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POLITICAL, CONSTITUTIONAL, STATISTICAL
AND FORENSIC KNOWLEDGE.
A WORK OF UNIVERSAL REFERENCE
ON SUBJECTS OF
CIVIL ADMINISTRATION, POLITICAL ECONOMY, FINANCE,
IN FOUR VOLUMES.
HENRY G, BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY
ASTOR, LENOX I!LDEN FODIDATIONS
LONDON: PRINTED BY HARRISON AND SON,
ST. MARTIN'S LANE,
CATHEDRAL. [ 457 ] CATHOLIC CHURCH.
OLIC CHURCH. CATHEDRAL. Certain churches are the church is believed to be held in virtue called cathedrals or cathedral churches, of a commission given to St. Peter, not as in consequence of having a seat of dignity his own personal prerogative, but as a (cathedra, a Greek term for such a seat) part of the constitution of the church, for appropriated to a bishop or archbishop. its advantage, and therefore intended to Thus there is the cathedral church of descend to his successors; as the episCanterbury, the cathedral church of Nor- copal power did from the apostles to wich, &c. The collegiate churches of Man- those who succeeded them in their respecchester and Ripon were constituted tive sees. cathedral churches of the new sees of The election of the pope, therefore, deManchester and Ripon by 6 & 7 Wm. volves upon the clergy of Rome, as being IV .c. 77, the act under which these sees their bishop; and it is confided to the colo were created.
lege of cardinals, who, bearing the titles CATHOLIC CHURCH (Roman). of the eldest churches in that city, repreAlthough in ordinary language this name sent its clergy, and form their chapter or is often used to designate the ruling au- electoral body. The meeting or chapter thority or power in the Catholic religion, formed for this purpose alone is called a as if distinct from the members of that conclave. The cardinals are appointed by communion, yet the definition which Ca- the pope, and compose the executive tholies give of the church is such as to council
of the church. They preside over comprehend the entire body of its mem- the various departments of ecclesiastical bers as well as its rulers, the flock as government, and are divided into boards much as the shepherds. Thus we hear or congregations, as they are called, for of Catholics being under the dominion of the transaction of business from all parts their church, or obliged to obey it, as of the world; but every decision is subthough it were something distinct from ject to the pope's revision, and has no themselves, or as if they were not a part value except from his approbation. On of their church. This preliminary remark some occasions they are all summoned to is made to explain a certain vagueness of meet the pope on affairs of higher importexpression, which often leads to misap- ance, as for the nomination of bishops, or prehension, and serves as the basis of in- the admission of new members into their correct ideas regarding the peculiar doe body; and then the assembly is called a trines of that church. The Catholic consistory. The full number of cardinals church therefore is defined to be the com- is seventy, but there are always some munity of the faithful united to their law hats left vacant. ful pastors, in communion with the see of The Catholic church, being essentially Rome, or with the pope, the successor of episcopal, is governed by bishops, who are St. Peter and vicar of Christ on earth. of two sorts, bishops in ordinary, and
Simply developing the terms of this vicars apostolic. By the first are meant definition, we will give a brief sketch of titular bishops, or such as bear the name the constitution or fundamental system of of the see over which they rule; as the this church under the heads of its govern- Archbishop of Paris, or of Dublin ; the ment, its laws, and its vital or constitutive Bishop of Cambray, or of New Orleans. principle.
The manner of appointing such bishops 1. The government of the Catholic varies considerably. When they are une church may be considered monarchical, shackled by the government, the clergy inasmuch as the pope is the ruler over of the diocese meet in chapter, according the entire church, and the most distant to old forms, and having selected three bishop of the Catholie church holds his names, forward them to the Holy See, appointment from him, and receives from where one is chosen for promotion. This him his authority. No bishop can be is the case in Ireland, Belgium, and perconsidered lawfully consecrated without haps in the free states of America. In his approbation. The dignity or office of most countries however the election of pope is inherent in the occupant of the bishops is regulated by concordat, that is, see of Rome, because the supremaey over a special agreement between the pope and