,000 tons, the air furnace floor, il ft. high. Two gangways, steel hammers. Beyond this gangway there is a cold and of the rail mill, 30,000 tous. Additional con- 10,ft. wido, run through the cupola building from bed 72ft. long, with a straightening press at one end verters will be erected from time to time. The the front to the converting room. Between these and punching and drilling machines at the other. Pennsylvania Steel Works are situated in the heart gangways are the lift, a mixing floor for vessel Outside of this end of the mill are tables for finished of the iron and coal regions of the state at Baldwin, linings, the pit into which the cupolas are dumped, rails, ample yard room, and a siding with a 25-ton a suburb of Harrisburg, which is a junction of canals and an ample space behind the converters. At the track scale, leading to the main siding. The furnaces and railways running in eight different directions. sides of these gangways are racks for tuyeres, and boiler setting are of the Fritz pattern. The Upon a rectangular, high, level plat, 100 acres in weighmaster's oflice, bins for fire materials (which furnace plates are corrugated, to prevent cracking by extent, lying upon the banks of the Susquehanna, are ground upon the floor above), a cylinder mill expansion. The boilers are 30ft. long by 4ft. diabetween the Pennsylvania Railway and canal, the com- convenient to the cupola dumping pit, a 50-horse meter, with two 17in. flues, 21in. by 2 lin. domes, and pany's buildings are arranged with reference to syste- oscillating engine to drive the line shafting in the 18in. by 21in, feed chambers below. The flame matic growth. Room is left for the indefinite enlarge- top of the building, and the ovens opening to the passes through the flues and under the boiler in the ment of each department with reference to ample yard converting room. The next floor is 11. ft. high, same direction. Thè feed pipes are wrought iron, room and economical intercommunication by railway. formed of iron beams, arched between with brick, the main being" 5in. in diameter. The main steam These railways are of standard gauge, and of such and reached by the lifts and by two stairways. Cen-pipe is 14in. diameter, of wrought iron, and the curvaturs that cars from any of the lines radiating trally upon this floor stand three No. 6 Mackenzie branches are bin. diameter, with S expansion joints. from Harrisburg can enter any building or yard. cupolas in line (with space left for a fourth), and A 7-inch wrought-iron feed pipe connects the hammer With such facilities for transportation, the present two 12-ton ladles standing on platform scales, and boilers in the wing, with the others. All the steam considerable distances between some of the buildings arranged with worm-wheels to tip out the melted' pipes are thoroughly lagged with paper, hay, rope, hardly amount to an inconvenience, and great iron from the cupolas into spouts leading to the con- and plaster-a thorough non-conductor, and very ininconvenience so generally arising from huddling verters. This floor is connected with the converting expensive. together the early buildings of growing works will room by wide arches. An ample space is left upon
The rail train engine is of the Fritz pattern, verbe avoided.
it for getting at the converter bottoms. In one tical and non-condensing. The cylinder stands on The Bessemer building is 114ft. long by 100ft. front corner of this floor is a building containing a four piers, bolted to a solid heavy bed plate, 24in. wide, and 25ft. high in the clear, for one pair of 5-ton 5-feet Dimpfel fan for blowing the air and spiegel high. It is 40in. diameter by Gvin. stroke, and deconverters. A lantern, 25ft. wide and 6ft. high, furnaces, and a No. 6 Root pressure-blower for velopes 300 to 500-horse power at the different passes. extends the entire length. The adjoining melting driving the cupolas. In the opposite front corner is The crosshead is above the cylinder, and a forked building is 81ft. by 52jft., and 39ft. high, with a a building containing a Blake crusher and a Bogardus connecting rod (thus very long) passes down both hipped roof, and å lantern 18ft. by 44ft. ; and
the mill for preparing fire materials. The two large sides of it to the crank underneath. The valve moattached engine and boiler building
