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cover C is furnished with a small conically-shaped plied with marked success in Liverpool. Great

aperture c, to admit of the insertion of the pen. expense has been incurred last year by the corAT Ta meeting of the Institution of Civil In fig. 2 is shown the button D, which serves to poration in endeavouring to effect the ventilation

Engineers, held December 15, 1868, impart a revolving motion to the disc and cups A. of their sewers, in which, by the aid of Howarth's Mr. C. 8. Gregory, President, in the chair, The stand may be of metal

, glass, china, or any ventilator, they have happily succeeded.

The the paper read was. “On Machines Employed in materials ordinarily employed in the manufacture method adoptod is to connect an 8-inch earthenWorking and Breaking-down Coal, so as to Avoid of those articles. Upon turning the button D ware pipe to the sewer, which is carried away to the Use of Gunpowder,” by Mr. S. P. Bidder, jun., towards the right, the small cups fill, and one of the gable end of the house, or any other convenient Assoc. Inst. C.E.

position. From the earthenware pipe an iron tube It was stated that the object of this communi- FIG.1.


is carried up the side of the house and is surcation was to direct attention to the "winning

mounted by a ventilator. About 1,000 ventilators of coal by mechanical appliances, with the view of

are now applied in Liverpool in this way, and the obviating the loss in production and the danger

sowers are comparatively wholesome. The shafts to the colliers which were incidental to the use of

are carried far above any windows, so that there is gunpowder. Several inventions for this purpose

no fear of the poisonous gases boing inhaled. described, including the machines of

Since the adoption of these shafts and ventilators, Mr. Cochrane, Mr. Chubb, Mr. Grafton Jones, and

wo understand a great reduction in the rate of Mr. Farum; and it was remarked that the great

mortality has taken place. The efficiency of this defect in all these machines was their limited

invention is undeniable, and its success unquesexpansive power, which did not exceed 3in., and to

tionable. We have only to add that these venti

lators are manufactured by Mr. J. L. Norton, of breaking down a mass of coal in a workable state. them comes immediately under the orifice c, lifting Belle Sauvage-yard, Ludgato-hill

. Machines for cutting grooves or slots in the coal the ink with it ready for use.

These cups are had also been tried, but it was said only with widened out at the uprer extremity, so that when partial success. they are in a vertical position, the quantity of ink

A NEW CLACK VALVE. After fully considering these various systems, taken up fille a greater space, vertically considered, the author had, in conjunction with Mr. John than when they are in motion. This is for the N improved form of the clack valve is now being Jones, devised a machine which had been submitted purpose of facilitating the taking it up by the pen. extensively introduced in America (through the to actual trial on a working scale at the The disc is retained in the position it is placed in agency of Mr. T. P. Pemberton, of the American Harecastle Colliery, where the results were so by turning the button D, by a couple of india-rub- Journal of Mining,”) which wherever it has been satisfactory as to induce the proprietors to make ber washers ~, which make a hermetically tight is the invention of Mr. A. H. Simons, of Philadelphia, arrangements for its immediate adoption. The joint between the disc and the body of the stand. and combines simplicity and durability with great machine consisted of a small hydraulic press of On referring to the figures, it will be seen that facility for repairs. The clack valve is, of all valves, 12 tons power, to which was attached a pair of there is a small space or clearance between the that least liable to derangement, yet it was doubtless tension bars, bent in the form of a connecting-rod disc and the bottom of the interior of the stand. capable of considerablo improvement. It consists, or hinge-strap. These were placed one over the By this arrangement, any foreign substance that as is well known, of a flap of leather or ot!:or maother in the bore-hole, and between them, at the may have got into the ink is precipitated in this terial covering the orifice, and fixed down at one edge, extremo end, there were a clearance box and two space, when the disc is turned

round again previ- so as to open, as it were, on a hinge. The leatlier metal pressing blocks, between which was forced, ously to the ink being used. If the disc be valve has to be weighted with metal, so that it may by the action of the hydraulic press, a split wedge furnished with only one cup, it will require a whole close rapidily and keep rigid. These valves are fro15in. long, causing å lateral expansion of 3in. revolution to cause it to come under the orifice, but quently

marie of india-rubber, closing upon a grating The ram 'was then withdrawn, and a second if four be provided, every quarter of a rovolution over the valves to prevent them from rising too wedge was inserted between the two parts of the will suffice. When it is desirable to, what might high. When one piece of leather or other substance first wedge, and was forced up until sufficient be termed, throw the apparatus out of gear, the used for the valve is fastened down in the centre, so expansion was obtained to break the coal. The button may be turned to the left; the ink conse- as to form two clacks, the arrangement is termed the operation could be repeated several times if quently falls out of the cups to mix with that in butterfly clack. Another kind of valve is the conical found necessary. The whole apparatus would the body of the stand, and the orifice is closed by form, which consists of a flat or slightly curved plate weigh about 50lbs. The hydraulic press was in the solid part of the disc between two of the cups. of metal, of which the periphery is in the form of the future to be made of steel

