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all the Portuguese settlements on the | altogether 239,4421. One regiment of coast, as well as the Azores, Madeira, Dragoon Guards (the 1st) contains 479 the Cape Verd, and the Canary Islands. of all ranks, and costs 22,2641. The

CAUCUS, a word in use in the United cost of six regiments of Light Dragoons, States of North Ameria, which is applied each with 791 officers and men, in service to public meetings which are held for the in India, is defrayed by the East India purpose of agreeing upon candidates to Company, and amounts to 34,638l. per be proposed for election to offices, or to annum for each regiment. The cavalry concert measures for supporting a party, in the pay of this country for 1844-5 was or any measure of a public or local na 7970 officers and men, out of a standing ture; but its use is more generally con army of 99,707, exclusive of cavalry in fined to meetings of a political character. India; or including the Queen's troops in The word is to be found in nearly every India, the charge for cavalry for 1844-5 American newspaper, and the American Cyclopædia' states that it is one of the 808 Officers .

£190,322 very few · Americanisms' which belong 1059 Non-Commissioned Officers 44,382 entirely to the United States. It is used | 9634 Rank and File

235,519 in Gordon's 'History of the American Revolution,' published in London in 1788.

£470,223 Gordon says, that more than fifty years Dragoons are a species of light cavalry prior to the time of his writing, “Samuel trained to act either on horseback or on Adams' father, and twenty others in Bos- foot as may be required. They appear ton, one or two from the north end of the to have been introduced into the English town, where all ship business is carried service before the middle of the sevenon, used to meet, make a caucus, &c.” | teenth century; but the oldest regiment It has therefore been supposed that“ cau of dragoons in the army is that of the cus” was a corruption of caulkers,” the Scotch Greys, which was raised in 1681. word meeting being understood.

Dragoons perform the duty of advanced CAVALRY (remotely from the Latin guards and patroles; they escort convoys, caballus, “a horse') is that class of troops and harass the enemy in his retreat; or, which serve on horseback. In the British in reverses of fortune, they protect the army it consists of the two regiments dispersed and defeated infantry. The of Life Guards, the royal regiment of name Dragoon appears to come from the Horse Guards, seven regiments of Dra- Latin Draconarius, the appellation given goon Guards, and seventeen regiments of to a standard-bearer, who carried a Light Dragoons, of which the 7th, 8th, standard or colour with the figure of a 10th, 11th, and 15th are Hussars, and dragon on it. (Ammianus Marcell. xx. the 9th, 12th, 16th, and 17th are Lancers. 4, and the notes in the edition of J. GroA complete regiment of cavalry is divided novius ; Vegetius, ii. 7.) into four squadrons, and each of these Hussars are also a species of light cainto two troops. The full strength of a valry, which originally constituted the troop is 80 men; and to each troop there national militia of Poland and Hungary. is appointed a captain, a lieutenant, and a They are usually employed to protect recornet.

connoitring and foraging parties, and to The charge of the regimental establish- serve as patroles. ments of the Life and Horse Guards in The Lancers were introduced into the the year 1845, was—Life Guards, each re- British service in order to correspond to giment 29,803l. ; Horse Guards, 26,2951. the corps of what were called Polish The number of rank and file in each of Lancers in the French army. The long these regiments is 351; non-commis- lance carried by this class of troops was sioned officers, trumpeters, and drummer supposed to be of use in a charge against 53 ; officers 32: total 436. The pay in infantry; and the fluttering of the flag at the Life and Horse Guards is higher in the extremity of the lance, by alarming every grade than for the cavalry of the the horse, to give an advantage over a line. Fourteen regiments of dragoons cost dragoon otherwise armed.

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In the late war a portion of the French (Niebuhr, ii. 402.) It appears from a cavalry was furnished with cuirasses, and, passage in Livy (ví. 27) that the census in imitation of them, the English Life also showed the amount of a man's debts Guards and Horse Guards have since and the names of his creditors. borne the same heavy armour. These According to the valuation of their protroops carry a sword, two pistols, and a perty at the census, the citizens were dicarabine; the heavy cavalry in general vided into six classes; each class concarry carabines, pistols, and swords; and tained a number of centuries or hundreds. the light cavalry very small carabires, That a century did not always consist of pistols, and sabres.

