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GENERAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. GAllian artist, Art born De horence

ABBIANI (ANTONY ) an beauty of her person, the richness of her voice 1052, and studied under Ciro Ferri at Rome. for the unbounded caprice that governed ber He excels most in minor subjects, as gambols of in the exercise of the latter. She was a pupil genii, children, &c. His most famous work in of Porpora and Metastasio, under whose infresco is the large cupola of Cestello, which structions she attained to such excellence he did not live to finish, falling from a scaffold that even Pachierotui was with great difficulty in 1726 while employed on it. His colouring, prevailed on to appear in the same opera with though sometimes feeble, is generally good, her, lest her superiority should prove the ruin but he fails most in the execution of his dra- of his own fame From the circumstance of peries:—Pilkington.

her father liaving been in the service of a GABIA (John Baptist) one of the Roman cardinal in the capacity of cook, she Terivers of literature, was born at Verona, and in her earlier years acquired the soubriquet of fourished in the sixteenth century. He was “ La Cuochetina ;” neither her countenance professor of Greek at Rome, and is said to nor deportment however gave any indication of have distinguished himself by his knowledge a vulgar origin. After exciting the greatest of the learned languages, of mathematics, aud enthusiasm by her singing at most of the Europhilosophy, and even of theology. His works pean capitals, she went to Russia, where she are-A translation from Greek into Latin of remained three years, and ranked high in court the Commentaries of Theodoret, bishop of favour. In 1775 she visited England, and Cyrus, ou Daniel and Ezekiel, printed at appeared at the King's theatre during that and Rome, 1563; A translation of the history of the following season. While in this country, Soyliczes Curopalates, 1570; and a Latin trans- she exhibited fewer of those freaks which lation of Sophocles. It is affirmed by Maffei abroad tended much to interfere with her pothat he also translated Zosimnus and the Hebrew pularity, from a sense, it is said, of fear, lest Psalms, and translated into Greek the Grego- an English audience should break her bones." rian Kalendar with Santi's tables, with an intro- Of her whims Brydone gives a curious instance ductory epistle in Greek by himself.- Moreri. which occurred during her stay at the Sicilian Maffei Ferona Illustrata.

court. The viceroy, it seems, had honoured GABRIEL (James) an eminent French her with an invitation to a party, composed of architect, built the palace at Choisy. He also the elite of the nobility of Palermo, which she undertook the Pont Royal at Paris, but died accepted, but not arriving at the appointed before it was finished in 1686, leaving the hour, the dinner was actually put back, and a completion of it to his son James, and Frere messenger dispatched, who found her reading Romain.- Janek, the younger, was born at in bed. She rose and accompanied lim, apoParis in 1667, and became overseer-general of logizing to the company on the ground that she buildings, gardens, arts and manufactures, had really forgotton the engagement. first architect and engineer of bridges and viceroy was offended, and still more so when, banks through the kingdom, and knight of St on coming to the opera, no persuasion could Michael. He died at Paris in 1742, leaving a induce her to sing a note above her breath. son also first architect to the king, who died in He threatened her with punishment, which 1782.-Nour, Dict. Hist.

only made her more obstinate, and she returned GABRIEL SIONITA a learned Maronite, for answer, that his excellency “might indeed was professor of the Arabic and Syriac lan make her cry, but he never should force her to guages at Rome, and flourished in the seven. sing.” The consequence of this contumacy teenth century. He was invited to Paris to was immediate incarceration. She remained assist in M Le Jay's Polyglott, and carried in continement twelve days, during which time with him some Syriac and Arabic versions of she gave magnificent entertainments, and paid the Bible, transcribed by himself from MSS. at the debts of the poorer prisoners, till the viceRome, to which he added the vowel points, roy, who was a good-tempered man, gave up which were not in the original. The Latin the contest, and set her at liberty without translations of these versions were also fur- carrying his point. The most successful exnished by Sionita ; but in consequence of some pedient to ensure her singing was found to be misunderstandings between himself and his the prevailing on her favourite admirer to place employers, he did not fulfil the department himself in a conspicuous part of the theatre, assigned to him in the Polyglott, but was suc- when she would generally address her airs to ceeded by Ecchellensis. Sionita was also the bim, and exert herself to the utmost. She translator of other Arabic works, and among amassed great wealth, althoughi by no means of the rest of the “Geographia Nubiensis” of a mercenary disposition ; the principal source of Scheriff al Edrissi. He was appointed professor her riches being the bounty of the emperor of royal of the Syriac and Arabic languages at Germany, who was much attached to her, but Paris, where he died in 1648. Walton has at length banished her from Vienna, on account copied his versions into the English Polyglott. of the continual broils, occasioned as much by - Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.