is 133ft. by 52ft., spaces at the sides of the cupolas are occupied, the tion is the Fritz revolving cam, with two doubleand 15ft. high, built of blue limestone. The walls one by two reverberatory spiegel melting furnace steam and two double-exhaust puppet yalves. The are 18in. thick, and 24in. through the pilasters. The similarly worked (with room left for another), capable cut-off is performed by the regulator in the steam roof trusses are of wood (for greater convenience of melting 5-ton charges of iron for conversion. Wide pipe. Tho shaft journals are 15in. in diameter and of giving a top support to the cranes), and in the gangways are left between all the furnaces. 36in. long. The flywheel is 30ft. in diameter, and Bessemer building a sheet-iron sheathing or internal The blowing engine-room is 66ft. by 50ft. ; the weigh 53 tons. The rail train is the heaviest in this roof is suspended beneath them. The rail mill is engine occupies a space of 60ft. by 22ft., and consists country, and consists of four sets of three-high 23in. 275ft. by 92}ft., with two wings, 92}ft. by 49ļ ft. of a pair of 54-inch air cylinders, water jacketed, a rolls-one set for blooming 10in. ingots, one for each, and 28 ft. high in the clear. It consists of a pair of 40-inch steam cylinders 5ft. stroke, directly roughing, one far finishing, and one for either finishhipped wooden truss roof and a continuous lantern connected and horizontal, and a pair of 18in. by 24in. ing rails of another pattern or for rolling beams or (26ft. wide by 4ft. high) covered with slate and rest- vertical air-pumps worked by belt cranks. The blooms. All parts of the train are stronger by some ing on wooden posts (10in. by 12in., 14in. by 14in., valve motion is the long slide with adjustable slide 50 per cent. than similar trains for iron. Each shoe and four posts 28in. by 28in.) supported by stone cut-off valve. The foundations are of heavy dressed stauds on a foundation of heavy dressed stone, 14ft. piers. A permanent siding of wood, battened, and stone, leaving a counter-arched water-tight pit under deep, and 4 ft. thick at the bottoin. This train has having a continuous line of 14it., semicircular win- and between the engines. The air receiver is 18ft. already run some three months on steel rails with dows all around, extends from the eaves down to high by Sit. diameter. The water supply for the remarkable smoothness. within 9 ft. of the ground; but below this point the whole works is from an unfailing well, 12ft. in dia- The fan engine (14in. by 15in.), fan, and feed siding is formed of balanced doors opening upward, meter, at one corner of the engine room. A duplex pump stand near the main engine at one side of the so that the building can be entirely closed in winter, pump capable of throwing 1,200 gallons per minute, main building. The fan was built by Morris, Tasker, while it may be turned into a mere shed in summer, and arranged to connect with a 10in. suction pipe and Co., and is 8ft. in diameter, by 3ft. Iin. face, and and may be opened at any point for ventilation or from the river, when required, delivers the water delivers to an underground brick air duct, tit. deep for entrance and exit of vehicles.
through a 10in. main iuto an iron tank 20ft. in dia- by 4ft. wide, with i6in. branches to each pair of The machine shop is of wood, battened, 75ft. by meter and 10ft. high, standing on an octagonal brick furnaces. The saw apparatus, and the straightening 75ft., and 204ft. high, with a lantern 18st. by 72ft., building 21st. by 189ft. high, near the rail mill. The and punching machines, are driven by separate enand 6ft
. high, and slate roof. One end is temporary, tank is covered and is surrounded by a circular brick gines. There is no line shafting in the mill. In the for enlargement. The line shafting is driven by wall, with an air space between. From the main, hammer wing before referred to, there is a 5-ton a 10in. by 18in. portable engine, and the shop is water is carried by the underground pipes to the Thwaites and Carbutt vertical steam hammer with completely furnished with roll'and other lathes, pressure pump and to the feed pumps for the con- a 40-ton block, a 15-ton crane, and a heating furnace planers, bolt-cutters, drill-presses, a 15-ton crane, verting and rail mill boilers, to the machine and and boiler similar to the others described, and adapted end lathe, &c. The smith shop is 50ft. by 50ft., and smith shops, and to the office and hotel. The over- to cogging ingots, and to miscellaneous forging. 18ft. high, with a continuous lantern and slate roof, flow from the air pumps runs to n shallow pond 500ft. There is also a 13-ton Morrison hammer by Sellers, and is also arranged for enlargement. It has a cen- by 200ft., behind the rail mill, and when it is cooled with a 2-ton crane and a similar heating furnace and tral crane swinging over six double fires (without runs back into the well. The rail train pit and boiler. This makes a very complete forge, capable chimneys), and a Davy 7cwt. steam hammer for boshes are drained to the pond.