a hundred men is clear, from the fact that In the French budget for 1845-6, the the richest centuries were the most nuestimate for the army was for 81,689 merous, and consequently must individuhorses and 340,000 men. There are ally have contained fewer persons than fifty-four regiments of cavalry, of five the centuries of the poor. (Hist. of Rome, squadrons cach, in the French service, by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful besides four regiments (the African Chas- Knowledge, p. 21.) The first class conseurs), each composed of six squadrons. sisted of those whose property amounted The fifty-four regiments consist of-Cara- to 100,000 ases, about 3221. 18s. of Eng. biniers 2 ; Cuirassiers 10; Dragoons 12; lish money: the second class consisted of Lancers 8; Chasseurs 13; and Hussars persons worth 75,000 ases; the fortune of 9 regiments.

the third class amounted to 50,000 ases; In the Austrian service the number of that of the fourth to 25,000; that of the regiments of Cavalry of the line is 37: fifth to 11,000; and the sixth class inCuirassiers 8; Dragoons 6; Light-horse cluded all below the fifth, even those who 7; Ilussars 12; Uhlans, 4.

had no estate whatever. This was naturally The Russian cavalry in 1835 consisted the fullest of the six, but was accounteil of 86,800 men, besides 4000 Cossacks. only as one century. Now, as the richer

The Prussian cavalry in 1843 amounted classes contained far more centuries than to 19,960 men.

the poorer, so much so that the first class CEMETERY. (INTERMENT.] contained more than all the rest together, CENSOR. [CENSUS, Roman.] and as the votes in the Comitia Centuriata

CENSORSHIP OF THE PRESS. were taken within the centuries individu[Press.]

ally, and then the voice of the majority CENSUS, THE, at Rome, was a num- of centuries was decisive, it is obvious bering of the Roman people, and a valua- that the influence of wealth was greatly tion of their property. It was held in the preponderant in this assembly. Cicero Campus Martius, after the year 1.c. 432. (De Repub. ii. 22) assigns this as the ob(Liv. iv. 22; Varro, De R. R. iii. 11.) ject aimed at in the institution. The real Every Roman citizen was obliged, upon object of the Comitia Centuriata was (as oath, to give in a statement of his own Niebuhr supposes) to bind the different name and age, of the name and age of his orders of the state together in one conwife, children, slaves, and freedmen, if he sistent and organised body. In the Comitia had any. The punishment for a false re- Centuriata the people always appeared turn was, that the individual's property under arms, and each class had a parshould be confiscated, and he himself ticular kind of armour assigned to it. scourged and sold for a slave. Taxation The census was held at first by the depended on the results of the census; kings, afterwards by the consuls, and, many kinds of property were excepted, from B.C. 442, by two magistrates called while, on the other hand, some sorts of Censors (Censores), who were appointed property were assessed at several times every five years. After the census a satheir value. Constant changes were made crifice of purification was generally, but by successive censors in the valuation not always, offered. The victims were a of taxable property. Cato and Flaccus sow, a sheep, ard a bull, which were led rated the taxable value of high-priced thrice round the army, and then slain : slaves at ten times the purchase-money. I the sacrifice was called Suovetaurilia.

It does not appear that the census was two censors; let them hold their office for held with strict regularity. It was some five years and let the censorial authority times altogether omitted. (Cic. Pro drck. be always continuexi. Let the censors fuch5. 11.) The usual interval was tive fully guard the law; and let private per years; and in allusion to the sacrifice of sous bring to them their acta probably purification, the interval was commonly their vouchers or evidences). Thus the called a lustre (lustrum).

Romans must have had an immense mass When a person was duly entered on of statistical documents, collected every the books of the censors, this was taken as five years, from which the population and a proof of his citizenship, even if he were the wealth of the community at each a slave, provided he had been registered quinquennial period could be accurately with his master's consent. (Cicero, De known. Florus (i. 6) observes, " that by 01. i. 40; Ulpian, Frag. tit. ì. 8; Gaius, the great wisdom of King Servius the state i. 17.) As the census was held at Rome, was so ordered that all the differences of citizens who were in the provinces, and property, rank, age, occupations, and prowished to be registered, were obliged to fessions were registered, and thus a large repair there on that occasion (Cicero, Ad state was administered with the same exAtt. i. 18, &c.); but this was sometimes actness as the smallest family." The evaded, and was made a matter of com Roman law fixed the age of legal caplaint by the censors. The rensus, ac- pacity, and the ages at which a man could companied with the ceremony of the lus- enjoy the various offices of the state. trum, seems to have fallen into disuse | There must consequently have been a after the time of Vespasian; but the num- register of births under the republio; and bering of the population, and the regis- a constitution of the emperor Marcus tration of property, continued under the Antoninus, as to the registration of births empire.

