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force that can be exerted by hydraulic pressure, in diameters, the pressure given by the pumps is in mitted—strains, it must be remembered, which are practice the difficulties commonce at a certain point. this cylinder multiplied. The superior power thus excessively heavy at each occurrence of the final So far as these machines have been used hitherto, produced forces up the three rams, and with them pressure to å bale. There are in Bombay com a maximum pressure of two tons to the square incbthe cotton, the last few inches of the stroke to the panies formed specially for pressing cotton, and has been employed ; but even with this enormous ultimate point desired. One of the doors of the box the leading merchants also have pressing factories pressure, it is necessary to have a very consider- is then opened, the hoops are fastened, and then the of their own, and the different kinds of presses able area of ram to obtain the required total, and to other doors being opened, the water in the cylinders are held to be best by their respective owners. A got this with one cylinder involves practical diffi- is let to waste, and the rams descend. The elastic machine, known as Hodgart's cotton press, embodies culties, well known to engineers. It at all times cotton at once expands into the small distance a very ingenious combination of hydraulic and leter requires great care and skill to cast cylinders ca- allowed by the hoops, and with but slight assistance powers. The pressure is put upon the cotton by pable of taking high hydraulic pressure, and the from the workmon the bale tumbles from the box the force of the hydraulic ram on the levers. The risk increases very rapidly with the diameter of the and falls down a shoot to the floor below. Meanprocess by pumping being in ordinary presses slow, cylinder. While with a small diameter, a moderate while, the other box having been filled with cotton, it was here endeavoured to reduce the quantity of thickness of metal will successfully endure enor- it is pushed round into its place over the rams, and water necessary to be pumped by having a ram of

mous pressure, cylinders of large diameter must be is in its turn subjected to the pressure of the small area, and by multiplying the power so gained made of excessive strength to resist fracture. But water, and so the process is repeated without interby the levers, This press, at its usual rate of as beyond a certain thickness cast iron becomes mission. speed, will pack ten bales per hour, and it is spongy and porous, such castings would be liable possible to do fourteen; but this is too severe

The merits claimed by the inventor for his mato unsoundness and the water would ooze through chine are as follows:-It being acknowledged that of labour for the men.

At the time of the Abyssinian to the surface. Moreover, the castings would be in all mechanical appliances hydraulic pressure exerts expedition, hay was packed for the troops at the conveniently heavy and difficult to transport. In the greatest force, full advantage is taken of the rate of fifteen bales per hour; but this was an ex- the present invention, the required area is obtained fact by having a large area of rams and a high ceptional and extraordinary spood, that could not by placing three cylinders with 8-inch rams side by well be repeated. It is considered, in Bombay, side, and these giving a total area of 150in., a force foot can be compressed and held within the hoops

pressure. More than 30lb. of cotton per cubic good work to pack eight to ten bales per hour with of 300 tons is produced by the pressure before for shipment, and as, after pressing, the elastic the presses gonerally used. All the machines that named. If necessary this pressure could be increased, cotton expands and slightly stretches the hoops, a have been here described are compound in their as, in fact, a much higher degree had been obtained larger quantity than 301b. has to be squeezed at action and are subject to severe and varying strains. with hydraulic presses. The Bombay Press Company uses Nasmyth's Tho box in which the cotton is pressed is in plan result. The simplicity and smoothness of the pro

the final moment of pressing to obtain the above press, which is one of the best that has yet been of the dimension usual for a marketable bale, and

cess obviates the excessive wear and tear which is invented. No diagram is necessary to show its in height sufficient to hold enough loose cotton to unavoidable in machines where the pressure is action, which is extremely simple. The pressure give a bale of the required thickness when pressed. obtained by levers or screws. is effected by three hydraulic rams placed side by The box is made entirely of wrought iron, strongly packing leathers is extremely small. Great uncer

