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threw the village into a ferment, in which the women evinced their indignation, and wishes for the war to continue, by loud reproaches, and threats to the messengers. They were, however, with considerable difficulty got into a lodge, and protected. On the enusing day a council was held, at which it was decided that peace should be made. While they were debating on the subject, a woman, whose husband had been killed last summer, came into the lodge, with a knife concealed under her buffalo skin: she advanced towards one of the Kanses Indians, and made a desperate stab at him; fortunately one of the Otto Indians saw the blow, and stopped it, at the expense, however, of a wound himself. The pipe of peace was smoked, and five horses presented to the messengers, and they departed in safety. No stipulation, or agreement of any kind is entered into on these occasions: but the parties visit each other, and remain peaceable, until a new outrage is committed, either by killing each other, or stealing horses, either of which justifies a recommencement of hostility.

As we wishsed to purchase some buffalo meat previous to our leaving the village, we intimated our wishes, and a crier ascended the roof of the lodge and proclaimed in a loud voice what we wanted. The lodge was soon crowded with people, principally women, bringing their meat, and offering it for sale. For some vermilion and calico, and a few awls, we procured a good quantity of buffalo meat. They are very fickle in making their bargains, and frequently after it was concluded, they would insist upon a return of the article.

Having procured three Indians to guide us on our first day's march towards La Platte river, we left the Kanses village late in the day on the 23d of August, with feelings certainly of high respect for the civility and hospitality with which we had been treated. After proceeding about eight miles, we halted on the bank of a small stream, pitched our tent, and turned our horses to graze. In the dusk of the even

ing we discovered rushing towards us, over the prairie, a large body of Indians: the Kanses fled in the utmost dismay. Relying for security upon our flag, we advanced to meet them, and were greeted with the usual salutations of friendship: they however had mounted our horses before they reached us, and soon crowded round our camp in a tumultuous manner, and it required all our efforts to prevent their plundering our baggage. Unfortunately, our interpreter had gone out hunting and had not yet returned. The chiefs of the party endeavoured to restrain their warriors from plundering; but they appeared to have but little influence. Our situation was for some time critical, and we momentarily expected they would commence an hostility which, from their superior numbers, could only terminate in our destruction. After remaining in this disagreeable situation for nearly half an hour, the Indians became alarmed by the appearance of the interpreter at a distance, and concluding that he was leading on the Kanses nation, they commenced a precipitate retreat, carrying with them our horses and several small articles they had plundered. It was now dark, and we were apprehensive that the Indians would return upon discovering that we had been only joined by one man: we carried our remaining baggage into a thicket, made a sort of barricade, and determined to defend ourselves and not permit them again to suround us. We passed the night with our arms in our hands without, however, being disturbed.

About 8 o'clock the next morning we were again alarmed by the Indian yell; but soon discovered that it proceeded from our friends the Kanses, who came towards us on horseback. They appeared at first rather disposed to be disrespectful towards us; but soon relaxing from this temper, they expressed their satisfaction at finding us safe, and acknowledged that but for our accidental rencountre with this war party, they probably would have stole all their horses and killed some of the people, which was undoubtedly the object of the party.

They searched for and found the place where the Indians had made their midraine previous to advancing on our camp: this ceremony always takes place in an Indian war party before they attack or go into danger. Sticks are stuck up in the form of a square, and on them are placed heads of birds, snakes, and other things considered sacred or mystical. The warriors throw off their travelling robes, enter this square and paint and dress themselves: this done, they stoop down before the partizan or commandant of the party, who puts his hand on the back of their necks and giving them a shove out of the square, they are then prepared for battle. After some conversation the Kanses agreed to carry our remaining baggage to their village. They appear very much in hopes that this rencountre will produce hostility between the whites and the Pawnees, who are their most bitter and dreaded enemy.

The whole village came out to witness our return: they received us again with hospitality, and we returned to our old lodge.

Being without the means of purchasing horses, it was impossible for us to continue our journey towards La Platte river; we determined therefore to make towards the Isle aux Vaches, the nearest point on the Missouri, where we expected to meet the troops ascending. We find we can borrow three horses from the Indians for this route, although they would not lend them to go to their enemies the Pawnees.

After a fatiguing march, over a country of rolling prairie, we reached the Missouri on the 29th of August, and met the expedition at the Isle aux Vaches.

The troops destined to ascend the river were concentrated on the 3d of September: it was determined here to abandon the steam-boat transportation entirely; and on the 5th of September, the troops and provisions were embarked in sixteen keel-boats and proceeded on their destination. We find the navigation of the Missouri exceedingly difficult: independent of the rapidity of the current, the channel is every where

vexed with concealed sand bars or bodies of trees projecting above the water. We make use of four methods to propel our boat: the first, and by far the most efficient is cordelling; this is by a rope fastened, one end to the bow of the boat and the other to the top of the mast; to the centre of this is attached another rope which reaches to the shore, and the boat is, by this means, dragged along by the men who walk on the bank. It is so frequently necessary, in the course of the day, to change sides of the river, and the bank of the river being sometimes knee deep in mud and the men having often to wade for hours in the water to clear sand bars, we consider, if we average ten miles a day, it is doing very well.

The sinuosities of the river are so numerous that sails can be but little used: it requires also a strong breeze: it is seldom that a wind is fair for any considerable distance, and it not unfrequently happens that a wind which would be perfectly fair if you had passed the bend before you, is so strong against you that you are unable to reach the point when it would be favourable. Oars are of but little use except in crossing the river; and the fourth means we use are poles. These are very effectual when the water is shoal; the bottom however of the Missouri is so unequal that we make but little use of this method. To the difficulties of the navigation may be added, the necessity of being in a constant state of readines and preparation to repel an attack; and although this contingency is not at all to be expected, yet it occasions no relaxation of caution on our part. The troops encamp in order of battle, and after dragging the boats all day, frequently wet; at night their arms are inspected, the encampment cleared, and many of them called to mount guard. Notwithstanding, however, these exposures, such is the salubrity of the climate that no increase of sickness has taken place among the troops.

After twenty-five days incessant toil we reached the Council Bluff, and a position being selected a few miles above it

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for the purpose, the erection of a cantonment was commenced. From the mouth of the Missouri to La Platte river, there is little variation in the appearance of the country; the bottoms are rich, and heavily timbered: beyond La Platte, large prairies approach the river: in fact, only occasionally points that are timbered; the growth becomes more inclining to cottonwood, and deteriorating somewhat in size. Immediately above the Council Bluff, the prairie joins the river for a distance of thirty miles. On the first of October, the Indian agent held a council with the Ottoe tribe of Indians. This nation resides about thirty miles from the council bluff on La Platte River. The Ottoes, were once a more powerful nation, than they are at present: they formerly resided on the western bank of the Missouri; being reduced by the small pox and their enemies, they emigrated to their present position, which is near the Pawnees, with whom they are now in strict alliance and friendship.

They have increased within the last six or seven years very rapidly, and have received some accession of strength by a union with the remnant of the Missouri nation; and a number of families of the Jowas tribe: they can muster probably three hundred and fifty warriors; and are esteemed the bravest Indians on the Missouri, and although a small nation, they are held in great respect, by their neighbours. They have always manifested strong attachment to the whites, and independent of their bravery, have more independence of spirit and generosity than most Indians. In attempting to save a boat, that was lost last summer, they made the most disinterested exertions. And when informed how severe a loss it was to the trader, to whom it belonged, they determined to sell him all the furs they made, and to pay him strictly and liberally, all he had credited. By the fulfilment of this determination, though the trader had lost $2000, he was fully remunerated. They are losing however their respect forthe whites, and becoming drunk

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