, and the ram would be in the present instance, an eighth of a revolution frustrum of a cone, fitting into a seat of correspondcored out. In practical working, each gang of would be sufficient to close the aperture.

ing shape. In order that this valve may rise verticolliers would be provided with the tension bars

cally, it is sometimes furnished with a spindle, movand three wedges, while the presses would be

ing in guides, and sometimes provided with three or

four guides, projecting from its lower surface, and under the charge of the men who at present THE ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW VENTILATOR fitting the pipe beneath the valve. Stops are placed occupy the position of firemen, so that no now class of labour would be introduced, while the THIS ventilator is the invention of Mr. Howarth, monly used for locomotive feed pumps, consists of risk of firing would be got rid of. Trials had boon made both in the 7ft. and the 9ft. seams at adapted for all situations and for any purpose hollow spherical seat, its rise being regulated by Harecastle ; and in the latter, with three wedges, whore ventilation is necessary. The principal guards. It is a great desideratum to obtain a valve about twelve tons of coal had been brought down features of these ventilators are—the revolving which shall close rapidly, so that it may reach its seat in only three or four pieces. It was found that hood, the Archimedean screw, and the internal before the column of water above it begins to return, tho pross could be applied and the blocks brought arrangements for lubrication, by means of which whereby loss of water is obviated and concussions down in less time than was consumed by firing the ventilator will revolve with the smallest amount avoided. The surfaces of contact between valves and and waiting for the smoke clearing.

of wind, and without any noise. The hood has their seats are generally produced by scraping or Explosions in mines were known to arise, very side vanes to let out the hot vitiated air, and to grinding, so as to obtain the highest degree of accufrequently, from the employment of gunpowder prevent rain or snow beating inside ; on the top of they should be of the same kind as the seat, or otherfor blasting. In the interests of humanity alone the hood are curved vanes acted upon by the wind wise galvanic action will ensue, causing the corroan efficient substitute had long been desired by

sion of that surface which is formed the most practical men; and this, it was believed, had been

electrically-positive metal. With a feed-pump for accomplished by the machine under consideration,

boilers are connected suction and delivery valves, which had also the advantage of preventing the

and also a check valve, the purpose of the latter waste of coal incurred by the present system.

being to prevent a reaction of the water after it has been forced by the pump through the delivery valves. The check valve, as commonly used, has a conical

seat, and the valve is placed within a metallic box, INKSTAND.

or casing, which is connected with the wrought-iron T needs but a glance at the number of shapes

feed pipe. The check valve is placed as near the IT and principles of inkstands in use to prove

point of feed on the boiler as possible. Understanding

the use of the check valve, it is at once apparent that that one which shall obviate the many inconveni

lits action should be reliable at all times, and keep encos attendant upon those necessary accompani

perfectly tight when closed. In the improved valve, ments of office work is still a desideratum. Omit

a peculiarly arranged ball and socket joint is substiting tho consideration of foreign substances getting

tuted for the hinge, the socket being formed in two into an inkstand full of ink, either by chance or

parts, the upper of which screws into the valve box carelessness, the great contaminator of its contents

at the opening through which the valve is reached. is unquestionably the atmosphere; and bearing in mii the nature of tho atmosphere usually existing

ANOTHER case of death produced by the seliin offices and counting-houses, then it is no wonder

administration of chloroforn for the relief of pain, that it is a difficult matter to preserve the ink pure

has been reported in the daily papers. It has now M. Stlotz has designed an inkstand which is cal

ofton happened that persons have inhaled chloroform culated to remove some of the many objections

after having laid themselves down in bed, and have raised against this useful appliance. It allows the like the sails of a ship, by which means the head died, not from the direct effects of the anæsthetic, ink to be shaken before being used, completely revolves. The screw, connected with the hood by but from suffocation, due to the position assumed prevents the introduction of foreign bodies, and a spindle, revolves with the hood, and produces a during anæsthesia. It cannot be too strongly impermits the quantity to be varied acoording as oc- strong continuous up-current, at the same time pre-pressed upon the public, that the self-use of chlorocasion demands, without fear of spilling, even vents the admission of cold air, or a down draught. form must always be highly dangerous, and can when the holder is full. The action will be readily This ventilator is adapted to, and extensively in use scarcely ever be justifiable. We, Lancet,” fear that expressible from the figures, which represent two at, cotton and other mills, bleach and dye works, a custom has sprung up of permitting patients labourvertical.sectiong made in planes porpendicular to stables, &c., where a supply of good air, and the ing under painful diseases of a remittent kind to take one another. It will be seon tha consists of a expulsion of that which has becomo impure, is strongly urge that the dangers of such a practice are disc with four cups A, placed in the interior of the essential

. It is also specially adapted for the venti- too great to be incurred on account of any considerabody of the stand B containing the isik. Thlation of sewers, to which purpose it has been ap- tions of convenience.