The friction on tho side. At the beginning of the stroke, while the framed, and the upper part of it, where the ultimate tainty oxisted until recently on this point, and all cotton is in a pliable state, the power is applied pressure is received, is of considerable thickness. makers of hydraulic presses differed from each by one cylinder only. Towards the end of the This part of the box is placed all over, so as to pre-other on the subject. Professor Rankine gavo stroke, the other two rams are also set in motion, sent a true and smooth surface to the cotton. The 10 per cent of the total load as the amount wasted the two cylinders having been filled with water, so doors are made so that three of the four sides can by the friction of the leathers, but the whole quesas to save time in pumping when the power is open. One of the special points in this invention, tion has been most successfully investigated by applied to them.

for which a separate patent has been secured, is the Mr. Hicks, of Bolton, who by his experiments, Mr. George Ashcroft, having given this subject revolving boxes, the advantages of which will be which are recorded in his admirable little treatise much attention, invented and patentod a machine apparent when the operation of the machine is de- published last yenr, proves that the friction of the in which he obtained the power of hydraulic pres- seribed. The “ accumulator" is of the well known leathers on an 8-inch ram is about 1-200th part of sure combined with rapidity. The first and easy simple kind, consisting of a cylindor and ram, the the total load, the decimal varying from 0.33 to pressure on the cotton was rapidly effected by a latter supporting a box which, as the ram ascends 0-50 according as the leathers are more or less steam piston, only the final and severe pressure and descends, moves up and down in guides. This being given by a hydraulic ram. This press box can be made either of wood or iron, and can be worn, and well or sparingly lubricated. worked satisfactorily, and would probably have filled with any heavy substance, such as stone, iron, The principle of the accumulator is well known, been pushed to success by the inventor had he or wet sand. There are a set of three hydraulic and for working cranes, opening dock gates, and not thought of something better. If the first pumps of equal size, driven by a pair of horizontal many other purposes, has been in operation some evolving of a simple but important mechanical engines. From these pumps there are communi- time. It is probable that sooner or later some one principle be a great thing, the extension of it to cating pipes to the accumulator and press rams, and would have applied it to baling presses, but at processes in which it has not been adopted before to the small differential cylinder. The mode of work- any rate Mr. Ashcroft has done it, and he only. is of almost equal practical importance. Mr. Ash- ing is as follows :-The house consists of a ground Instead of the power, whether it be that of steam, croft determined to apply the accumulator to a floor and two floors above. Upon the ground floor are water, men, or cattle, having to be applied as is cotton press, and has most successfully done so.

fixed the steam-engine, the pumps, the press, and the necessary in other presses, with concentrated Before describing this machine, the writer would accumulator cylinder; but the latter might, if ne- energy during the short time of the actual comremark that he had very much wished to obtain eessary or conveniont, be placed a hundred yards pression of the cotton, in the present case, during accurate information of the machines used in away. The framework of the press reaches through the whole time of filling the boxes, changing them, America, and felt that no discussion would be com- the floor to the top of the chamber above. In the and hooping the bales, the pumps are quietly at plete, that ignored the practice of the greatest uppermost chamber the loose cotton is stored, and work forcing up the accumulator box, which, at cotton growing country in the world. He had when the baling takes place at the port of ship- the proper moment, gives forth all its power, and failed in procuring drawings from the United ment the ginned cotton generally arrives in loosely does all that is required in a few seconds. The States, but has had a long letter from an engineer packed bales. On the centre floor are the handles revolving boxes are an ingenious part of the main New York, who has given this subject his special for working the valves, and here is posted the chine, and by their arrangement obviously savo sitention for many years, and who sends home engineer who has control of the nuachinė. During much time. Twenty-five or more bales can be some very interesting particulars. As might be the whole time of pressing and baling the cotton, packed and hooped per hour. The power being expected, there are in America a vast number of the engines and pumps are at work. The dead load direct acting, there are few parts that are liable to inventions for all processes connected with cotton. in the accumulator box is forced up with a pressure need repair, and the occasional renewal of the packIn the various cotton States there are differences on the ram of less than one ton to the inch, the ing leathers entails but a small expense. In of custom as to the size of the bales, and so in exact weight in the box determining the precise Alexandria the accumulator press is in full operaTexas, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and degree of pressure which has to be exerted upon tion, and at Bombay also it is exciting much inFlorida, there are different kinds of baling machines the ram. This accumulated power having been ob- terest among the cotton merchants, some of whom used. Levers and screws, hydraulic and steam tained, the apparatus is ready for work. The men are now in treaty with a view to its adoption there. prossure, have been combined in many different upon the top floor having placed the bagging in the In conclusion, the writer would romark that the ways, and with varying success. Wood is more box, and filled it with loose cotton, which they importance of the cotton trade having been the used in America than in England in the construc- trample down, the men below push the revolving cause of so many attempts to make good presses, tion of machines, and machines so made would boxes round, so that the cotton-filled box is over the same cauşe is no less a stimulus now. The probably not find farour elsewhere. Very likely the rams. The boxes revolve upon the strong cotton trade is increasing so rapidly in India, English machines would be condemned there. As vertical column, the weight being taken on balls, Egypt, and elsewhere, that the best machines will one of the incidents arising out of the war, when which rest upon the collar, the bearing surfaces undoubtedly have to be adopted by all those who the Southern ports were shut out from the rest above being turned and bored to fit.

