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one might suppose, would be a load of itself. I am told that within a few years past, an English carriage, or wagon maker, has established himself in the city, and has already made a fortune by constructing carts and wagons, on a more modern plan; that his price, at first, for a common two horse wagon, was five hundred dollars, but since they have become in more general use, it has fallen one half; but it will be a considerable time, before the present clumsy, and inconvenient machines, will be superseded. It will happen here, as in every thing else, that the progress of improvement will be slow. ib. p. 279.

'I had no sooner been comfortably settled in my lodgings, than I felt impatient to take a stroll through the town. The streets are straight, and regular, like those of Monte Video, a few of them are paved, but hollow in the middle. The houses are pretty generally two stories high, with flat roofs, and, for the most part, plaistered on the outside; which, without doubt, at first, improved their appearance, but by time and neglect, they have become somewhat shabby. There are no elegant rows of buildings as in Philadelphia, or NewYork, but many are spacious, and all take up much more ground than with us. The reason of this is, that they have large open courts, or varandas, both in front and rear, which are called patios. These patios are not like our yards, enclosed by a wall or railing; their dwellings for the most part, properly compose three connected buildings, forming as many sides of a square; the wall of the adjoining house making the fourth. In the centre of the front building there is a gate-way, and the rooms on either hand, as we enter, are in general occupied as places of business, or merchants' counting rooms; the rear building, is usually the dining room, while that on the left, or the right, (as it may happen,) is the sitting room or parlour. The patio is usually paved with brick, and sometimes with marble, and is a cool and delightful place. Grape-vines are planted round the walls, and at this season, are loaded with their fruit. ib. p. 282.


'But little attention is paid to the cleanliness of the streets; in one of the front streets, where there was no pavement, I observed several deep mud holes; into these, dead cats and dogs are sometimes thrown, from too much indolence to carry them out of the way. The side walks are very narrow, and in bad repair; this is better than at Rio Janeiro, where there are none at all. I observed, however, as I went along a number of convicts, as I took them to be, engaged in mending the bad places already mentioned. In these particulars, I was very much reminded of New-Orleans; in fact, in many other points, I observed a striking resemblance between the two cities. I can say but little for the police, when compared to our towns; but this place manifests à still greater superiority over Rio Janeiro; and many important improvements, that have been introduced within a few years past, were pointed out to me. I should like to see, however, some trouble bestowed in cleaning those streets that are paved, and in paving the rest; as well as in freeing the fronts of their houses from the quantity of dust collected, whereever it can finding a resting place.

'But it is time to speak of the inhabitants of the city, and of the people who frequent it. ib. p. 283, &c.

'I saw nothing but the plainness and simplicity of republicanism; in the streets, there were none but plain citizens, and citizen soldiers; some of the latter, perhaps, showing a little of the coxcomb, and others exhibiting rather a militia appearance, not the less agreeable to me on that account. In fact,

I could almost have fancied myself in one of our own towns, judging by the dress and appearance of the people whom I met. Nothing can be more different than the population of this place, from that of Rio. I saw no one bearing the insignia of nobility, except an old crazy man, followed by a train of roguish boys. There were no palanquins, or rattling equipages; in these matters, there was much less luxury and splendour than with us. The females, instead of being im

mured by jealousy, are permitted to walk abroad and breathe the air. ib. p. 284.

'Buenos Ayres may very justly be compared to the bust of a very beautiful female, placed upon a pedestal of rude unshapen stone. Great numbers of gauchos, and other country people, are seen in the streets, and always on horse-back; and as there prevails a universal passion for riding, the number of horses is very great. The European mode of caparisoning is occasionally seen, but most usually, the bridle, saddle, &c. would be regarded as curiosities by us. The stirof the gauchos are so small, as to admit little more than the big toe of the rider, who makes a very grotesque figure with his long flowing poncho. This is a kind of striped cotton, or woolen rug, of the manufacture of the country, fine or coarse, according to the purse of the wearer, with nothing but a slit in the middle, through which the head is thrust; it hangs down perfectly loose, resembling somewhat, a wagoner's frock. In rain, it answers the purposes of a big-coat, and in hot weather, is placed on the saddle.