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Kittoe and Brotherhood, of 56, Compton street, Clerkenwell, and which is illustrated opposite. It is well worthy the attention of those who require to raise large quantities of water and transmit it from place to place through pipes. The steam piston and pump piston are fixed on the same rod. This rod is prolonged upwards into the flat case, shown on the upper part of the machine, and is fitted with a crosshead, into which takes a crank. pin on a disc revolving within the case.

The flywheel shaft is carried in a tubular bracket accurately bored to receive it. At the end of this bracket is a disc, in the lower part of which a vertical slot is cut which acts as a guide for the head of the slide valve spindle. In the fly-wheel boss, an eccentric groove is turned which lays hold of a stud projecting from the top of the valve spindle, which spindle is thus driven up and down by the rotation of the shaft. By removing the six nuts, shown in front elevation, all the pump valves can be removed for examination or repair in five minutes. The pump is double-acting, and will throw from 3,000 to 10,000 gallons per hour according to the size. The parts are well got up, and wo think this is a very excellent steam pump—compact, reliable, and cheap.

THE PARAGON ENGINE. T the late Smithfield Club Show, we found a A. Kittoo and Brotherhood, of 56, Compton-street, ROSSETTER'S IMPROVEMENTS IN LOOMS bowl h, and raises the spring e, the next beat up Clerkenwell. This engine is illustrated in the

of the slag raising the shuttle guard f, which is annexed engraving. The piston is fitted with a THE object of this invention is to change, by a connected to the bracket and bowl h, so that a block on the upper surface, in which is a V-shaped space, within which the connecting rod works. the weft is broken or absent for another shuttle with continuing the loom working. A shuttle is shown Both the crank and connecting rod work inside the the west ready for weaving, without stopping the going into the slag in the drawing. On fig. 1 will cylinder; there is, therefore, no stuffing-box. The loom. This is effected by means of mechanism be seen a table A, with a receptacle or box B, for crank shaft is made tight where it passes through of great simplicity and efficiency, which forms the holding shuttles one above another, as many as the side of the case on top of the cylinder by a subject of the accompanying engraving. It is the may be deemed convenient. The table A and slagfacod collar. The slide valve is actuated precisely patented invention of Mr. William Rossetter, of plate C are made with projections and spaces so as as in the paragon pump by the same firm. The Scaitcliffe, Accrington, and is of considerable im- to form a bridge or continuous surface for the V-shaped piece on the top of the piston is intro- portance to the trade. Figs. 1, 2, and 3 are front shuttle to travel on into the slag. On fig. 2 will duced to save steam, by reducing clearance. and end views of an ordinary loom, provided with be seen a table A, brackets and light springs B, for

It is impossible to see how the steam engine can arrangements for placing a shuttle with weft at one receiving a shuttle; when absent or broken weft is bo presented to the public in a simpler form, and end of the slag, and removing a shuttle with brokenor indicated, this table and slag-plate have projections although the design is not applicable to high absent weft from the other end of the slag without and spaces to form a bridge or continuous surface powers, it appears to be well suited for many stopping the loom. The ordinary weft fork holder for the shuttle to travel on when being expelled situations where there is but little room available, g is secured to the lover h on the shaft I. When from the slag to the table A, brackets and light and the consumption of steam is moderate, and breakage or absence of weft takes place, the shaft spring B. The lover J on shaft I is shown in posithe loss by friction vory small. Owing to the small I makes part of a revolution in the direction of tion, with the shuttle guard raised, and as the slag number of parts, and general simplicity of the ma- the arrow, thereby moving the lever J on the shaft I. moves towards the table, the lever J moves the chino, its price is exceedingly low.