wish to keep pace with the age. The railways that of the States, the tlockade runners took over Eng A portion of the floor revolves with the boxes. are being opened romove one great hindrance to lish made presses, and among others some of The hooping irons having been placed in recesses the cotton grower. Hitherto, the cotton has been M'Comb's, but they found no purchasers. Every at the top of the press, the engineer opens the packed loosely in the growing districts by the other detail of cotton packing is studied by in-valve which admits the high-pressnre water to the natives, and has had to be repacked at the port, ventors in the States, and the correspondent before At once the accumulator box descends, and the merchant not daring to send to England bales referred to, says that there are some fifty different the three rams of the press ascend, forcing the that might be filled with dirty cotton, or with stones patents even for modes of fastening the baling loose bottom of the box upon the cotton. But as to increase the weight. The inland carriage of the hoops. In the London Patent Office, the writer has the accumulator box descends, the pumps being cotton is very expensive, and like the freight by seen more than a dozon specifications on the same still at work, in some measure restore the height ship, is calculated by the bulk occupied by the subject. It would be interesting if the printing of the water column, and the accumulator ram cotton. It has been almost impossible to take up of the present paper were to result in the supply gently ascends and descends as the water is thus country the heavy machinery necessary for pressing definite information from America on the whole withdrawn and restored. When the cotton is coming bales in a marketable condition, but as the subject.

pressed upwards as tightly as the rams can force railway system is developed, it is probable that in The Accumulator Cotton Press is the invention it, the engineer shuts the valve which admits the the centre of the growing districts proper pressos of Mr. George Ashcroft, who designed the machine water from the accumulator and the pumps, an will be established. Mr. Ashcroft is now giving to fulfil the two main requisites of great power and opens one which admits the water from the dif- his attention to a village press, the particulars of of speed. While in theory there is no limit to the ferential cylinder. By means of rams of different which he may possibly send home to the society.



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refuse ; even walls along the sides had fallen in, out this work the following system is adopted

and there they lay, the owners of the land not con- Dams are made across the river at various places WORKS.

sidering the material worth removing ; it was also and at convenient distances, to exclude backwater now being carried out for the improvement foundations of walls being built alongside, into the the stream. The place between any two dams is of the Medlock, which are of a sufficiently remark- river, thereby raising the bed and causing much thus laid dry, and the excavation of the deposit able character. The Manchester Corporation re- damage during floods.

commenced. The two accompanying engravings cently got an Act for this improvement, and In a length of over two miles—the part now being show the arrangement very clearly; for these iauthority to prevent parties from throwing rubbish improved about 5,000ft. of river walling have and the present particulars we are indebted to nto the river, and the Act is now being rigorously been built, in over fifty lengths of wall, making the the “ Engineer.” About 7,000 gallons of water enforced. It had been the custom to make the course of the river 30ft. in width, and about 60,000 per minute come down the stream in dry weather river bed a depository for engine ashes and other tons of deposit are being removed. In carrying and to dispose of this it was necessrry to carry it

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over the space being excavated without interfering water level tho greatest height the water has been well as by the bolts bolting the troughs to eac'ı with the operations. In order to effect this, the dammed.