of working up all ingots of unsuitable size for rails, forging test ingots and other work. Extensive The pressure pump for driving the cranes is of and of producing every class of forging up to, say, store sheds for fire materials, &c., are erected at a the same size and make as that at Troy, and dis- 10in. The present product of these works are steel convenient distance from the converting works. charges into an accumulator, which also acts as a rails, hammered and rolled blooms, and forgiug. Water is carried to the machine and smith shops, regulator upon the steam valve. The feed pump for under the head of rail mill tank. All the buildings the converting boilers is of the Henderson pattern. are drained by a 3ft. brick sewer running to the These pumps are in the blowing engine room. The river. Plans are in hand, and proper places are left rail mill feed pump is a duplex. By means of an for the erection of extensive tyre, plate, and mer- underground connection, the fire hose always con
Correspondence. chant mills.
nected) either in the Bessemer works or rail mill, The Bessemer plant is precisely like that at Troy, and the cranes, and the boilers in either building, FLYING BY STEAM POWER. as to sizes and positions of converters and converter can be supplied from either one of the three lastlifts, cars and platform, ingot pit and cranes, except named steam pumps. The converting boilers, seven
TO THE EDITOR OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." that the central ingot crane is as large as the others, in number, are 54in. by 30ft., with two 7-10-inch SIR,-In 1859, and again in 1865, I sent you some viz., 22ít. jib, 9ft. lift. Two ovens with top entrances return flues, and form a battery 48ft. by 60ft. in particulars of experiments with flying machines, and are sunk in the floor under the side ingot cranes. plan, with an ample space all around it. They are | I have now to state that flying by steam, on a sinal! The flues of these ovens pass under brick bins for enclosed in brickwork, supported by iron staves. scale, and for a short distance, is an accomplished fire materials, to prevent their freezing in winter. The blow-off pipes in the rear lead to the main fact, and also that I do not see any insurmountable The large converting house affords ample room for sewer. The water supply arrangement, safety appa-obstacle to prevent its being successful on a scale the storage of moulds, and the dressing of ladles ratus, &c., are very complete. The flues from the sufficiently large to carry a passenger. I have and vessel bottoms, and for bins containing fire ma- boilers lead to a brick stack 110ft. high by 5 ft. taken a crow as my guide, so far as regards the mode terials, charcoal, &c., and for a floor and hand crane square within. A 9-inch wrought-iron steam pipe of flight, but as the model has much thinner wings for moulding flasks, &c. Two ovens, 18ft. long each, runs underground, in an enclosed air space, from than any bird, it flies with less resistance than a bird, with end entrances and railways running out under these boilers to the main steam pipe of the rail mill. and also attains a much higher speed with the same the side ingot eranes, open into the converting room The striking feature of the rail mill is its ample expenditure of power in proportion to weight. from the lower storey of the cupola building. From floor space and height. It is the only mill in this A crow has great difficulty in starting from level a turn-table under the central ingot crane, railways country built especially for steel, and the arrange- ground, but when it has acquired a sufficient amount run in five directious out of the building and under ment and strength of machinery are designed accord- of speed its flight becomes very easy; the wings the other two ingot cranes. The railway to the ingly. The furnaces, eight in number (with room are spread out flat, to offer the least resistance, and rail mill passes over a 10-ton scale, and a 2-ton for more), are arranged in pairs, at one end and in the bird glides along in any direction at will by platform is placed under one of the cranes, so that one wing with boilers over them, and sheot iron merely altering the angle of the wings. During this ingots can be weighed, assorted, and distributed with chimneys outside the building. The furnaces do not portion of the bird's flight the wings act against the greatest convenience and despatch. Upon the front each other; and the smallest space in front of the air similarly to the keel of a sailing vessel or roof trusses there is a hydraulic cylinder, operated a furnace is 21st. ; the mill is consequently cool. In lee board of a barge, and thereby prevent les-way from the regulator, which raises a 1-ton drop (25ft. the centre of the space between the furnaces and the cor falling towards the ground). As long as the fall) outside the building. The chain that raises rolls, there is ample room for piling ingots, and a speed is considerable (say twenty miles an hour the drop also unloads from cars the skulls, &c., to hydraulic crane for unloading them from the convert through the air) the lee-way is very trifling, but as be broken up, and places them in a position under ing-room cars and loading them on the furnace buggles. the speed decreases the drop or lee-way increases, the drop.