The lovor'J comes in contact with the bracket and lovor 1 which is in connection with the slide m, and

was a case i

removes the shuttle from the slag to the table A, was 9in. thick, and carried straight across under brackets and light springs B. The machine shown the boiler, whereas it is always recommended that

Legal Intelligence. is an ordinary over-pick loom.

these walls should be only 44in. thick, and recessed The advantage of this invention is that the slag round the blow-out elbow pipe, when there would JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY carries only the shuttle that is working. The table be less liability for this corrosion to occur, and less

COUNCIL A and box B in fig. 1 being stationary, the operator opportunity for its going on destroying the plates

DECEMBER 16. has no difficulty in placing the shuttles in the unawares. box; whereas, in the other machines, the operator One case of improper treatment of safety valves (President-Lord CHELMSFORD, Chief Baron KELLY, has to place shuttles in a box fixed to the slag was met with on two boilers set side by side, and

Sir J. COLVILLE, and Sir L. PEEL.) when running to and fro, which can be accom- working at as high a pressure as 70lb. per square

IN RE BERTRAM'S PATENT. plished only by expert hands, and with difficulty inch. Each boiler had two safety valves, one of This was an application for an extension of the when working at high speeds, which is not so with open lover construction, the other bonnetted over patent granted to William Bertram, who had been a Mr. Rossetter's invention. In worsted goods this and arranged to blow off both at high steam and working man, for improvements in the manuloom is specially beneficial, on account of the cops or low water. In order to keep tho safety valve of facture of iron ships, steam and other boilers, bobbins holding but little of that material. Several the open lever from rising too high, the attendant bridgos and other

structures. of those looms have been made in England and bad inserted a wedge in the guido through which Mr. Groves, Q.C. (with whom was Mr. Aston) sont abroad, and others are now in course of the lever passed, and the arrangement was such appeared for the petitioner ; Mr. Archibald repremanufacture for home use.

that a slight blow on the back of the wedge would sented the Crown.
drive it right home, and lock the valve fast. Al- The petitioner and other witnesses were ex-

though in this case there was a duplicate valve, so amined. He was employed in the engineering deMANCHESTER BOILER ASSOCIATION.

that the tampering with the one in question was partment of the Woolwich Dockyard when he

not attended with such imminent danger as it made the invention, the object of which was to THE

cutive committee of this Association was lized the advantage of having two safety valves to them by rivets, which prevented boilers from held at the offices, 41, Corporation-street, Man- each boiler. The Association's inspector of course bursting. Ho met with great opposition, and had chester, on Tuesday, November 24, 1868, William withdrew the wedges, and threw them away, and been threatened with personal violence. He had Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., F.R.S., LL.D., &c., president, the attendant should be peremptorily forbidden to been ill, and, from various causes which he dein the chair, when Mr. L. E. Fletcher, chief en- restore them. It should be an absolute rule that scribed, he had not realized much more than £1,000 gineer, presented bis report, of which the following the regulation of the safety valves should not be by the patent, which was granted in December, is an abstract :-During the past month 229 visits interfered with without direct permission from the 1854. Other witnesses stated that the invention of inspection have been made, and 559 boilers head of the establishmont. A considerable number was of great benefit, and would by the manner of examined, 432 externally, 8 internally, 3 in the of boilers under inspection are fitted with a safety fastening iron plates prevent boilers from burstfues, and 116 entirely, while in addition 7 have valve of external dead weight pendulous construc-ing, and otherwise afford protection to the public. been tested by hydraulic pressure. In these boilers tion, in addition to the low-water one already It appeared that the solicitors for the petitioner, 93 defects have been discovered, 5 of them being named. This would appear to be a superior arrange-Messrs. Wilson, Bristows, and Carpmael, had given dangerous, Furnaces out of shape, 1-dangerous; ment to the one under consideration, as these notice of the petition as directed on an application fracture, 11, blistered plates , 6; Întornul corrosion valves

, at the same time that they are loss liable for a prolongation of a patent. 15-1 dangerous ; external ditto, 12-3 dangerous; to get out of order, cannot be so easily tampered Mr. Groves submitted that it was a

in which internal grooving, 3; external ditto, 3; water gauges with as those of lever construction. If the escape their Lordships would extend the patent. The inout of order, 4; blow-out apparatus ditto, 8;

safety of steam in a boiler house is inconvenient, these rention was one of public benefit, and the petivalves ditto, 8; pressure gauges ditto, 7; boilers valves can easily be carried up through the roof, tioner had only realized a small sum for his labour. without glass water gauges, 2; without feed back as is frequeutly done, while the arrangement has Mr. Archiball admitted that the invention was pressure valves, 11; cases of over pressure, 1; the advantage of placing them in a position which one of public utility, and it was for their Lordships deficiency of water, 1.