other. The dam to raise the water are illustrated water is carried in a wooden conduit over lengths The conduit troughs are in lengths of 16ft. of in our engravings. A balk of timber is placed across of about 200 yards, the upper dam being raised il-inch planking, supported on screw piles, entering the river over flood level. To this T-iron, 4in. by sufficiontly to give the head required to cause the the ground about 2}ft. below the surface of the new 3in., is fixed as upright bars, between which are water to flow through the conduit. Great care is bed. Where the troughs join each other a strip of fitted cast-iron plates 5ft. 6in. by lft. 4in., and a necessary in the raising of the water so as not to india-rubber is introduced, and bolts are employed strip of india-rubber is let into a groove all round cause flooding of the works, mills, &c., along the to tighten up the joint in much the same way as the edge of these plates, so that when one drops on river, many of the lower storeys of which are placed with an iron pipe. The river during heavy rains the other a joint is made. Where the plates come much under flood lovel. The inclination given to rises very rapidly, and to provent the troughs from against the flanges of the T-irons, a piece of indiathe conduit has varied, one inch in the hundred being carried away or displaced, they are secured rubber is also placed. These plates are put well feet being the average, and 4fft. over ordinary lacross the tops by cross planks over each joint, as down into the river bed, and a puddle flooring is

trodden into the river bed behind the dam ; the general arrangements for holding the seventeenth object of the india-rubber is to dispense with the use anniversary of the formation of the society.

TIDAL WAVES AT THE ANTIPODES. of puddle behind the plates as far as possible. The Finally, it was determined that the celebration upright bars are so fastened that by striking a pin should take the form of a banqueta celebratiale WE have already briefly referred to the great tida! which holds them to the beam, they, with the plates, similar to that of February last, and which it last rolled in on different parts of Australia and are carried forward by the pressure of the water appeared had given unmixed satisfaction to all New Zealand, doing some damage at Chatham from behind, which escapes. Mon are always on the present. The period named for the interesting Island. Some interesting particulars will be found watch to prevent the water being dammed over a event was about the middle of the month of in the following extract from a recent letter of the certain level. A relief shoot is first opened when a February next. Mr. James Irvine, of Messrs. Considerable light has within the last few days been

“ Times” correspondent in Australia. He says: rise occurs in the river, and if this is not sufficient Simpson's Engine Works, Pimlico, then proceeded thrown on this phenomenon by the accounts we to keop the water below the mark, the whole dam to road a paper on rock-boring engines. This have received of the frightful succession of most is thrown entirely open.

constituted an elaborate treatise on the subject, destructive earthquakes which occurred shortly Owing to the presence of weirs, and the slight with succinct and highly practical details of all before in Peru. The full particulars of these awful inclination already mentioned, pumping is required, kinds of apparatus invented and contrived for visitations you will long since have learnt by way of not because of leakage in the dam, nor from the piercing rocks by mechanical means. Those en- America. Mr. Ellery, of the Melbourno Observaconduit; but town's drains, sewers, &c., empty gines which have comparatively failed were mi- tory, the president of our Royal Society, a very themselves into the lengths between the dams, as nutely described, and this enabled the audience to scientific man, last evening, in answer to a question well as the waste water from works. This water judge better of the merits of such as had been from Professor Wilson, made the following obserhas, therefore, to be thrown over the back dam or more successful. To Doering's patent boring on these earthquakes and the tidal waves which ocinto the conduit; hand pumps were found inade- gino, which is in daily use in many of the Cornish curred on this side of the Pacific. He said he had quate for this purpose, and a Woodward's fan pump, mines, and which was manufactured under the been asked to offer a few notes on the great tidal as used at Blackfriars Bridge, capable of throwing suporintendence of the author of the paper, a very wave. He had not been able to prepare any paper, 1,000 gallons a minute, was adopted, which has exact description, illustrated with diagrams, was but he had a few notes, in which, judging from the worked admirably. A line of rails is laid down in given. This machine, as may be known to most time when the earthquake was felt in Callao and the dry bed of the river, channel iron 4in, wide of our readers, is worked by compressed air, and when the tidal wave reached the Australian shore, being employed for rails, sufficiently heavy to pre- the way in which the drill is made to advance he had endeavoured to compute the time which it vent the sleepers from floating. Waggons to carry and revolve by that agency is at once ingenious, took the tidal wave to cross the Pacific Ocean. The two-thirds of a cubic yard, and weighing when simple, and effective. The apparatus may be said time of the wave was recorded at Sydney to a few loaded about one ton, are worked on these rails. to be automatic, indeed, once the air for supplying castle and in New Zealand. He had reduced the These are lifted by a steam crane by Mossrs. it is pressed up to 25lb. or 30lb. per square inch time taken at those places to Melbourne mean Appleby and Brothers, and deposited direct into by steam power, and admitted to its miniature time, and, according to that reckoning, the first the carts. The engineers in charge inform us that cylinders. The air is made to move the slide indication felt of the wave was at about half-past this crane has been found very convenient; it is valves and pistons, to hammer the drills into the 2 the morning of the 15th of August, the indilighter than any other make of steam crane of the granite or other kind of rock, to deal heavy or cation being shown only by the self-registering same power, and, as it requires moving nearly light blows at will, to affix the whole machine on tide gauge ; but the great wave was not observed every week, this is a great object. The work done the “sucker" principle in a moment at any spot, until 24 minutes past I on the same morning. at pressures varying from 50lb. to 70lb. of steam, and when it escapes it assists to ventilate the mine. The first indication at Newcastle was at 2 minutes equals to forty waggon loads an hour 30ft. in height. Air is really tho soul of the contrivance, so to past? in the morning; two hours afterwards a As many as 150 waggon loads have been hoisted up speak, and admirably and economically it is made pretty full wave was noticed, and five hours afterin three hours ; common gas coke is used for firing. to do its mission. Owing to the absence of lovers, coast of New Zealand the time extended from about

