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nature cannot be thereby disturbed or interrupted. It is, therefore, an error if a change in the position of the earth's axis, &c. has been thought possible."

The author proceeds to show that the influence of the sun affects only the course and vicissitudes of the weather in general, but that the calculated influence of the sun's beams is extremely unequal, owing to the temporary and local nature of the soil of a country, and its situation, of the air, the wind, and the actual stock of the above mentioned chymically compounded materials. But the moon, it will be said, performs its part in our weather; by no means so regularly and sensibly as it has long been supposed to do. The sum of all the hours, during which in the whole year the moon shines by night, or in the absence of the sun, amounts by a rough calculation to only one half of all the nights in the year, that is 2190 hours, or 91 one-fourth days; and from this must be deducted the time, in which for two or three days before and after new moon, it appears only in the shape of a crescent; its light besides is at least 90,000 times fainter than that of the sun, and we have therefore the less reason to expect its rays to have any influence on sublunary bodies.*

Many years' meteorological observations have clearly shown, that there is no certain and constant coincidence of the changes in the weather, with F. Moore's periodical (monthly returning) distances, positions, and changer of light. As far as any influence does take place, yet the local and temporary state of the atmosphere and its various composition, will never allow it to be determined either before hand or according to the effects and consequences. The author then takes a view of the planets and comets, and declares them innocent of all the bad weather on the earth, or at least that our intellectual sight is too dim to discern their influence, and what is its nature. Bode places the only real cause of all possible changes of the weather, in the solutions and evaporations caused by the sun and a chymical elementary warmth, over the surface of the terraqueous globe, which may here and there disturb the equilibrium of the air, and thus cause in particular the origin of the winds. During this eternally active chymical operation of the grand economy of nature, the surface of the earth itself is subject to natural changes. It besides suffers great changes from the active hand of man, from the often precipitate destruction of great forests, from the building of large cities, by which new animal mephitic and mineralogical exhalations take place instead of vegetable ones. With such incessant variations of the gases, it is therefore almost impossible to attain to any precise rules in meteorology, or to certain prognostics of the wea

*Though in some countries it is considered as unwholesome to walk by moonfight with the head uncovered; yet, I believe, its alleged influence on the atmosphere has not been ascribed to the warmth or light of its rays, but to its attraction.

ther. The higher or lower situation of a country, bare or wooded mountains, will likewise contribute to cause frequently very different weather in places but a few leagues distant from each other. Hence Mr. Bode thinks that there can be properly no such thing as a science of meteorology as regards the weather, and that the pains taken by some meteorologers to invent a theory, appears wholly fruitless; that the utmost that can be attained by frequent and continued observation, will be probable conjectures respecting the nature of the future changes of the weather; with the limitation, however, that they would be applicable only to districts of no great extent, and but for a short period of time. It is farther to be observed, that we cannot give the ingredients of the atmosphere such a direction as we wish, and must submit to their effects. The author further observes, than on account of the changes that have taken place in the physical climate, and course of the weather for some years past; (thus in Berlin the number of cloudy days and nights have increased for twenty years past, as the astronomical journals prove;) the days hitherto marked in the Almanacks, as relative to the weather, such as St. Swithin's for instance, cannot, at any rate, now answer. The accidents of the weather seem, however, to make a kind of progress, in irregular periods, over the surface of the earth. Hence then, as experience shows, the physical climate and the fertility of many countries become in the course of years more or less favourable; which however, has no connection with the astronomical climate; for the parallelism of the earth's axis always remains the same. In gene. ral, no advantage could be expected from a certain fore-knowledge of the accidents of the weather. It could never satisfy the wishes of all, (not even of one village,) but might often impede or embarrass the active, or make the weak despond; whereas, here, as in other things, a happy ignorance is often an excitement to our courage.