her intriguing spirit, as by the influence of her GABRIELLI (CATERINA) one of the most personal charms. The time of her decease is celebrated singers of the last century, born at uncertain.—Biog. Dict. of Mus. Rome in 1730, not more remarkable for the GABRINI (sce Rienzi.)

Biog, Dict. – Vol. II.

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GADBURY (Joux) a writer of consider- have been a man of great reading and subtle able notoriety on the fanciful science of astro-genius, but very credulous.

The followlogy, in the latter part of the seventeenth ing are the principal : - Unheard-of Curiosicentury. He was a native of Oxfordshire, and ties,” translated into English by Chilmead; probably or low origin, as he served an appren- “ Rabbi Elea de fine mundi, Latine versus, ticeship to a tailor. He afterwards became cum notis ;" “ Un traité de la Poudre de the pupil or assistant of William Lilly the Sympathies et des Talismans ;”.“ De musica fortune-teller, the Sidrophel of Butler; and in Hebreorum studenda libellus,” &c. &c.-imitation of his master, he published astrologi. Moreri. cal almanacks and other works relating to GAFORY or GAFFURIUS (FRANCHINUS) similar subjects, one of which is entitled “ A an eminent Italian composer and writer on the Discourse of the Natures and Effects of Comets, science of music, who flourished in the fifteenth as they are philosophically, historically, and century. He was born at Lodi in the Milanese, astrologically considered, London, 1665. about the year 1451, and became professor of Being a Roman catholic, he was arrested during music successively at Verona, Genoa, Naples, the commotions excited by Titus Oates and his and Milan, in which latter capital especially he accomplices, in the reign of Charles II, on was held in high esteem. He published in 1480 account of some observations in his almanacks. an abridgment of Boethius, under the title The period of his death is uncertain ; but he is of “ Theorum Opus Musicæ Disciplinæ,” said to have perished by shipwreck, in a printed at Naples; a treatise on the managevoyage to Jamaica. Partridge, a brother ment of the voice, called “ Practica Musicæ astrologer, published in 1693, a work entitled utriusque Cantus," Milan, 1496; a series of “The Black Life of John Gadbury.-Granger's lectures read by him at Cremona, Lodi, and Biog. Hist. of Eng.

other Italian towns, under the title of " Ange. GADDESDEŇ or GATESDEN (JOHN of) licum et Divinum Opus Musicæ,” Milan, an English physician, in high repute in the 1508 ; and “ De Harmonia Musicorum Instru. beginning of the fourteenth century. He was mentorum,” Milan, 1518, in which latter work an ecclesiastic, and was physician to king Ed lie gives a synopsis of the doctrines of such of ward II. His treatise on medicine, entitled the Greek musical writers as had come to his “ Rosa Anglica," is curious for the informa- hands. His works made their way over the tion it affords relative to the state of science whole of Europe, and most of the compositions and practice at the period when it was written. of the sixteenth century are formed according Gaddesden says

that he cured one of the royal to the rules therein laid down. His death took children of the small-pox, by wrapping him in place about the year 1521.-Burney's Hist. of scarlet cloth, and hanging scarlet curtains round Mus. the bed. As a remedy for epilepsy, he advises GAGE (Thomas) an ecclesiastic, said by the patient to be carried to church to hear some to have been a native of Ireland, while mass four times during the ember weeks, and by others the county of Surrey has been ag. afterwards to suspend round his neck a scroll signed as the place of his nativity. Travelling inscribed with a verse from the gospel of the into Spain, he assumed the tonsure in a conday. Yet it appears that this superstitious vent of Dominican monks, whence he was practitioner was acquainted with the method sent in the capacity of a missionary to the Phiof rendering salt water fresh by distillation ; a lippines in 1625. He however went to Mexico, process supposed to have been a modern dis- and remained in that country till 1637, when covery.--Ilutchinson's Biog. Med. Clutterbuck's he came to England, and settled in this coum· Hist. of Hertfordshire, vol. i.