is generally open to view, and where it would be to decide the period to which they would extend Further reference may be made to three of the practically impossible to overweight them. the patent. By the petition a further term of fourdefects enumerated above, two of which were cases In another case, two safety valves of lever con- teen years was prayed. of fracture, a third of external corrosion, and a struction, loaded with spring balances, were found Their Lordships consultd with closed doors. fourth of improperly treated safety valves. The to be screwed down so far as to be locked fast. Lord Chelmsford, on the re-admission of the first of these cases was met with in an externally- The sooner all these spring balances are discarded public, said their Lordships considered the invenflred boiler, a number of cracks having occurred at for weights, the better; but in any special cases tion was a very useful one, and as yet tho petithe rivet boles at the transverse seams over the where it may be necessary to continue them, stop tioner had been but scantily remunerated. The fire, added to which the boiler was found to be ferrules or collars should be introduced so as to Committee would recommend to Her Majesty that considerably corroded on the inside of a lower keop the spring from being screwed down boyond the patent be prolonged for a further term of seven chamber used as a water heater, so that on account the desired point. From the neglect of this

years. of the defects to which this construction of simple precaution, a number of explosions have boiler was liable, the owners wisely decided on arisen. condemning it altogether, and laying down a But one explosion has happened during the

Torrespondence. new one in its place.

past month.

This was. however, of a very The second case of fracture was met with in an disastrous character. It occurred to a boiler not

COLLIERY EXPLOSIONS. ordinary Lancashire mill boiler, having two furnace under the inspection of the Association. It took

TO THE EDITOR OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." tubes, the fracture penetrating right through the place in a thickly populated district, at half-past front end plate for a longth of 18in. immediately two o'clock on the afternoon of Friday, October 30, the great fatality attending colliery explosions may

SIR, You will doubtless be pleased to hear that over the furnace crowns.

All boilers of the Lanca-on the premises of a small steam sawyer, who in future, by a very simple contrivance, be greatly shire type are prone to this more or less, and most carried on his business on the ground floor of a of them in process of time become somewhat threo-storeyed building, the upper part of which careful surveillance accident or negligence does occa

mitigated. Experience teaches that under the most grooved either at the root of the furnace mouth was let off to small tenants, such as glass-cutters sionally produce the ignition of the gas in coal mines. angle iron, or at the front end plate, though an and turners, who were supplied with steam power. Everybody knows that the effect of an explosion is to actual fracture is but rarely developed. Happily, On the occurrence of the explosion the house im- consume a large volume of air; it therefore of neceshowever, this grooving is not a source of dangor mediately over the boiler was blown down, while sity follows that immediately after the explosion a in this class of boiler, and Mr. Fletcher states that the adjacent buildings were shaken, and the floors great vacuum is created. A simple experiment will he has novor known explosion to result from it. and roof much shattered. There were altogether illustrate this. Put a few drops of brandy in a wina It arises from want of flexibility, and rather from about twenty persons in the building at the time, glass ; set it on fire, and immediately turn it over on too much metal than too little, while it is found to ten of whom were seriously injured by the fall of your open hand; you will see the fire will be extinbe most severe in long boilers with thick end the debris, and the escape of hot water from the guished, and you will also see the effort Nature will plates, and a defective circulation of the water. boiler, one of them being so severely scalded that is similar (only in extent) to that of a coal mine ex

This simple operation In the present instance, the boiler was as much as he died shortly after.

plosion, and this it is which produces the effects 35ft. long, while the thickness of the plates was Though the explosion occurred some 200 miles which we have all had lately to lament. “Nature seven-sixteenths of an inch in the furnaces, and from Manchester, an officer from the Association abhors a vacuum,” and will take instantaneous nine-sixteenths of an inch in the ends, the latter visited the spot to acquire particulars very promptly means to fill it, and has enormous forces at hand to being stiffened with a couple of horizontal bars of after the disaster bad occurred. He found, low- perform the work, and it will also take the readiest angle iron riveted across them, and stayed with ever, that the boiler was so buried in the debris method of doing it. three longitudinal bars, measuring 2in. square, that it would have to be dug out before it could be In coal mines, there is a tall ventilating chimney and running from one end of the boiler to the seen, so that the examination had to be deferred. into which a large fire is kept, and which, in the other. This is not the most approved form of In our crowded cities there are many such buildings ordinary working of the mine, produces its well staying, while the length of boiler now very full of workpeople from top to bottom, working takes place, this chimney becomes the miner's deadgenerally adopted is 30ft. or less instead of 35ft. ovor or near to steam boilers in the basement. In liest foe. It will at once be seen that this is the Also, the furnace tubes, when strengthened either such cases it is doubly important that the owners readiest way Nature can get at the substance neceswith' Aanged seams, encircling hoops, or other of the property should protect the lives of the sary to supply the vacuum ; down, then, from it approved means, can be of lighter material, while workpeople by putting the boilers under competent pours all the products of combustion contained in the ends for greater flexibility aro made lin. thick periodical inspection, otherwise it is no exaggera- the chimney itself - the deadly choke damp, which instead of nino-sixteenths, and a space of not less tion to say they might as well be seated round a nothing that breathes the air can touch but to die. than 9in. allowed between the rivets at the furnace cask of gunpowder. Although it might be pre- The current is thus reversed, all assistance from mouth angle iron, and the lowest one in the end mature, until further details have been acquired, above is cut off, and it then becomes hopeless destays, so as to afford sufficient breathing space, to speak positively, yet the experience based on struction to all life in the mine. My proposition and thus allow for expansion and contraction. previous investigations leaves very little room to consists in simply isolating the furnace shaft itself, External corrosion was met with at the bottom doubt that tho boiler must have been defectivo, self-acting apparatus closes every approach and con

