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were more numerous and more minute, der twenty years of age. A new head of while the results obtained are more ac- | inquiry was also introduced for the purcurate. In consequence of the death of pose of showing the number of persons Mr. Rickman, two census commissioners born in the county in which they resided; (Edward Phipps and Thomas Vardon, the number born in other counties of the Esqrs.) were appointed, and the officers same country; and the number born in of the registrar-general of births, mar Scotland (for Scotland the number born riages, and deaths were employed as enu in England), Ireland, the colonies, and in merators, instead of the less intelligent foreign parts. parochial overseers. England and Wales The number of parishes which made a were divided into about 35,000 euumera return of all the above particulars was tion districts, each containing not less than 9942 for England, and 838 for Wales. twenty-five nor more than two hundred In the volumes of Abstracts of the Popuhouses, so that each district might be com- lation Returns the population is given sepleted in a single day. Public institu- parately for 17,476 parishes and other ditions, barracks, gaols, workhouses, &c. visions in England, and 1984 in Wales; were required under the Census Acts, 3 and for Great Britain the population is & 4 Vict. c. 99, and 4 Vict. c. 7, to be separately stated for 22,303 parishes, enumerated by the several officers re- towns, hamlets, &c., which is 5601 more siding therein. Two very important im- than under the census of 1831. The provements were made as to the inquiry analysis of this immense body of facts respecting ages and occupations. Instead was very admirably arranged under the of quinquennial and decennial periods be- superindendence of the census commise jog taken, as in 1821, or only the age of sioners. inales aged twenty and upwards, as in An examination into the results of the 1831, the exact age of every person was census of 1841 is treated of under a sepaascertained. In reference to occupations, rate head. [CENsus of 1841.) The fol. the enumerators were directed to ascertain lowing is a comparative summary of the employment of every person, distin- each census from 1801 to 1841 inguishing sex, and whether above or un-clusive:

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The first census of Ireland was taken in | in every 100,000, while in Ireland the 1813, but in a very imperfect and incom- defect was only 126 in each 100,000. plete manner. Six counties and the cities | The preface to the Abstracts of the Cenof Limerick and Kilkenny were omitted sus Returns of 1841 is a very elaborate altogether. In 1821, and again in 1831, disquisition on the results which the rea census was taken in a manner which turns present, and it embraces a compreafforded no ground of complaint. The hensive view of the social condition of inquiry respecting age in 1821 was the country. [CENSUS OF 1841.] more successful than in Great Britain, Amongst the defects of the census of where it was defective in respect of 8000 Great Britain and Ireland may be men

for

tioned the absence of information con females are given in five classes, and cerning the number of persons belonging in this respect the census is less minute to each religious denomination.

than might have been expected. The In 1834 a specific census was taken numbers belonging to each religious dein Ireland with a view of ascertaining nomination are also given.

purposes of legislation the religious Sweden has long been remarkable for persuasion of the people. This inquiry the minute and even ultra-inquisitorial was not repeated at the last census, and character of its census. A board called it has never found a place in the census the “Table Commission” was organised of either England or Scotland.

in 1749 for collecting and digesting acIn the Colonial possessions of Great curate statistics of the population, which Britain a census is taken at intervals, are supplied by the clergy. The Swedish under acts of the local legislature or census exhibits the circumstances of all under the direction of the governor. In the households, arranged in three classes : some cases the ages of the population are 1st, the number who have more than they ascertained ; in others the religious per- require for subsistence, or are in good cirsuasion; and in many the value and cumstances; 2nd, the number who can supamount of stock and produce are report themselves; and 3rd, those who are turned.

