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earth, generally however, covered with mats in some parts. In the evening, the village resounded with musical sounds from the voices of the natives, and from one or two rude instruments, the most noisy of which was a hollow reed, having holes something like a flute or fife: they appear to have no idea of a regular tune, although they raise and depress their notes occasionally with some degree of regularity; their songs are generally the mere repetition of certain unmeaning sounds; some of them however, we understood, had words descriptive of particular warlike achievements. They have drums which they use in their wars, and dancing; bells also, which they obtain from the whites, and a whistle made of the thigh-bone of the sand-shell crane; this they carry in their war excursions, and blow it when they charge, or commence firing upon an enemy. In singing together, they keep their voices very exactly in unison, and beat time with a stick or the hand; the singing continues until midnight. Our lodge was crowded with the relations of our host, and others who slept round the fire; the smoke of the pipes, and the smell of the skins and provisions, made no very agreeable atmosphere.

The Kanses, or as they are generally called the Kawns, are not a large tribe; we counted 120 lodges in the village, in each of which resided, on an average, two families and ten persons. One lodge however, frequently contains only one family; and some of the principal men owned two lodges. The whole population may amount to 1200, and they can muster probably, 350 warriors.

The manners, habits, language and agricultural pursuits of the Kanses, resemble those of the Osages in the same particulars; the language is very closely assimilated. The Kanses formerly resided on the Missouri, about seventy miles above the Kanses River; they were very much reduced, and finally about sixteen years since banished from the position, by their enemies the Iowas and Sacs; these tribes being more

numerous, and better supplied with fire arms, the Kanses, although equally brave, were unable to contend with them. The hunting excursions of these people, extend southwardly and westwardly to the immense plains between the Kanses, its branches and La Platte, and between the Kanses and Arkansaw Rivers-it is here they find the buffaloe, on which they principally rely for subsistence. In their winter hunts for furs, they resort to the Missouri, and hunt between the Kanses and Neheman River; here they procure heaver, otter, elk, and deer skins, to trade with the whites for guns, blankets, &c. It is to be in the neighbourhood of traders, that they choose the Missouri for their hunting ground. On the branches of the Kanses, is a country more abounding in valuable furs. When they hunt for buffaloe on the plains, the whole nation moves, and encamps together, and follows the herd of buffaloe. When they come down on the Missouri to hunt, they are compelled to scatter into small parties; the game they procure, being elk, deer, and turkies, which are soon exhausted and compel the Indians not only to separate in small parties, but frequently to change their position.

There are in this village, two French or Canadian white men; they have several Indian wives, and children, and live like the natives. However disgusting this retrograde of civilized to savage life may appear, it is not extraordinary when the characters of the individuals are considered: they are invariably excessively ignorant, without education, and being generally boatmen, they have not only been lost to civilized society, but have acquired the erratic vagrant habits of Indians, by their previous profession.

The Kanses are armed with guns, bows and arrows, like other Indians on the Missouri; they are not good marksmen with fire-arms; this arises from their hunting the buffaloe with bows and arrows, from their indolence in seldom practising at a mark, the value of ammunition, and the little trouble they take to keep their arms in order. They prefer hunt

ing the buffaloe with bows and arrows, because as they are always mounted on those occasions, and a buffaloe is seldom killed with one shot, they find it more easy to fit an arrow to the bow, than to load a gun, on horseback. The bow and arrow is by no means a contemptible weapon in their hands; at a distance of thirty paces, they shoot their arrows with great force and accuracy, and with irresistible rapidity; they appear to have no poisoned weapons.

The little inconvenience suffered by Indian women in child-birth is really remarkable. No diminution of their usual laborious occupation takes place; on the contrary the only assistant or remedy they make use of, is exercise; which they always use freely when in this situation. A woman following the roving excursions of her tribe, carrying a bundle on her head or back, will step aside, bring forth her infant, wrap it in a piece of buffaloe skin, resume her load, placing the infant on the top of it, and continue her route, without occasioning the least halt or delay to the party. At the first water she bathes herself and her child, or during the winter if no water is near, she washes it in the snow, or breaks the ice of the stream; at the evening's camp she assists as usual in putting up the lodge, &c. Those who have children by white men, suffer more severely.

The Indians appear to have no mode of salutation at meeting or parting, that they have not learned from whites. When friends meet who have been long separated, they are silent, take a seat, and after some time begin to talk; relations meet in the same way; no embracing or evident gesticulations of joy takes place.

Although it is considered a great honour in war, to capture a man alive, more so in fact than to take his scalp, yet the risk of escape is so great, and the chance of future usefulness so small, that men are seldom taken prisoners. Women however, and young boys or girls, they are fond of making prisoners; the former are useful by taking their share in

carrying burthens, hoeing corn, &c. they are considered the property of the captors, and the manner in which they are treated, depends very much upon their own character, and that of the person to whom they belong. Sometimes they are treated very harshly, and frequently they are taken as wives by their masters, and receive the same treatment as the other women. The boys are brought up and adopted, become attached to the nation, and often prove useful hunters and brave warriors. Such a man we saw yesterday; he is a Pawnee Indian by birth, taken prisoner when young; he is anxious to see once more his relations, and talks of accompanying us to his native village.

It is quite an erroneous opinion, that women are treated with contempt and disrespect, or that they have no influence among Indians. They occupy a position quite as important as they do with the whites: they do not actually go into their councils or to war, neither do they with us, but all domestic concerns, all the property of the family, and all matters of trade, are under the direction of the women; and although what we consider hard drudgery is performed by them, yet neither the men nor the women, think the labour or duties assigned to women, degrading or humiliating: they appear to think them important, and they are performed with cheerfulness, alacrity and pride: and in the exercise of them, they are seldom advised, or ordered by men. That they should carry burthens, hoe corn, &c. they consider as an equal distribution of labour with their husbands, who are compelled to hunt, and war, rather than an unequal task imposed upon themselves.

Wars among Indians, are to be attributed principally, to the influence of women. No man is regarded by them favourably, until he has distinguished himself as a warrior. The influence of the mothers is very great; they train their children to make bold defenders, and though they sometimes are treated by them with disrespect, yet they retain the pow

er of exciting them to deeds of war, either to gratify their vanity, their revengeful malignant passions, or to procure horses to ease them from the immense burthens they are sometimes compelled to carry.

The apparel of the women consists of a sort of petticoat of blue strouding, fastened to the waist, and reaching to the knees; a covering of like material over their shoulders and breasts; and leggings of blue or red cloth, as high as their knees. In the hot season, they generally appear without the two last articles; the men have nothing but a breech cloth and blanket, or buffaloe skin over their shoulders. The boys go entirely naked, and the girls are clothed with but little regard to decency. This is their ordinary costume; when the men want to appear to advantage, they daub their faces and bodies over with vermillion, have leggings ornamented with stained porcupine quills, and their blanket or buffaloe skin, fantastically painted.

The women in our lodge appeared fond of scolding; they exercise this talent upon their children, dogs, and each other with all the violence and gesticulation we are accustomed to witness among the lower class of whites: actual quarrelling however, is very rare; we have witnessed nothing of the kind, since we have been in the village. On the contrary, both men and women are generally in good spirits, lively, and social, and having plenty of corn and buffaloe meat, they appear happy and contented, go to sleep at night while they are singing, and are awoke in the morning by the same sort of music. Every morning the whole village, men women and children, bathe and wash themselves in the river. Their cleanliness in this respect, is very much at variance with their filthiness in other matters. The interior of their lodges are extremely dirty; their horses are generally brought into the village at night, tied near the owner's door, to secure them from their enemies: as the filth thereby occasioned, is

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