try in the enjoyment of considerable property GAFFAŘELL (JAMES) a learned rabbi- which he had acquired in his travels. `Having nical writer, was born at Manues in Provence abjured the Romish churcb, he obtained the about 2601, and was educated at the university living of Deal in Kent, and in 1642 published of Apt. He applied himself to studying the his recantation sermon. He was also the auHebrew language and rabbinical learning, and thor of a controversial tract, entitled “ A Duel being much pleased with the mysterious doc- between a Jesuit and a Dominican,” 4to; and trines of the Cabala, at the age of twenty-two " A Survey of the West Indies.” This last he wrote a volume in their defence, entitled work, which was first printed in 1651, was in Abdita divinæ Cabalæ mysteria," &c. He 1676 translated into the French language by was appointed by cardinal Richelieu his libra- order of Colbert. The time of Gage's death rian, and sent into Italy to collect the best is uncertain.- Aikin's G. Biog. Dict. printed books and manuscripts that could be GAGER (William) a dramatist of the sixfound. In 1633 he was at Venice, being at teenth century, author of two Latin tragedies, that time doctor of divinity and canon law, entitled “ Ulysses redux,” and “ Meleager, prothonotary of the apostolic see, and com- and a comedy, called “ Rivales.” He was mendatory prior of St Giles's. On his return educated at Westminster, whence he removed home, he was employed by the cardinal in his to Christchurch, Oxford, on the foundation, in project for bringing back all the protestants to 1574. Here he applied himself to the study of the Romish church, and to that end was autho- the civil law, in which he graduated, and afterrized to preach in Dauphiné against the doc- wards obtained the vicar-get eralship to the trine of purgatory. He died at Sigonce, of diocese of Ely. A curious controversy was which place he was then abbot, in 1081. . His carried on between him and a writer named works are very numerous, and show him to ( Heale, on the subject of the right of husband

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to beat their wires. Ile also wrote against his royal patron with queen Anne, he followed De Reynolds, respecting the lawfulness of in bis suite to England, wbere he succeeded theatrical amusements.- Biog. Dram.

Battista Draghi as chapel-master to the queen GAGNIER (Joun) an eminent orientalist, dowager Catherine. The whole musical world who was a native of Paris, where he was edu- being at this time occupied with the rivalry cated, and entering into holy orders, became a between Handel and Buononcini, the merits of canon in the church of St. Genevieve. Enter-Gaillard, though great, were comparatively tamning doubts relative to the Roman catholic unnoticed. He therefore entered into an endoctrines, he emigrated to England, where his gagement with Rich, then manager of the learning procured him the countenance of theatre in Lincoln's-inn Fields,and composed the archbishop Sharp, the lord chancellor Maccles- music to most of those mixed pieces, half opera field, and others. He was admitted MA. at half pautomime, with which he entertained the Cambridge, and subsequently at Oxford, in town. Among these, the greatest notice was which latter university he took up his abode, attracted by the “ Necromancer, or Harlequin supporting himself chiefly by teaching Hebrew. Faustus,” and “ The Royal Chace, or Merlin's In 1706 he published Joseph Ben Gorion's Cave;" in which Beard first recommended bimHistory of the Jews, in Hebrew, with a Latin self to the public by singing, for some hundred translation and notes, 4to. In 1717 he began nights, a favourite song by Gaillard, comto give lectures on the Arabic language, and mencing“ With early horn.” This, which he published a treatise on the small-pox, trans- was the most popular, was also one of the lated from the works of Rhazes, an Arabian latest of his compositions, as he died early in physician. He also produced two valuable the year 1749, leaving behind him an unfiworks relative to the early history of Maho- nished opera on the story of Orestes and Pyneuism, “ Ismael Abulfeda de Vita et Rebus lades, and a valuable collection of scores, &c. gestis Mohammedis, &c. Latine vertit, Pre- in his own hand-writing. His music to the fatione et Notis illustravit Joh. Gagnier,” tragedy of Edipus (which had before been set 010n. 1723, folio ; and “ La Vie de Mahomet, by Purcel) was never printed, but is now in traduite et compilée de l'Alcoran, des Tradi- the library of the Academy of Ancient Music. tions authentiques de la Sonna, et des meil- - Bing. Dict. of Mus. lears Auteurs Arabes," 1735, three volumes, GAIMAR O GAIMARD (Geoffrey) an 12mo, Gagnier died in 1740.-Chalmers's Anglo-Norman troubadour or minstrel, of the Bing. Dict. Aikin's Gen. Biog. Nouv. Dict. (welfth century. He is supposed to have been Hist.