for a special purpose, is recorded. (Jul. The term census is also used in Latin Capitolinus, M. Antonin. c. 9.) authors to signify the amount of a per

In addition to this we have from the son's estate, and hence we read of census Codes of Theodosius and Justinian various equestris, the estate of an eques, and cen- particulars as to the census under the sus senatorius, the estate of a senator. empire, and particularly from a valuable

The nature of the Roman census may fragment of Ulpian, entitled • De Censibe collected from various particulars. bus.' (Dig. 50, tit. 15, s. 2, 3, 4.) These One object was to ascertain the number authorities have preserved even the form of men capable of bearing arms; and an- of the registration under the Roman other, to ascertain the amount of each census. These registers showed the numperson's property, and the various heads ber, class, age, and property of all free of which it consisted. Cicero's treatise persons, and also indicated the heads of on Laws, though it contains a picture of families, mothers, sols, and daughters ; an ideal republic, appears in one passage they also comprised the slaves, male and (iii. 3, 4) to describe what the Roman female, with their occupations and the census was as it existed in his time. He produce of their labour. They also consays—“Let the censors take a census oftained all the lands, and indicated the the ages of the people, the children, the mode in which they were cultivated ; slaves, the property; let them look after whether as vineyards, olive-yards, cornthe temples of the city, the roads, waters, land, pastures, forest, and so forth. They treasury, the taxes; let them distribute showed the number of acres (jugera), of into tribes the parts of which the people vines, olives, and other trees. In fact, the consist; then let them distribute the po- Roman census under the empire was a pulation according to property, ages, complete register of the population and classes ; let them register the children of wealth of all the countries included the cavalry and the infantry; let them within the limits of the Cæsar's domiforbid celibacy ; let them regulate the nions. These remarks are from Dureau moorals of the people; let them leave no de la Malle, • Economie Politique des iufamous man in the senate ; let there be Romains,' who has given at the end of

one of his volumes the form of the regis- | these registers Mr. Rickman was supplied tration tables.

with the number of births, marriages, CENSUS. Before the first enumera and deaths for six periods, each embraction of the people of this country, in ing three consecutive years, from which 1801, the number of the population was he calculated the average population of a fruitful topic with party writers. By each period. It was then assumed that some it was contended that England was the births, marriages, and deaths were in far less populous than it had been for- | the same proportion to the population of merly. Arthur Young, writing in 1769, each period as in 1801. The result of states (vol. iv. p. 556, Northern Tour') | Mr. Rickman's estimate, according to his that these writers asserted we had lost a mode of calculation, showed that he pomillion and a half of people since the pulation of England and Wales in each Revolution. Even so intelligent a writer of the following years was as under :as Dr. Price was of opinion that in 1780


Wales. England and Wales contained no more 1570 3,737,841 301,038 than 4,763,000 souls. The increase of

1600 4,460,454 351,264 manufactures, and the greater abundance 1630 5,225,263 375,254 of employment, which had of course the

1670 5,395,185 378,461 effect of raising wages, might also be re 1700 5,653,061 391,947 garded from another, though a one-sided

1750 6,066,041 450,994 point of view, as the result of the decline of population. It was in vain to tell 1. Census of 1801.—The first census of such persons that all the circumstances Great Britain was limited to the followof the country were favourable to the in- ing objects : 1, The number of indivi. crease of population; and that while agri- dual inhabitants in each parish, distinculture was improving, manufactures and guishing males from females; 2, The commerce rapidly extending, wages number of inhabited houses, and the higher, and provisions continued at a number of families inhabiting the same reasonable price, it was not in the nature in each parish; 3, The number of uninof things that population should even habited houses; 4, A classification of the continue stationary, but that it would be employment of individuals into the most likely to increase with great ra great divisions of agriculture, trade, manupidity. It is now known that the popu- factures and handicraft, and a specificalation of England increased upwards of tion of the numbers not included in either two millions and a quarter between 1750 of those divisions; 5, The number of and the end of the century ; but it was persons serving in the regular army, the not until a census was actually taken that militia, the embodied local militia. an end was put to the disputes as to the The inquiry under the fourth head enamount of the population.