so that immediately following the explosion a simple of a boiler 8ft. in diameter, the plates were in con- and that had the precaution recommended above nection between it and the pit. It therefore necestact with the front cross wall

, being found so eaten been adopted, the danger would have been detected sarily follows that if this source of supply is stopped, away that the inspector made two or three holes in time to have prevented this explosion with its the vacuum must, and will, obtain the quantity of air in thom with a slight touch. The front cross wall lamentable results

required from some of the air shafts and cravicos

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from abovo, but in some way or other Nature will in Josef," and assisted the immortal hero into the the passengers on board tho • Tanjore” is not less a few seconds restore the equilibrium. Immediately chains of that vessel, Nelson exclaiming “Give me han £3,000. this is effected, the furnace will set itself at work your hand, Pile; I'm a good soldier but a poor sailor.'. We understand that important working arrangoagain in the ordinary manner, when assistance can It may be mentioned that, although a sailor from his ments have been entered into between the Southbe immediately rendered to those injured by the force boyhood, he never indulged in a pipe of tobacco. Eastern and the Brighton Companies, founded on of the discharge.

The committee appointed, of which Major-Gen, the joint-purse system and a percentage division of The invention itself consists in causing the ap- Eardley Wilmot, R.A., is president; Cols. Wray, receipts. The agreement applies to Tunbridge proach to the furnace shaft to be protected with one Adye, Maxwell

, Middleton, and Reilly, members ; Wells, Hastings, and all the places at which the or more strong iron casements divided into squares, and Capt. Luellyn, secretary, assembled last Thurs- two lines at present compete. The two companies like an ordinary window, each of these squares or day, for the first time, at the War Office, to report bind themselves not to promote or aid any new openings to be provided with a wrought-iron plate upon and recommend ordnance for field artillery extension without mutual consent and agreement. or valve properly balanced and hinged one-third service-whether the muzzle-loading or breech-load- Duplicate staffs at stations used by the two lines from the bottom. These valves open outwards only, ing rifled guns-and also on their ammunition and will as far as possible be abolished under the new and they will therefore offer no resistance to the free equipment.

arrangement, and a considerable saving may be passage of the air to the shaft, seeing that the upper The magnificent bell captured at the siege of effected by avoiding tho running of duplicate and part of the valve is two-thirds of the whole area, but Sebastopol, and presented to Her Majesty on arrival unnecessary trains. The arrangement applies only will immediately shut themselves, and remain so at Windsor, was placed upon the North terrace of to the services of the two companies as they exist whilst there is the least pressure from behind, for the the Castle, where there is also one of the largest at present. Ultimately the agreement may be same reason the force being greater on the upper guns taken in that memorable siege. The bell has extended to include the running of the Brighton part of the valve, on account of its area, which it been hung in the Round Tower, just over the steps trains to Cannon-street and Charing-cross. will thus close up tight. All communication from which give access the apartments in the atre The opening of the Electric Telegraph School of the furnace being thus cut off, the dreadful effects we of the great tower, near the cannon which sweeps Instruction is announced. By means of this instihare lately witnessed will be prevented. If this the sole entrance to the ancient "donjon keep,” in tution good manipulators of the telegraph can be apparatus is properly constructed and properly fixed, which King John of France and King David of turned out to fill the numerous posts that will shortly and sufficiently strong, the rosult is certain. I am, Scotland were prisoners in the reign of Edward III.; be open to them, if we may judge from the rapid exSir, yours, &c., R. WAYGOOD. and where Charles I. was confined

by the Parliament, tension of telegraphic projects. The chief feature of Newington Iron Works, Falmouth-road,

when Windsor Castle was under the governorship this undertaking, however, is that it opens out a new Great Dover-road, S.E., Dec. 19.