in bad circumstances, or have less than In France there have been six enu- they want for subsistence. The number of merations of the people during the pre- the poor and by whom they are supported sent century : in 1807, 1806, 1821, 1826, is accurately ascertained. Censuses are 1831, 1836, and 1841. The census is also taken by the civil officers for the now taken every five years. In the purposes of taxation, but they are not so census of 1801 the sexes were distin exact as the enumeration by the clergy. guished, and those in each sex who were It is said, indeed, that during the proor had been married, and those who were gress of the civil census the poor lasingle. In 1806, widowers and widows bourers, especially in the towns, contrive were also distinguished. The census of to go away or conceal themselves. 1826 was simply an enumeration without In Norway the census is taken by the distinction of age or sex ; but in 1836, magistrates in towns, and in the country and at each subsequent census, the in- | by the rectors of parishes. The inquiries quiry was pursued in the same form as in extend to the number of cattle and the 1821.

production of grain. Temporary abIn Belgium the census distinguishes sentees are returned in the family to the town and country population, sexes which they belong, and as casual strangers and ages, the number of single and married and visitors are not returned, the census persons, and widowers and widows. The comprises those only who have house and occupations of the people are also shown, home in the country. The number of divided into two classes, liberal and in- idiotic and of deaf and dumb persons is dustrial. The first includes seven sub-distinguished. Under the head of occudivisions, and the second twelve sub-pations, persons having more businesses divisions. The number of persons be than one are returned under each. A longing to each religious profession is general census has been five times taken also given.

in Norway: in 1769, 1801, 1815, 1825, In Holland the census is taken on the and in 1835; and as the census is taken 1st of January in each year.

decennially, there will be one in 1845. In Saxony the census embraces in In Denmark the census is both varied quiries as to sexes, age, number of fa- and minute, and in the information which milies, number unmarried and married, it gives it does not differ much from the widowers and widows, religious profes- Swedish census. sion, and the number of the blind, deaf The census of Sardinia, made in 1838, and dumb.

is said to be as complete in its objects and In Prussia the census is taken every method as any in Europe. It was exe

The ages of males and cuted under the superintendence of a

three years.

Central Statistical Commission. assisted by versity of Virginia, remarks :-"Oar local committees for the several provinces, changes are both greater and more rapid consisting each of five members, besides than those of any other country. A rethe "Intendente" of the province, who gion covered with its primeval forests is, acted as its president. The system of in the course of one generation, covered enumeration by names was adopted, and with productive farms and comfortable the returns showed, for each person in a dwellings, and in the same brief space population of 4,650,370 souls, the name villages are seen to shoot up into wealthy and surname ; age; civil condition, whe- and populous cities. The elements of ther single, married, or widowed; place our population are, moreover, composed of birth, whether in the province in of different races and conditions of civil which they resided, or subjects born in freedom, whose relative increase is some other province; residents who were watched with interest by every retlecting foreign subjects; occupation; and re man, however he may view that diversity ligious profession.

of condition, or whatever he may think In Austria the census is taken every of the comparative merit of the two year, but neither sex nor occupations are races.” The first census, was taken in distinguished; but this defect is partially | 1790, and referred to the 1st of August remedied by the very accurate registry of that year; the second in 1800, and which is kept of the births, marriages, subsequently in every tenth year. In and deaths.

1830 the period of enumeration was In the vast empire of Russia a census of changed to the 1st of June, so that the the population is taken, but we are unable preceding decennium was two months to state at what intervals; and there is a re- short of ten years. The last census was gistration of births, marriages, and deaths. taken on the lst of June, 1840.

In Portugal a census was taken in In the first census of the United States 1841. In Spain a census has been taken the heads of inquiry were five, and the at irregular periods; but at present the numbers were ascertained of—1, Free number of the population is only con white males, aged sixteen and upwards. jectured

2, The same under sixteen. 3, Free There is not at the present time a white females of all ages. 4, Slaves. 5, single European state (Turkey excepted) Free persons of colour, for the phrase in which a census of the population “all other persons” could comprise only is not taken with more or less minute-them. In the second census the ages of ness; and this is accompanied, with few the white population were ascertained exceptions (amongst which are Seotland and distributed under five heads, showing and Ireland), by a more or less per- the number under 10; between 10 and fect system of registering every birth, 16; 16 and 26 ; 26 and 45; and 45 and marriage, and death. (REGISTRATION OF upwards. The census of 1810 was taken Births, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.] In in the same manner as that of 1800. In addition to these means of information re- the succeeding census, in 1820, free specting the population, there are in most coloured persons and slaves were for the states returns respecting property, which first time classified as to age and sex, further illustrate the condition of the and they were distributed in four divipeople. [STATISTICS.]