The rail train is near the centre of the building, and in a little time (during which the bird may have At the front of the cupola building (opposite the with the engine at one end, directly connected; the flown half a mile or more) the bird has again to use converting building) there is a double 2-ton vertical saw carriage in the rear of it is arranged to receive his propeller to keep up the requisite speed to suplift, operated by a line of shafting overhead, with rails from either of two sets of finishing rolls. The port his weight. The power, therefore, requied for openings to the stock shed and yard. Coal waggons hot bed, laid on posts and rollers, is 48ft. long, with starting is very much in excess of that requisite for for a charge each, and iron waggons for a ton of a 24ft. table at one end
and a straightening plate at sustaining the flight. pig each, are run upon the stock-house scale, loaded, the other. Beyond it is a 10ft. gangway, with a rail- My principal improvement over former attempts
ensists in the mode of obtaining the necessary as type Special arrangements made for large advertise- The number of visitors to the South Kensington amount of starting power, and I do this by using ments.
Museum during the week ending October 24, 1868, falling water as tho fulcrum for starting instead of A DE B. (Delft.)-We are obliged by your communica- was-on Monday, Tuesday, and Saturday, free, the air, and although the idea of running up a water- tion, which will probably appear in our next.
from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., 10,683; on Wednesday, fall may seem somewhat novel, yet the propul
MESSRS. F. AND H. (Chepstow.)- The matter shall have Thursday, and Friday (admissior. 6d.), from 10 a.m. sion of large vessels at considerable speed by reaction notice next week.
RECEIVED.-T. B.-R.J. H.-E. G. and Son-W. F. S.-.
to 5 p.m., 1,780 ; total -12,463. Average of correfrom jets of water is a practical reality, and, I may R. S.-D. B.-W.G. F.-J. P.-W. J.-G. E. P.-J. C. S.
sponding week in former years, 10,653. Total from add, for propelling light vessels of small draught, my C. P.C.-E. D.-F. R.-C. D.J.-G. W. H.-P.0.-R. M.- the opening of the Museum–7,864,099. water-jet propeller is greatly superior to every me- E. B.-P. M.-S. T.-R. A.-G. E. P.-P.L.F.-C.W.V.- Many methods of preserving eggs have been rechanical propeller with which I am acquainted. The R.J.C.D. and Sun-J. G. W.-W.D.-E. G. S.-S. and corded. There is one which is used in the prowings of tho model are made of very thin sheet iron, Co.-P. T.-J. P.-S. E.-B. W.-C. W. R.-A. M. and Co. visioning of Paris on a great scale, and which is and, consequently, present only a knife-like edge of
described as the most sure. The eggs are plunged, resistance to the air during flight. The boiler forms
in wire baskets each holding a dozen, into cauldrons the body of the bird, and has a water-jet pipe.
of boiling water during about a minute. A thin the flame little ignited spirit, and when suddenly liberated forces
is speedily fatal to the freshness of the egg. the water, and the toy flies off by reaction at great
The basin of the Donets is found to be so rich in speed, and travels (up hill) over 8ft. in a quarter of to become patrons of a bazaar to be held at Exeter Government Gazette," it may well be said to bə
The Prince and Princess of Wales have consented fuel, coal, &e., that, according to the " Kharkoff a second. On a larger scale a considerable distance would b2 the twenty-one lifeboats on the coasts of Devon and already surveyed, or those which are now being during Easter week, 1869, in aid of the support of
inexhaustible. If the coal beds that have been covered without any further propelling force being
Cornwall. exerted beyond the starting power, and the flight might be afterwards kept up by discharges of steam launched the “Donau,
Messrs. CAIRD AND CO., of Greenock, have the quantity is nevertheless estimated at the enor
actively worked, are alone taken into consideration, or other preferable motive power. It may probably tons, built for the North German Lloyd. She is
a steamer of about 3,000
mous figure of 16,000,000,000,000 poods. All this occur to some that a man's power ought to be suffi- similar in every respect to the large fleet of steamers but only taking into calculation the seams of lesser
mass is not, of course, equally easy of extraction, cient for the latter purpose, but I doubt whether any launched by the same firm for the North German depth, it is reckoned that 75,000,000 ppods of coal mechanical apparatus worked with a man's power
Lloyd. would give an effoctive forward thrust of even half a pound, by action, against the air at a speed of
The hulks lent by the British Government to the may be annually supplied for a term of 17,000 years. Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company
It is seldom we have to notice such wonderful twenty miles an hour.
for the conveyance of the French Atlantic cable illustrations of prolonged existence as appeared in An apparatus might be conveniently tried on a from Greenwich to Sheerness, there to be deposited the obituary of the “ Times” of Monday and Tuesguide wire. A veritable flight
through the Palace on board the “Great Eastern,” are the “ Iris" and day last, where the deaths of four ladies and three the “ Amethyst,” two of the old sailing 26's.
gentlemen are recorded whose united ages amounted in the space of a few seconds would, doubtless,
We understand that the “ Hercules" will be com
to 613 years, giving an average of 87 years and prove a great attraction.-I am, Sir, yours, &c.,
missioned on November 2, for the home station. nearly 7 months to each. Of these seven persons Lilford-road, Camberwell, JAS. PARKER. October 23.