The contract was taken by Mr. John Killien. pins, springs, and other fitments of that nature, 5 a.m. of the 15th of August to nearly on hour after Since his death, in December last, the works have Doering's engine enjoys immunity from ordinary noon. The date of the earthquake at Callao was the been, with the sanction of the executors, carried on derangements. Without diagrams, it is difficult 13th of August, but no time was given. Assuming by his son, under the direction of Mr. W. J. Max-to give a very lucid mechanical description it to have occurred at an early hour of the morning well, C.E., who designed the system we have illu- of the engine, but it can scarcely fail to make ---say, 8 o'clock of their time—there would be strated and described. The work is now nearly headway, in every sense of the word. On the ter- between that time and the observance of the tidal completed.

mination of the paper an animated discussion took wave at Sydney 32 hours, which, reckoning the

placo, and this was joined in by Messrs. Keyte, distance at about 6,500 statute miles, or 5,700 geoTRIAL OF A NEW FIRE ENGINE. Dewar, Walker, Edmonds, Bunt, Gibbon, Stabler, about 200 miles an hour-a rapidity with which he

graphical miles, would give a velocity to the wave of the chairman, and others. N Wednesday week a new fire engine, supplied proceedings of a most instructive sitting to a very earthquake appeared to have extended over a very

This protracted the should scarcely have thought it could travel. The and Mason, was tested with great success. At about two o'clock, the fire brigade turned out into mentary terms by the president, was unanimously have reached from Ideg. north to 22deg south, and

most likely it had gone still further south, to Valpathe Market-place, with the new engine, where they

raiso. The above observations of Mr. Ellery must were met by the chairman and the greater part of the

necessarily be interesting to natural philosophers, as watch committee. The engine having been placed

contributing to throw light on one of the most awful on the square, the pipes were fixed to a hydrant,


calamities of modern times.
and water was convoyed into a suction tank (which
holds about 60 gallons), from which a large suc-

TANY of our readers will doubtless have observed

parliamentary notices of several important tion pipe was attached to the engine pump. At street tramway schemes. Foremost amongst these oight minutos past two the fire was lighted, and may be named the Metropolitan Tramways Bill, for TELEGRAPHS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA, in about 4min. more the steam guage began to which the indefatigable Messrs. John Noble and Co., rise. In 5 min. the pressure had reached 5lb. ; Westminster, are to petition, for the fourth succes