a native of Lower Normandy; and between GAGUIN (ROBERT) a native of Colines, the years 1142 and 1145, he composed in near Amiens, eminent as a diplomatist under octo-syllabic verse, a romantic chronicle of the Charles VIII and Louis XII ; both which mo- Anglo-Saxon kings, founded on. Saxon and narchis employed him on various missions to Welsh documents. This curious poem is still different European courts. He received the extant among the MSS. in the British Museum principal part of his education at Paris, where M. de la Rue, professor of history at Caen, has he was appointed keeper of the Royal Library, published an interesting extract from this piece, and published a history, “ De Gestis Franco- describing the feats of dexterity, by the exbirum," in eleven books, printed at Lyons in bition of which, before the two armies at the 1524, folio. This work contains the history of battle of Hastings, Taillefer, the bard or jongeaffairs from the commencement of the thirteenth leur of William the Norman, astonished and to the close of the fifteenth century. His death perhaps daunted the English soldiers, who, as took place in 1501 at an advanced age.-Nouv. the poet informs us, ascribed the juggler's skill Diet. Hist.

to enchantment.- Archeologia, vol. xii. GAILLARD (GABRIEL HENRY) a French GAINSBOROUGH (Thomas) a celebrated historian, member of the old French academy, English landscape painter. He was born in of that of inscriptions, and belles-lettres, and 1737, at Sudbury in Suffolk, where his father of the third class of the institute, was born at was a clothier, but in such circumstances as Ostel near Soissons, in 1728, and died at St prevented him from bestowing on his son the Firmin near Chantilly in 1806. He was the advantages of education, He consequently author of “ Poetique Françoise," 2 vols. ;owed to native genius and spontaneous st idy Histoire de François I, 7 vols. 12mo; “ His- that great eminence which he attained in his *toire de Marie de Burgogne," 12mo; “ His- art. He used to ramble in the woods, and toire des Rivalités de la France et de l’Angle- employ himself in sketching the scenery around terre ;" “ Histoire de Charlemagne;" “Rheto him. At length his talents having attracted rique Françoise ;” “ Parallele des quatre Elec- observation, he was sent to London for im. tre de Sophocle, d’Euripide, de Crebillon, et provement. There he is said to have practised de Voltaire ;" " Eloge historique sur M. Na- modelling figures of animals with great success. lesherbes ;"

;" “ Observations sur l'Histoire de He also made ornamental drawings for an enFrance, de Messrs. Velly, Villaret, et Gar- graver, and painted small landscapes for sale. nier,” 4 vols. 12m0,- Dict. Hist.