The vessel is at present lying at Chatham, but will the oldest was a gentleman, who had reached the be taken to Sheerners for completion. The is ex- patriarchal age of 93 years, the youngest being 81.
pected to arrive at Sheerness on the 10th proximo. of the opposite sex the oldest had also reached the LONDON LABOUR. Her complement will be 650 officers and men.
venerable age of 92; the youngest was 82 years of age. Sir, -We constantly hear the daily press raising
An order has been issued for the removal of the It is anticipated that by the close of the year the a cry about the destitution of the labouring classes. engines of the “Lizard,” tender to the “ Formidable,” first section of the operations of the company which I think my Channel scheme, you kindly inserted in 26, flagship at Sheerness. The vessel will be after has been formed to collect and distribute the Liveryour last issue, points out a way of, at least
, bringing wards removed to Chatham for further survey. It pool sewage will be completed. This first section a little trade to the Thames. In the event of such is anticipated that the whole of her bottom plates embraces the distribution of the sewage over a tract a scheme being executed, it is simply a matter of will have to be removed, as they are worn very thin. of sandy land in the neighbourhood of Ince Blundell
, competition ; can the shipbuilders compete as cheaply
ANOTHER Scurvy-laden ship arrived in the Thames and ultimately the company intend to carry forward as on the Clyde or elsewhere, and certainly the on Sunday last, and three of the crew were at once their operations to the borders of Southport. It is navvies would be amply provided for. I am, Sir, conveyed to the “ Dreadnought” hospital ship. This estimated that if the whole of the sewage of Liver
JOHN G. WINTON. vessel left England at the end of last year, and was pool were utilized and sold, a permanent annual 13, Gladstone-street, October 28.
not therefore provided with certified lime or lemon revenue of £150,000 might be derived.
of Richmond's Act. LIGHT-CONDENSING TUBES.
coal exported from the United Kingdom was 884,096
COMPLAINTS having been made by the Woolwich tons, against 978,586 tons in the corresponding SIR, -Not knowing whether-and with what Local Board of Health of the injurious effect on the month of 1867. The Northern ports exported results-experiments have ever been made with the public health due to the Woolwich Dockyard drain- 427,777 tons, Yorkshire 31,475 tons, London 4,565 conical reflector-lined tubes alluded to in the letter age not being connected with the Southern Outfall tons, Liverpool 56,360 tons, Severn ports 266,900 on the defence of fortresses in last week's Magazine, Sewer, the Lords of the Admiralty have announced tons, and Scotch ports 97,019 tons. As compared I beg to remark that such tubes would be so shaped their consent for the work to be done, and bave with September, 1867, there was a decrease from all as to condense and throw in an axial direction all stated that the estimated cost will appear in the next the ports, with the exception of the Scotch. In the the rays of light produced by any burner, in a Navy Estimates.
nine months ending September 30, the total exports similar way that a speaking trumpet does with the THE “Spartan," screw, recently built and launched reached 7,658,975 tons, against 7,295,235 tons in the sound rays of the voice. By means of such tubes, by Mr. J. G. Lawrie, at Whiteinch, has made a corresponding nine months, being an increase of signals could be made to very great distances, and favourable trial trip. The “Spartan" measures 272ft. | 363,740 tons. in given directions; at night the very clouds might in length, by 31ft. Cin. in breadth, and 20ft. in depth; be made use of as reflectors by directing towards and she has two engines, having cylinders 36in, in the following alterations to be made in the namos
THE Metropolitan Board of Works has ordered their lower surface a battery of such light tubes, diameter, with a stroke 3ft
. 6in. in length. The of public streets in the metropolis:-Pitt-street and thus throwing the signal to still greater distances. burden of the “Spartan ” is thus upwards of 1,200 Salisbury-street, Newington, to be re-named DarThe usefulness of such tubes for guiding vessels in tons, and the engines are of 94-horse power nominal. win-street; Clapel-street, Walburgh-street
, St. certain dangerous passages, or in time of war, when They wero made by Messrs. Blackwood and Gordon, George's-in-the-East, to be re-named Tait-street; the lights of lighthouses have been put out, appears of Port Glasgow. obvious.-I am, Sir, yours, &c.,
THE 68-pounder, 95cwt. cast-iron gun, lined with Sclater-street ; Bedford-row, Southwark, to be
Anchor-street, Bethnal Green, to be incorporated October 29.