of Colonel Venn, in 1648. The weight of the bell field for female labour, and merits the attention of is 17cwt. 1qr. 211b. The bull, which has a rich and those noble philanthropists, Miss Burdett Coutts, Miss sonorous tone, bears, in the Russian language, the Rye, &c., and should the Post-Offico authorities, as

inscription “Sevastopol-Nicolas Sanctus," and a empowered by special Act of Parliament passed last TO CORRESPONDENTS. record of its weight in poods.

session, take possession of all the telegraphs in this TAE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE is sont post-free to subscribers

country, they will extend the present number of of £1 ls. 8d, yearly, or 10s. 10d, half-yearly payable in

stations by some 600. To all servants in the Governadvance.

ment service the knowledge of the practical working All literary communications should be addressed to the Editor of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Letters relating to

of the telegraph must prove of advantage.

Miscellanea. the advertising and publishing departments should be ad

A Good many generations ago,

the then Earl of dressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles, MECHANICS' MAGA

Derby obtained leave from his Sovereign to build ZINE Office, 166, Fleet-street, London.

On Thursday, during the strong gale, the new and fortify a castle at Liverpool. On more occasions To insure insertion in the following number, advertise Wesleyan chapel, at Littlemoor, Pudsey, was blown than one, well-executed subterranean means of comments should reach the ofice not later than 5 o'clock on down. The foundation stone was laid on May 2. munication between the castle and different points of Thursday evening.

THE acquisition of Sir Charles Eastlake's art the river beach have been discovered. None of these, We must absolutely decline attending to any communi- library, recently purchased by the National Gallery, however, surpass in interest and distinctness one cations unaccompanied by the name and address of the and the removal of the library of the Royal Academy which has recently been brought to light in the area writer, pot nocessarily for insertion, but as a proof of good to Burlington-house, have induced the trustees to of the Exchange Buildings. Here a deep excavation

Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGA- form a collection embracing every attainable work is being made for the cellars. In the course of this ZINE, at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inser- relating to the fine arts, and to establish a library of excavation, which is all through rock, a well-marked tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists reference and reading-room for the use of students, gallery has been opened up. It is cut in the solid of about 10 words. Woodcuts are charged at the same rate and accessible for the public under certain regu- rock, is fully 6ft. in height by 3ft. in width, and its as type Special arrangements made for large advertise lations.

crown is about 6ft. below the surface of the natural

WE read that the famous salt mine of ka ground. It runs almost directly north from the sits RECEIVED.-A. J.-B. F.-R. W.-H. T. S.-S. E.- ten miles from Cracow, which brings a net revenue of the castle, from which the Exchange is distant G.J.G.-G. and Son-R. P.-J.R.R. T.-M. B.-S.O.S. G. E. P.-W. H. H.-R. T.-H. P. S.-J. W.-R. M.-E. W.

to the Austrian Government of upwards of 6,000,000 about 200 yards or more.
S. K.-C. J.-T. B.-M. H.-J.J. E.-E.C. H.-T. G.- florins (£600,000), is threatened with total destruc-
R.G.S.-E. C-JN-W.R.

tion by a stream of water, which made its appearance
on the 19th of last month, while the workmen were
digging in one of the lower shafts, in search of pot-

ash. Thus far all efforts to drain off the water have
Meetings for the week. proved ineffectual.

GIBRALTAR was visited by an earthquake shock TUES. ---Royal Institution.-Professor Odling on "Carbon on the 8th, at 10.50 a.m. The "Chronicle "


says: (juvenile lectures), at 3 p.m.

PATENTS. THURS.—Royal Institution. -- Professor Odling on "Car- and also at Windmill-hill telegraph station, where The Abridged Specifications of Patents given below are

-At the Upper Tower signal stations it was severe, bon" (juvenile lectures), at 3 p.m. SAT.-Royal Institution.-Professor Odling on “ Carbon

the clerks were thrown off their chairs. At the classified, according to the subject to which the respective (juvenile lectures), at 3 p.m.