sions of ages. A column was added for In the United States of North America white males aged between 16 and 18. the representative system is based on | The population was also classified as to nambers, and whenever direct taxation occupations in the three great divisions is resorted to, it is apportioned on the of agriculture, commerce, and manufacsame princip.t. A census is therefore tures. In 1830 the population was disindispensable; and provision was made tinguished with greater ininuteness as to respecting it by the constitution of the age. The white population under 20 United States. "There are other reasons was classed into quinquennial periods, which render a census of peculiar im- and from 20 and upwards into decennial portance. Professor Tucker, of the uni- | periods. The free coloured persons and

slaves were classed, in respect to age, in tion, with their means of employment, six divisions. The number of persons their command of the necessaries and blind, and deaf and dumb, were ascer- conveniences of life, the growth of capitained in each class of the population, tal, the extension of trade and manufacand their ages distinguished. No notice tures, and with other indications of the was taken in the census of 1830 of the progress of society. If it shall appear occupations of the people. The census of that in all these respects the means of en1840, on the contrary, is remarkable for joyment have increased more rapidly than its attempt to supply minute details of the population, this review of the national every branch of industry in the United resources will be most encouraging; and States, but in other respects the heads of may be more generally acceptable than a inquiry were the same as in 1830. Not tedious examination of the specific results only were the people classified according of the census itself. As the selection of to their occupations, but estimates were the various subjects of comparison will obtained relative to the annual products be made without reference to any preof industry, under the six heads of- conceived theory, the accuracy of the Mines, with nine subdivisions; Agricul- facts may be relied on: and it is hoped ture, with twenty-nine; Commerce, with that no conclusions will be drawn from five; Fisheries, with five; the Forest, them which they do not fairly justify. with five; Manufactures, with forty-six In several particulars, it will be necessubdivisions. It appears, however, from sary to advert to Great Britain and to the American Almanac' (Boston, 1845) Ireland separately; but it will be convethat the statistical details of productive in- nient, in the first place, to present a sumdustry are not so correct as could be wished. mary of the population of the United Professor Tucker, however, is of opinion Kingdom in 1831 and in 1841, with calthat the errors so balance and compensate culations of the rate of increase per cent. each other, as to afford on the whole “an approximation to the truth, which is all that the subject admits of.” (Progress of the United States in Population and Wealth in Fifty Years, as exhibited by the Decennial Census.

England

13,091,005 14,995,138 14.5 Tucker, Prof. of Moral Philosophy and Scotland

911,603 13

2,365,114 2,620,184 10.7 Political Economy in the University of Army, navy, and Virginia, Boston, 1843. This is a valu registered sea 277,017 188,453 able and useful work, and it is to be

Persons regretted that no writer of this country ling on

5,016 has undertaken a similar task for the five censuses of Great Britain, the results Islands

103, 107 124,040 19.6 of which are only to be found in the cumbrous volumes of Parliamentary Returns

16,643,028 18,844,434 13.2 which give the details of each census.)

IRELAND

7,767,401 8,175, 124 5.25 CENSUS OF 1841. In June, 1841, United Kingdom . 24,410,429 27,019,533|10:6 was taken the decennial census of Great Britain and Ireland, the results of which, The Irish census commissioners (Rewhen compared with other statistical re- port, p. xi.) enter into certain calculations, turns, afford the means of examining the by which they raise the per centage of condition and prospects of the country. increase in the popu.'ation of Ireland from It is not proposed, in this article, to enter 5.25, as actually shown in the returns, to with any minuteness either upon the nearly 12 per cent.