THERE are at present 1,1131 miles of telegraphic in 6ļmin. it marked 10lb.; in 7min. 151b. ; in sive year, if we mistake not. Since Messrs. Noble 1,6424 miles of wire. The Australian tariff is con

line open in South Australia, which represent 7 min. 201b.; in 7 min. 25lb. ; in 8min. 301b.; in and their co-promoters first directed their energies siderably less than those generally adopted in 8 min. 35lb. ; and 1001b. pressure was reached in to this species of enterprise, they have obtained Acts England and the continent of Europe. The advan9min. 15sec., water issuing from the jet in 10sec. for the construction of tramways in Dublin and in tages of the system may be understood from the more. The engine having been set to work with Liverpool, but tho merits of their bill for London statistical facts that whereas last year in South 1fin. jet, a strong and regular stream of water was have never been gone into. One year it has failed Australia the ratio of the number of telegrams sent thrown a distance of about 60 yards, the spray in a technicality, another it has been rejected by the to the number of letters transmitted through the reaching many feet further, and subsequently to House without inquiry. The plans for their next a altitude of from 140ft. to 150ft. After playing bill show a somewhat compressed scheme, and do post was 1 to 19, jn. Belgium there was one telewith a 17in, jet for some time in style, two fin. not include, as last year's bill did, a tramway south gram for every 32 letters, and in England one telojets were brought into action, and poured a volume of the Thames. The lines they now propose are in tioned country there were on an average three tele

In the first-menof water whicb, for the length of distance and alti- Islington and Holloway from Finsbury, outwards graphic messages sent for every four of the poputude, could not be but satisfactory to all who by the City-road, and eastwards from Whitechapel lation, while one telegram for every seven persons witnessed it. A jet of 1 gin. was next attached, the to Bow and Stratford. Another tramway bill will constituted the ratio in England. It has been proother jets being disconnected, and with a pressure be petitioned for, it may be presumed, from the pose that the Post Office and the telegraphic sysof water at 801b., and the steam gauge frequently in- plans having been deposited, which will commence tems be amalgamated as projected in this country, dicating 1051b., 1101b., and even 1201b. and 130lb., I at Pimlico, cross the Thames by Vauxhall Bridge, and it has been suggested, with a view to accomplish a stream of water was projected first vertically and proceed in a south-easterly and easterly direc- this result, that tho postmasters should remit in postand then horizontally to the distances above stated. tion to Peckham and Greenwich. The plans are age stamps the cost of the messages forwarded, which The most striking evidence of the capability of the not required to show the pattern of rail proposed could be eashed at the Post Office. The working engine, however, was given when the 1}in. jet to be used upon these tramways. The most diffi- of the lines has been satisfactory, and there have was connected. The volume of water, we are in-cult element in the problem lies, as it seems, in this been few interruptions and scarcely any casualties. formed, was cast with such regularity and force as -the adoption of a rail that will not obstruct the Of the 39 interruptions recorded, 20 were attributto leave nothing to be desired.

ordinary traffic, and that will, at the same time, be able to storms, nine arose from defects in the workcapable of securing a valuable exclusive right to a ing, and sis from absolute carelessness. Great in

company as a quid pro quo for the cost of laying and convenience and expense were also incurred from LONDON ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN

maintaining it. The rail proposed by Messrs. Noble, the wilful destruction of insulators. The results ENGINEERS.

which we illustrated some time since, appears well of the year 1867 were satisfactory in a financial THE usual monthly meeting took place on designed to meet all objections, and will, we trust, point of view. The revenue

amounted to THE Saturday, the 5th inst. It was most nume- help them to obtain their bill.

£12,368 2s. 4d., which represented an increase of rously attended, and the chair was filled by Mr. J.

£178 78 20. over the receipts of the preceding Newton, of the Mint. The first business transacted

THE “ Messager de Cronstadt” states that the year. There was, however, a loss of £616 23., consisted in the election of Messrs

lerson and entire expanse visible around that place is covered caused by excess of working expenses over rerenue McGillivray as honorary members. This was with a compact sheet of ice. Communications with in certain parts. The expenditure on new lines followed by a discussion as to the time, place, and Oranienbaum are kept up with sledges.

was £5,125 11s.

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