North Front it was likewise severely felt. The inventions refer, in the following table. By the system shock was accompanied by a rumbling noise, not of classification, adopted, the numerical and chronological unlike distant thunder, or heavily laden waggons all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be

passing along a paved street. No damage is re- understood that these abridgments are prepared excluNabal, Military, and Gunnery Ytems. ported."

sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by Much has been said of late in France about the the Government, and are, therefore, the property of the

effects of inferior bottle glass on wine, and the Proprietors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby A NEW military penal code has been promulgated following is given as a sure test of the quality of the warned not to produce them without an acknowledgin Sweden. It abolishes corporal punishment as metal. Fill a bottle with water, add about the third being contrary to principles of humanity and inju- of an ounce of tartaric acid, shake the bottle well so

BOILERS AND FURNACES—1851, 1875, 1888, 1890 rious to the dignity of the soldier.

as to cause the salt to dissolve, and if at the end of BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS—1869, 1882, 1899 The Directors of the North German Lloyd have five or six days no effect is produced, the glass of CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural imple

CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY-1841, 1854, 1868, 1885 contracted with Messrs. Caird and Co., of Greenock, the bottle may be considered to be of good quality; ments and machines--1863, 1883, 1893 for the construction of two new steamers of large if otherwise, the solution will have become gelati- ELECTRICAL APPARATUS-None size for their New Orleans line. They are to be nous, or crystals will be found to have formed ta FIBROUS Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibre, named the "Frankfort" and the “Hanover." the bottom of the bottle.

pulp, paper, &c.-1844, 1846, 1852, 1857, 1866 CAPT. T. A. J. HARRISON, R.A., Secretary to the A STALACTITE cave has been discovered in the FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including the apparatus for pre

paring food for men and animals—1860 Royal Artillery Institution, is appointed a member rocks near the Clifton station of the Bristol Port FORNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, of the new committee to be formed in place of the and Pier Railway. The cave has been explored to time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c.Ordnance Select Committee, and which will, if the distance of some 20 or 30 yards, under the 1858, 1886, 1887 formed, be called “ The Invention Committee,” superintendence of Mr. Wilkinson, the manager of GENERAL MACHINERY—1848, 1856, 1859, 1867, 1871, 1872

1878, 1898 It is rumoured that the arrangements which Sir the line, and many beautiful stalactites have been

LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING—1855 John Pakington made previously to his retirement disclosed, some of them extending from the roof to Merals, including 'apparatus for their manufacturefrom office, with reference to the head of the Arsenal the earth beneath, and which from their sizo have and the new Ordnance Select Committee, are likely for the present prevented the further passage of the MISCELLANEOUS—1842, 1843, 1845, 1849, 1861, 1862, 1864, to fall to the ground.

explorers. Some bones of animals and birds have 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1880, 1884, 1889, 1891, 1895, 1896, THE “ Deccan,” screw, the latest addition made also been found among the soil, including part of a to the fleet of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam skull which would seem to be that of a hyena. The ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and carNavigation Company, has made a favourable trial cave is apparently of considerable length and SHIPS AND BOATs, including their fittings-None trip. She was built by Messrs. W. Denny and depth.

Brothers. Mr. Reed, Chief Constructor to the THE “ Malta Times" contains the following:- WARFARE–1853, 1865, 1870, 1873, 1894
Admiralty, was among those present at the trial trip | The passengers by the last overland mail came to
of the “ Deccan."

grief in Egypt. The train containing their luggage 1841 M. HENRY, Fleet-street, London. Conrerting basic The Board of Trade have ordered a telescope to was burnt, and they arrived here with only what phosphates of lime into soluble acid phosphates of lime. (A be prepared for presentation to Captain H. F. Block, they stood in. The Pasha will doubtless have to communication). Dated June 5, 1868. master of the Prussian brig “ Auguste," of Barth, in pay. The most unfortunate part of the accident acid for the purpose of acting on the basic phosphates of

The patentee claims, first, the employment of sulphurous acknowledgment of his kindness in receiving on was the destruction of two fine elephants, a papa lime, in order to produce soluble acid phosphates and board and conveying to Ireland sixteen of the and mamma, which with their infant were on their sulphite of lime. Second, the method consisting of the passengers and crew of the screw steamer “ Melita,” way to England. The papa was burnt while trying series or combination of operations described for producwhich was destroyed by fire on her passage from to save his

offspring. The mamma died on board ing acid soluble phosphates of lime and sulphite of lime Boston, U.S., to Liverpool.

the " Tanjore" from anxiety and injuries received by means of sulphurous acid, as explained. Third, the ONE of the last of Nelson's brave companions at in the same cause. The orphan, only the height of application of sulphiteof lime for bleaching fabrics, and the battle of St. Vincent, has just died at Fremington, an English sheep, was progressing famously under materials for fumigating plants, shrubs, and trees; for

producing or re-producing sulphurous acid, and for obtainnear Barnstaple, at the great age of 97. Thomas the care of a cow and the ship's butcher. We ing sulphite of soda and insolublo sulphate of lime, as Pile was one of the crew who boarded the “San understand that the claims alone from the portion of described. Fourth, the mode of obtaining sulphite of limo

Patents for Juveutions.




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