tirely failed, through “ the impossibility," Having once obtained an enumeration as Mr. Rickman states, “ of deciding of the people, it has been possible to ap whether the females of the family, chil. ply the facts to antecedent periods, in dren, and servants, were to be classed as order to form an approximative estimate of no occupation, or of the occupation of of the amount of population. This task the adult males of the family. Patewas undertaken by the late Mr. Rick ment of Progress under Pop. Act of 1930.) man, who, in 1836, addressed a circular The results of the census were, however, letter to the clergy throughout England very valuable in putting an end to doubts and Wales, asking for their assistance in and controversy on the subject of the preparing returns from the parish regis- numbers of the people. ters of the births, marriages, and deaths at 2. Census of 1811.–The second census different periods. Out of about ten thou- embraced all the points which were the sand parishes in England, one-half possess subject of inquiry in 1801; but the registers which were commenced prior to question respecting the number of houses 1600, and of these, three-fourths com was subdivided, so as to distinguish the mence as early as the year 1570. From I inumber of houses building, which, in the

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first census, were classed under the head | twenty years and upwards (not including of uninhabited houses. With a view also servants); 6, Male servants aged twenty of obtaining a more accurate return of and upwards; and also male servants unthe occupations of the people, the form of der twenty. The number of female serinquiry under this head was modified so vants was also returned under a separate as to ascertain, Ist, What number of fa- head. The returns also showed, in remilies (not persons, as in 1801) were ference to the occupation and cultivation chiefly employed in or maintained by of the land, the number of-1, Occupiers agriculture; 2nd, How many by trade, employing labourers; 2, Occupiers not manufactures, and handicraft; and, 3rd, employing labourers; 3, Labourers. The The number of families not comprised in inquiry respecting age, which had on either class.

the whole been so successful in 1821, was 3. Census of 1821.—The heads of in- abandoned, except in so far as it went to quiry were the same as in 1811, with an ascertain the number of males aged twenty additional head respecting the ages of the years and upwards, on the ground that it population. For the first time it was at- imposed “ too much labour in combinatempted to ascertain the age of every per- tion with the other inquiries,” and that, son, distinguishing males from females. for so short an interval as ten years, the The first head included persons under information was “ unnecessary and inthe age of five; and the quinquennial conclusive.” With regard to males aged period was adopted for all persons not ex twenty and upwards employed in trade, ceeding 20, after which the ages were manufactures, and handicrafts, an atteinpt classified in decennial periods; and there was made to show the number employed in was a head which comprised all persons different branches of these employments. aged 100 and upwards. The ages of 92 The following was the plan adopted for out of every 100 persons were thus ascer this purpose :- A form, containing a list tained.

of one hundred different trades and handi4. Census of 1831.— The new features crafts, comprising those most commonly in this census were an alteration in the carried on, was furnished to the overseers form of inquiry respecting occupations. in each parish or place required to make In 1801 the attempt to ascertain the oc a separate return, to be filled up with cupation of every individual was, as al- the number of males aged twenty and ready stated, a failure; and the inquiry upwards; and the overseers were auin 1811 and 1821 had reference only to thorized to add to the list such additional the heads of families; but this form was trades as were not included in the printed altered, in consequence, as Mr. Rickman form. The absence of uniformity in destates, of “ the often recurring and un- scribing occupations not inserted in the answerable doubt as to what is to be official formula, and the difficulty of testdeemed a family.” The returns to the ing the accuracy of that part of the classiquestions, as modified under the census of fication which was left to the discretion of 1831, showed, as in 1811 and 1821, the the overseers, were the principal defects number of families employed in, 1, Agri- of this plan. The number of distinct culture ; 2, In trade, manufacture, and occupations returned in the census was handicrafts ; and 3, The number of fami 598. lies ndt comprised in either class ; but The censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821, and they also showed, in addition to the infor- | 1831 were each superintended by the mation procured at any former period, the late Mr. Rickman, clerk assistant of the number of persons (males aged twenty House of Commons, and the business of years and upwards) employed in, 1, Manu- enumeration was conducted by the overfacture or in making manufacturing ma seers of the poor in England and Wales, chinery ; 2, Retail trade or handicraft, and by the parochial schoolmasters in as masters or workmen; 3, The number Scotland. of capitalists, bankers, and other educated Census of 1841.–This is far more commen; 4, Labourers employed in non- plete and comprehensive than any preagricultural labour; 5, Other males aged ceding census. The heads of inquiry

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