'In physical meteorology, therefore, we shall probably be obliged to content ourselves with uncertainty, and continual exceptions from rules often arbitrarily laid down, and with the consoling consciousness that this phenomenon of Nature is also under the direction of an all-wise Providence, content ourselves with the best appliction, of that which many years experience has hitherto taught, and which attentive naturalists and agriculturists have long since known, (in relation to their own districts) or have collected sufficient experience to conjecture as probable.'

[From the British Critic.]

ART. VI.-A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece, during the years 1801, 1805, and 1806. By Edward Dodwell Esq. 2 vols. 4to. 1819.


R. Dodwell sailed from Venice in April, 1801, in a merchant ship trading to the Ionian islands. The first place of any con

sequence which he touched at was Corfu, at that time under the joint protection of the Russians and Turks. He had scarcely landed <wo hours on this island, when a firing was heard in the streets; it was in consequence of an affray between the Turks and the Greeks, which cost the lives of about seventeen of the former, and five or six of the latter. The Russians immediately landed five hundred men, to prevent more bloody consequences, and by these precautions, and the activity of Mr. Foresti, the British consul general, peace was at last restored. This specimen of national habits, with an account of the murder of a physician, his wife, child, servant, and two Turks, by their boatmen in their passage from Ithaca to Corfu, were Mr. Dodwell's first pleasing introductions to Greece. The canal of Santa Maura is the haunt also of pirates, who proceed much on the same principles as the present Italian banditti; a stipulated sum is demanded for the ransom of their prisoners, and if this is deposited at the fixed time, the utmost fidelity is observed in their liberation; if not, they return the disjecta membra of the unfortunate captive piecemeal to his friends. A French merchant in this way, not long ago, lost his nose, both ears, and all his grinders; the front teeth were preparing to follow, when the villains who practised these cruelties in terrorem, were taken and impaled.

The profession of robbing, however, is by no means dishonourable in Greece, as the following adventure, which occurred to Mr. Dodwell during his stay in Ithaca, will sufficiently evince.

'We were not a little surprised, one day, when the servant of the house came in to announce the captain of the thieves and his men, who were desirous of making our acquaintance; the door opened, and about a dozen Albanians, of the wildest and fiercest aspect, marched in, dressed in velvet and gold, and armed as if they were going to the field of battle. They saluted us with a gentle inclination of the head, with the right hand on the breast, and the usual compliments of % Δουλος σας and πολυχρονια; they then took their seats, and without further ceremony began to smoke their pipes. After a few minutes' silence, and mutual gazing, the captain of the thieves opened the discourse, and told us he came first to pay his respects to the Milordoi, and then to offer his services, and that of several hundred raag, or brave fellows, he had under his command, who would follow us any where we might choose to lead them; being at that moment idle and unemployed, having lately plundered the Turks on the opposite coast, and having brought away every thing that was of any value. We expressed all due acknowledgments for the kind offers of the captain, which we however begged to decline.

"These thieves are Albanian Christians, who long exercised their predatory talents in the territory of the Pasha of Joannina; but owing to the vigilance of his police, have been obliged to take

refuge in the neighbouring islands, where they have found an asylum under the protection of the Septinsular republic. They profess only to pillage Mohamedans, against whom they wage an eternal and religious warfare, in imitation of more powerful crusaders; they even condescend to rob on the seas, and Ithaca was the deposit of their plunder. Captain Jano, their leader, is an Acarnanian, and has a brother, also captain of another band, and as great a thief as himself.' Vol. I. P. 72.

The first tour which Mr. Dodwell made, led him from Ithaca to Patra, by Phocis and Beotia, to Athens, and thence by the Troad to Constantinople. In 1805, he projected a second expedition from Messina, and as he then examined the same country more in detail, his accounts are principally given from this latter journey. He was accompanied by Signor Pomardi, an artist of considerable merit. We can scarcely find space to follow him, step by step, on his very extensive route, and we must content ourselves by stopping with him at those spots which present the most interest to the general reader.