If the same prinmanner in which the census was taken, ciples of calculation were applied to the or upon the detailed results appearing in population of Great Britain, the increase the reports of the commissioners; but it is would also be greater ; but it will be sufintended to present a comparison of the ficient, for the purposes of this inquiry, if increase and distribution of the popula- the entire population of the United King

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1831.

1841.

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dom, during the ten years from 1831 to sumption of articles of comfort and 1841, be assumed to have increased 12 luxury, it is worthy of special notice

that the use of intoxicating drinks had In judging of the condition of the peo- apparently decreased. We are not aware ple, the first point which may be investi- of any causes which encouraged the gated is their consumption of those articles smuggling or adulteration of spirits in which are used more or less in proportion 1841 which did not exist in 1831; and to their means. Unhappily there are no yet it appears, from the returns, that the means of estimating the quantities of bread consumption of duty-paid spirits of all and meat or other staples of food produced kinds, whether British or foreign, had in this country ; but the quantities of aux decreased in that interval to the extent iliary articles of food and luxury imported of 7-8 per cent. In the same period the from abroad for home consumption, or consumption of all wines had increased manufactured in this country, are fair in- only 3.9 per cent. The consumption of dications of the means possessed by the beer cannot be ascertained, but the quanpeople of enjoying the comforts of life. tity of hops that paid duty had fallen from Īf the increase in the consumption of such 36,500,028 lbs. in 1831, to 30,504,108, articles be in a greater proportion than or 19•6 per cent.; and of malt, from the increase of population, it may reason 40,334,987 bushels to 35,656,713, or 13-1 ably be inferred that their means of en- per cent. From these facts, however, no joyment have generally increased; or, in certain inference can be drawn, on other words, that the people enjoyed more count of the great varieties in the natural comforts in 1841 than in 1831, relatively produce of these articles in different years, to their numbers.

and of the free use of other ingredients by The quantities of several articles which brewers. paid duty for home consumption in the Our view of the evidences of increased United Kingdom, in 1831 and 1841 re- consumption may be closed by the notice spectively, and the rate of increase, will of the three articles of timber, cottonappear from the following table : wool, and wool, all of which are used

solely in giving employment to productive industry. Taking all the different

kinds of imported timber, there appears 1831. 1841.

to have been an increase of 37.5 per cent.

In cotton-wool there was an increase of Butter

121,193 251,255 1064 Cheese.

61•1 per cent.; and in sheep and lambs' 130,039 249,-35 90.9 Cocoa 502,806 1,930,764 283.9

wool imported, of 78.7 per cent. Coffee

lbs. 22,715,807 28,420,989 25.1 The next subject of comparison may Tea

29,997,055 36,396,078 21.3 be the exports of British and Irish proRice... cwts. 140,10) 215,887| 75.5 Eggs No 58,464,690 91,880,187 57.1

duce and manufactures from the United Tallow. . cwts. 91%,733 1.243,112 35:3 Kingdom, in 1831 and in 1841, from Soap (hard) lbs. 103,956, 030 156,008, 290 43:1 which the manufacturing and commer

19,333,840 22,308, 385 14.2 cial condition of the country, and the emCrowo-glass.cwt 103,803 116,895 12.6

14,019 27,639 97.1 ployment of its people, at those periods, Green or bottle

may be collected. glass . .cwts. 288,760 499,581 73.0 The quantities and declared value of Paper . lbs. 62,738,000) 97,103,548 54.7

some of the principal articles of export This list might be extended much fur- are exhibited in the table in the following ther; but it will suffice to show that the page : consumption of these articles (restrained On referring to the two last columns of in some cases by too heavy a taxation) this table, it appears that the value of the was enjoyed in a larger ratio than the exports did not always increase in the increase of population, and that the com same ratio as the quantities; but the total forts of the people must have been pro- declared value of all British and Irish portionately greater in 1841 than in 1831. produce and manufactures exported in

Concurrently with this increased con- 1831 was 37,164,3721. ; in 1841,

Rate per

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cwts.

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