'These gauchos, I generally observed clustered about the pulperias, or grog shops; of which there are great numbers in the city and suburbs; these people frequently drink and carouse on horseback, while the horses of those that are dismounted, continue to stand still without being fastened, as they are all taught to do, and champing the bit. These carousing groups would afford excellent subjects for Flemish painters. The horses, though not of a large size, are all finely formed; I do not recollect a single instance in which I did not remark good limbs, and head, and neck. The gauchos are often bare footed and bare legged; or, instead of boots, make use of the skin of the hind legs of the horse; the joint answering the purpose of a heel, and furnishing a very cheap kind of suwarrow. ib. p. 286, &c.

'As this is the fruit season, a great number of people were crying peaches up and down the street, but on horseback

with large paniers made of the raw hides of oxen, on each side. Milk, in large tin canisters, was cried about in the same way, and as they were carried in a tolerable trot, I expected every moment to hear the cry changed to that of butter. As I moved along towards the great square, a part of which is the principal market place, (immediately in front of the castle, or government house,) there appeared to be a great throng of people. I met some priests and friars, but by no means as many as I expected, and nothing like the number I met at Rio Janeiro. p. 288.

'On approaching the market place, as it was still early in the day, I found that the crowd had not entirely dispersed. There is no market house or stalls, except in the meat market, situated on one corner of the square which fronts on the plaza. Every thing offered for sale, was spread on the ground. I can say but little in favour of the appearance of cleanliness; dirt and filth appeared to have a prescriptive right here. One who had never seen any other than a Philadelphia market, can form no idea of the condition of this place. To make amends, it is admirably supplied with all the necessaries, and delicacies, that an abundant and fruitful country can afford. Beef, mutton, fowls, game, &c. with a variety of excellent fish, were here in great plenty, and for prices, which, in our markets, would be considered very low. Beef, particularly, is exceedingly cheap and of a superior quality; it is the universal dish; chiefly roasted. Absolute want is scarcely known in this country, any more than with us. As I passed by the hucksters' stalls, they presented a much richer display than any I had been accustomed to see. Here apples, grapes, oranges, pomegranates, peaches, figs, pine-apples, water-melons, were mingled in fair profusion.

p. 289.

'The shops, or stores, as far as I observed, in my perambulation through the city, are all on a very small scale, and make no show as in our towns. There are but few signs, 27


and those belong chiefly to foreigners; such as sastre, botero, sapatero, &c. de Londres; taylor, bootmaker, shoemaker, from London. The greater part of the trades which are now flourishing here, particularly hatters, blacksmiths, and many others that I might enumerate, have been established since the revolution; the journeymen mechanics are chiefly half Indians and mulattoes.

'In receding from the river towards the country, the streets wear a much more mean appearance; being very dirty, and apparently much neglected, while the houses seldom exceed one story in height, and built of brick scarcely half burnt. In walking from the front streets, we seemed to be transferred, at once, to some half civilized village, a thousand miles in the interior. Every where in the skirts of the town, much of the Indian race is visible; generally a very poor, harmless, and indolent people. p. 291.

'On my way back to the hotel, I met a party of twenty or thirty pampas Indians on horseback, who had come to town for the purpose of bartering skins for such things as they wanted. They excited no curiosity as they rode along the street, although tricked out with their nosebobs and earbobs, and except the poncho, which they wore, entirely naked. They were rather taller, and more square shouldered than ours, but their physiognomy was very nearly the same. p. 293.

'The inhabitants generally, are a shade browner than those of North America: but I saw a great many with good complexions. They are a handsome people. They have nothing in their appearance and character, of that dark, jealous and revengeful disposition, we have been in the habit of attributing to Spaniards. The men dress pretty much as we do, but the women are fond of wearing black, when they go abroad. The fashion of dress, in both sexes, I am informed, has undergone great improvement, since their free intercourse with strangers. p. 295.

'A very animated and martial scene was presented to me, by the exercising of the regular troops, and civic militia. The

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