G. J. GÜXTHER. with a steel tubs, and rifled by. Mr. Parsons incorporated with Zoar-street; Lemon-street, South
on the plan advocated by him, split on Saturday wark, to be incorporated with Loman-street; Mansmorning last, while undergoing its endurance test, field-terrace and Lower Mansfield-place to be incor
at the proof butt, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. The Tretinos for the deck.
gun had been re-vented after the experiment for porated with Mansfield place. The subsidary names range and accuracy, which we reported as having Peckham, are to be abolished.
in Bramley-road, Konsington, and Queen's-road, Mon.-Socieiy of Engineers.-Paper on "Modern Gas
been carried out a short time since at Shoeburyness, Works at llume and Abroad," by Mr. Henry The split took place at the thirty-third round of its observed some workmen employed in the demolition
PASSENGERS in St. James's Park may have lately Gore, at 7.30 p.m.
endurance test-the charge being 30lb. of large of an ugly-looking chapel not far from the India Royal Institution.-General Monthly Meeting, at grained rifle powder, and 150lb. shot.
Office. This edifice, the "Pall Mall Gazette" informs Royal Institute of British Architects.-The First
us, formed part of a mansion, now the office of the Ordinary General Meeting of the Session.
London recruiting district, which formerly was the Mr. H. M. Marshall will be balloted for as
residence of the notorious Judge Jeffreys. It was W. Tito, M.P., President, will deliver an "Opening Address," at 8 p.in.
here that he performed his official duties when his court was not sitting, and here he lived in some
little splendour till his committal to the Tower. THE Czar has consented to allow photographs to The entrance of the mansion is from Duke-street ; TO CORRESPONDENTS.
be taken of all the treasures of art contained in the but as a mark of favour, King James II. granted THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to subscribers Imperial Gallery of the Hermitage.
Jeffreys permission to throw out a flight of stone of £1 18. 8d. yearly, or 103. 101. half-yearly payable in The annual dinner of the Civil and Mechanical steps leading to the Park; these still remain, and advance.
Engineers' Society will take place to-morrow, distinguish the house from the others in the same row. All literary communications should be addressed to the Saturday, evening, at Anderton's Hotel, Fleet-street, A GHASTLY scientific discovery is reported from Editor of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Letters relating to at half past 7 o'clock.
Turin, where Professor Casturani, the celebrated the advertising and publishing departments should be ad dressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles,
MECHANICS' MAGA- the Delhi Railway from Umballa to Meerut (about animals by forcing air into their eyes, within the
It is announced by telegram that the portion of oculist, has, it would appear, found a way of killing ZINE Оfice, 166, Fleet-street, London.
150 miles, or half the entire line), was completed on space of a few seconds, and, it is thought, almost To insure insertion in the following number, advertise- the 17th inst. ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on
without causing them any pain. Experiments were Thursday evening.
Ay act of last Session provides for the expiry, on made at the Royal Veterinary School, and it is said
Sunday next, the 1st of November, of seven pro- that they have fully proved the truth of the proWe must absolutely decline attending to any communi. vincial trusts. The most important removals will fessor's invention. Within the space of a few cations unaccompanied by the name and address of the writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of good be at Hereford, Bury St. Edmunds, and Devizes. minutes four rabbits, three dogs, and a goat were faith, ED. M. M.
The Devizes gates surrounded the town, and the killed in this manner. The most remarkable thing Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGA
“ freedom of the road " is to be celebrated by a about this " killing made easy” is the fact that ZINE, at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inser- banquet and a bonfire, for which latter object two of leaves absolutely no outward trace, and it can be as tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists the obnoxious gates were purchased at the sale of easily applied to men as to animals ; if so, it is to of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same rate the trust property.
be hoped the method is not easy of application.