At Patra he was compelled to surrender his plan of proceeding by way of Corinth to Athens, from the appearance of the plague in the Morea. If the account which Mr. Strani (our consul) gave of the conduct of the Jews and Albanians may be depended upon, we are much surprised that any part of Greece is ever free from the ravages of this hideous disease. Those who have recovered from this disorder once, are less exposed to the danger of contagion; and a second recovery is almost a certain preservative. The Jews from avarice purchase the clothes of the dead; the Albanians from custom plunder their houses, and both are employed to bury them. They have been detected dipping rags and sponge into the blood and matter of the deceased, and throwing them into the windows of wealthy houses, from a hope that by propagating infection, they might increase their profits. M. Strani once saw an Albanian throw a tainted sponge into the window of his own consular residence.

The dress of the Arnauts is extremely rich. Their boots are of silver, sometimes gilt, and very curiously worked, and being of different pieces, they easily yield to the motion of the leg. They walk in these after the manner of our own military dandies, with a heavy tread, in order to make a noise and clatter. Their arms, which they never quit for a moment, consist of long silver-mounted pistols, a cutlass, and a dagger, which still among the Greeks retains the Homeric name maxapa, and serves, like that of Hudibras, for the two equally useful purposes of stabbing and scraping trenchers, as occasion may require. They carry also a long piece of wood, called Thaschik, grooved crosswise at one end like a wafer seal. This is a most essential part of their equipage, and is used in moments of recreation to scratch the vermin from their

backs; an amusement which necessarily occupies no inconsiderable portion of time, since they sleep on the ground, and like the Selli of Homer, Charles XII, of Sweden, and many other great warriors, seldom, if ever, wash themselves.

Near the end of the Kressæan Plain the guide pointed to a cavern, in the steepest part of the rock, (called me) in which he stated, that a man who had entered to steal honey, was converted into stone. We mention this to show how well a hint was bestowed on Mr. Dodwell, and how actively he endeavoured to improve it. He immediately conjectured that there must be a statue in the cave, and attempted, but without success, to ascend it. His enterprise deserved a better reward than the miserable fare with which the bishop of Salona entertained him on the night of this adventure, gritty rice, bad cheese, and wine so resinous, that it excoriated his lips-this adulteration of wine with resin prevails more or less throughout Greece, and is considered by the natives to improve the quality as much as the brandy of our English merchants does that of Port. Mr. Dodwell with great difficulty sat upon his legs a la tailleure, at the episcopal table, and was reproved by the prelate for the ridiculous distinction of rank which prevented his servant from sharing their meal. The bishop's xaλoypaia, or housekeeper, ('Captain,' says Gibbet in the Beaux Stratagem, is a good travelling name; it stops a great many foolish inquiries,') was indisposed. Mr. Dodwell was requested to feel her pulse, and give her some physic from his medicine chest, which, although he professed entire ignorance of the science, the bishop wisely observed, must do her good, because it was contained in such nice little bottles.' The lady was better in the morning, and her master with equal wisdom, then requested a second dose, to prevent her from being ill again.

But every thing which a Frank does or possesses, is marvellous in these countries. At Kastri, a village at the foot of Parnassus, Mr. Dodwell was nearly pulled to pieces for the contents of his tea-caddy; and when they saw him efface some pencil marks with Indian rubber, the grown-up persons exclaimed that he was 2Byassxos andρaños, (in plain English a conjuror,) and the children ran away, and said he was the devil.

Of the far-famed temple at Delphi, το ιερον κοινον, commune gentis humani oraculum, not a trace remains; its position is not to be determined; even its very form is unknown; the prophetic cavern is searched for in vain, and of the hippodrome in which ten chariots could start at the same moment, no vestige is to be found. All that man in his pride had devoted to its magnificence is swept away, and its probable site is only to be conjectured by the eternal forks of Parnassus, and the perennial gushings of Castaly-but 'the oracles are dumb!' Close to the monastery of Kalogeroi in this neighbourhood, is a large perpendicular fissure in the rock.

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