Prudence however, rather than inclination, inGAILLARD (John Ernest) the son of a duced him to engage in portrait painting, by barber of Zell, born in 1687. He was a pupil which means le supported himself for some first of Marichal and afterwards of the cele time in the metropolis, and then married and brated Farinelli. Entering the service of removed to Ipswich. Thence he went to Bath, George Prince of Denmark, on the marriage of where he attained high reputation ; and a length, in 1774, he settled in London, and sup-tist congregation in the metropolis, in which ported till his death the character of almost situation he continued till his death in 1721. unrivalled excellence in the department of his Dr Gale was preparing an answer to Wall's profession, which he chiefly cultivated. He Defence of bis History of Infant Baptism at was also much employed as a painter of por- the time of his decease'; and he is also said to traits ; and those of the king and others of the bave contemplated the publication of an Engroyal family were among the works which he lish Translation of the Septuagint, according executed. He died of a cancer in the neck, to the edition of Dr. Grabe and other literary August 2, 1788, and was interred in the church- labours ; for which he appears to have been yard of Kew. The landscapes of Gainsbo- well qualified by his talents and acquirements. rough are distinguished for * a portrait-like Four volumes of his sermons likewise appeared representation of nature,” uniting the brilliancy in, a, posthumous publication.—Biog. Brit. of Claude with the precision and simplicity of Aikin's G. Biog Ruysdael and others of the Flemish school. GALE (THEOPHILUS) a learned divine, who This artist was much esteemed by sir Joshua was a pative of King's Teiguton in DevonReynolds, who thus notices him 'in one of his shire, of which place his father was vicar. In Academical Discourses: “If ever this nation 1647 he became a student of Magdalen colshould produce genius sufficient to acquire to lege, Oxford, where he took the degree of us the honourable distinction of the English MA. in 1652, having previously been chosen school, the name of Gainsborough will be to a fellowship. While at the university he transmitted to posterity, in the history of the formed the plan of his work, entitled “The art, among the very first of that rising name." Court of the Gentiles," intended to demonHe had also extraordinary talents for music, strate that not only the theology, but also the though accompanied by a capricious love of philosophy and philology of the Pagans were change in the instruments on which he prac- derived from the Bible. In 1657 he became a tised: and he displayed, both in his letters and preacher at Winchester, among the independconversation, considerable taste and ability, ents; from which situation he was ejected in though uncultivated.-One of his brothers, a consequence of the Act of Uniformity in 166i. dissenting minister at Henley-upon-Thames, He was then received into the family of lord was an ingenious mechanic; and his nephew, Wharton, as tutor to his two sons, whom he GAINSBOROUGH Dupont, distinguished him- accompanied to Caen in Normandy, where he self as an artist, but died in 1797, at the early became intimate with Bochart and other age of thirty.- Ann. Reg. Life of Gainsborough learned foreigners. In 1665 he returned with by Thickness.

his pupils to England, and soon after removed GALATEO (ANTHONY) an Italian physician to London, where he narrowly escaped suffer. and miscellaneous writer of the fifteenth and ing an irreparable loss, through the great fire sixteenth centuries. He was a native of the in the city, which destroyed the house of a territory of Otranto, and studied medicine at friend, in whose custody he had left his Ferrara, where he took his doctor's degree in manuscript collections,“ previously to his jourthat faculty. He settled at Naples, and was ney to France. These however were acciappointed physician to the king. The air of dentally preserved from the confiagration ; that city proving prejudicial to fuis health, he and in 1659 be published the first part of his removed to Gallipoli, and afterwards to Lecce, “ Court of the Gentiles ;" the second appeared at which place he founded an academy, on the in 1671, and the third and fourth in 1677. model of that of Naples, to which he belonged. The whole was speedily translated into Latin, He died in 1516, aged seventy-two. His and the work became known and valued, not principal work is a treatise, “ De Situ lapy- only in England but on the continent. Mr giæ,” to which is added a description of Gale became minister of a dissenting congregathe city of Gallipoli, containing much curious tion in Holborn; but he resided chiefly at information relating to geography and civil and Newington, where he conducted a seminary and natural history. Among his other pro- for the education of youth. He died in 1678, ductions are “ De Situ Elementorum ;” “De in the fiftieth year of his age. Besides his Situ Terrarum ;" “ De Mari et Aquis ;” and great work, he was the author of “ Philosophia a tract on the Expedition of the Turks against Generalis, in duas partes disterminata,” 8vo; Otranto in 1480.- Moreri. Tiraboschi. “ Idea Theologiæ tam contemplativie quam

GALE (Joun) an eminent nonconformist activæ, ad formam S. Scripturæ delineata, divine of the anti-pædobaptist persuasion, in 8vo; “ The Anatomy of Infidelity,” 8vo ; &c. the eighteenth century. He was born in Lon-1-Ibid. don, and pursued his studies at Leyden, where GALE (THOMAS) an English divine, critic, he took the degrees of master of arts and doc- and antiquary of distinguished erudition in the tor of philosophy at the age of nineteen. He seventeenth century. He was born at Scruton then went to Amsterdam, and formed an ac- in Yorkshire, in 1636, and received his educa. quaintance with Limborch and Le Clerc. Re- tion at Westminster school and King's college, turning to London, he distinguished himself Cambridge. He took the degree of BA. in by writing ": Reflectious on Wall's History of 1658, and that of MA. in 1662. His reputalófant Baptism, in several Letters to a Friend,” tion as a classical scholar procured him the which, after being circulated for some time in regius professorship of the Greek language in manuscript, were at length published in 1711, the university in 1666; and in 1671 he pub8vo, Abo't 1715 he became pastor of a bap- lished a collection of the ancient mythological

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