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23.2

£. Apparel...

790,293
1,217,975

54.1 Brass and Copper manu factures ......... cwts. 181,951 803, 124 327,247| 1,523,744 79.8

89.7 Cordage...

36,276 81,986 63,822 130,414 75.9 71.2 Cotton manufactures ... yds. 421,355,303 12,163,513751,125,624 14,985,810 78.2 Cotton twist and yarn .. lbs. 63,821,440 3,975,019|123, 226,519 7,266,986 93.0 82.8 Earthen ware ........ pieces 37,028,897 461,090 53,150,903

600,759 43.5 30.3 Glass (entered by weight).... 177,915 420,044 338,890 400,168

90.4 (entered at value)

9,580

21,768

127.2 Hardwares and cutlery cwts. 336,194 1,622,429 353,348 1,623,961 5:1 0.03 Iron and steel (wrought or unwrought)

194,312 1,123,372 360,875 2,877,278 174.2 156.1 Leather

lbs. 1,314,931 246,410 2,623,075 332,573 99.4 34.9 Linen manufactures yds. 69,233,892 2,400,043 90,321.761 3,200,467 30.4 33.3 thread, tapes, &c.

61,661

147,098

138.5 yar

lbs. 110,188 8,705 25, 220,290 972,466 22788.4 11071•3 Machinery and mill-work

105,491

551,361

422.6 Silk manufactures ..........

578,874

788,894

36.2 Tin and pewter wares ......

230, 143

390,621

69.7 Wool, British.. lbs. 3,494,275 173, 105 8, 471,235

555,620 142.4 220.9 Woollen and worsted yarn , 1,592,455 158,111 4,903,291 552,148 207.9 249.2 manufactures, pieces 1,997,348 4,530.902 2,291,273 4,821, 820 14.7 5.2 yards. 5,797,546

500,950 9,831,975 698,462 69.5 39.4 hosiery, &c...

150,555

228,391

51.7

}tons.

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51,634,623l. ; thus showing an aggre- the capital, available for further entergate increase of 38.9 per cent.

prises, was not increasing with correAnother evidence of the increased com- sponding rapidity. The evidences of acmerce of the country is afforded by the cumulation cannot be of so distinct a returns of shipping. In 1831, 20,573 character as those of consumption and ships (British and foreign) engaged in production ; but it may be asked, in the the foreign and colonial trades, entered outset, how could so vast an increase in inwards; of which the total tonnage the productive industry of the country, in amounted to 3,241,927. In 1841 the the value of its exports, in its shipping number of ships had increased to 28,052, and commerce, have been supported withand the tonnage to 4,652,376; thus show out prodigious additions to its capital? ing an increase of tonnage in the propor- The best evidence of the quantity of capition of 43.5 per cent. In 1832, 119,283 tal in a country is its results. Without a ships were employed (including their sufficient quantity, production and conrepeated voyages) in the coasting trade, sumption could not continue to increase : of which the tonnage amounted to and as capital is likely to be applied to 9,419,681. In 1841 the number of ships production and consumption as much at had increased to 146,127, and the tonnage one period as at another, all that seems to 11,417,991, showing an increase of necessary for ascertaining the increase of 21•2 per cent in the tonnage employed. capital, is to know the ncrease of its im

Thus far an increased prosperity can mediate results. If, in addition to the admit of no doubt. It is evident that vast increase of production and consumptonsumption, production, and commerce tion which could only have been supall increased in a greater ratio than the ported by a proportionate amount of capipopulation. But it may here be asserted tal, we see the price of all public securithat profits were low, and that, notwith-ties high, the interest of money low, and. standing the outward signs of prosperity, capital seeking investment in every specu-

lative enterprise, and devoted to religious 1 in 1842 at 9,284,3821. In the absence of and charitable objects over the whole any intermediate assessment a rough estiworld, it is absurd to doubt the abundance mate only can be made of the increzse in of capital. But in addition to this in the value of real property between 1831 direct evidence of the increase of capital, and 1841; but we are inclined to think there are other indications of its accumu- it was not less than from 20 to 25 per lation, of a more direct nature, a few of cent. In 1815 the annual profits of trade which may suffice :

in England and Wales were assessed at Notwithstanding the discouragement | 35,028,0511. No similar account for of insurance, caused by a duty of 200 per 1842-3 has yet been published ; but as cent., the sums insured against fire, in the actual' receipts by government the United Kingdom, amounted in 1831 to amounted to 1,466,9851, at 21. 188. 4d. per 526,655,3321.,and in 1841 to 681,539,8391.; cent.,after exempting all profits underl 501. being an increase of 29.4 per cent. The a year, the annual amount of all profits accumulations annually made through above 1501. a year may be fairly estimated the instrumentality of life assurance are at 50,153,3331. ; and after adding a fifth, or known to be enormous, but no reasonable 10,000,000l., for profits under 1501., the estimate can be made of their amount, nor proportion of increase which accrued be. any comparison of the rate of increase in tween 1831 and 1841 will not be overthe period of which we are treating. The rated at 20 per cent. most interesting evidence of accumulation The amount of capital upon which legacyis presented by the returns of savings' duty had been paid in Great Britain, from banks. In 1831 there were 429,503 de- | 1797 to 1831 inclusive, was 741,648,1971.; positors, whose deposits amounted to in 1841 it amounted to 1.163,284,2071. 13,719,495l. : in 1841 there were 841,204 | Thus, in this period of ten years, legacy. depositors, and the amount of their de- duty had been paid upon a capital of posits had increased to 24,474,6891.; so 422,636,009). 198. 5d., or considerably that, both in number and amount, the more than one-half of the aggregate deposits may be said to have been doubled amount upon which the duty had been in this short period of ten years. The paid in the thirty-four preceding years. capital invested in railways in the same In 1831 the produce of the stamp-duties period may safely be estimated at up- upon probates of wills and letters of adwards of 60,000,000l. (see · First Report ministration in the United Kingdom on Railways,' 1839, Appendix); and the amounted to 918,6671.; in 1841 to sums authorised by Parliament to be 1,012,481l., showing an increase of 10.2 raised for various public purposes--for per cent. roads, bridges, docks, canals, navigations, These various statements all confirm, markets, lighting and improving towns, more or less distinctly, the conclusion afford evidence of the abundance of capi- which had been suggested by less direct, tal which was constantly seeking invest but not less conclusive evidence, viz., ment, in addition to its customary em that the capital of the country appears to ployment in commerce and manufac- have increased in the period of ten years tures.

from 1831 to 1841, in a greater ratio than The returns of the assessment of pro- the population ; and, consequently, that perty for the income tax will not pre- the funds necessary for the employment sent any comparison of the wealth of the of labour and for maintaining the grow. country in 1831 and in 1841; but very ing population in increased comfort, had important results may be deduced from multiplied more rapidly than the people them, which must not be overlooked. for whose use they were available. The annual value of real property, as Having now compared the increase of assessed to the property tax in 1815, was national wealth with the increase of poreturned at 51,898,423l. ; in 1842 it was pulation, so far as the statistics of conreturned at 82,283,8441. ; and the tithes sumption, production, and accumulation at 1,668,1131. in Scotland the real pro- afford such comparison ; a confirmation perty was assessed in 1811 at 5,972,523l. ; 1 of the results presented by our analysis is

to be found in the Reports of the Census former decennial period would be 208,998, Commissioners, together with many sin- being 14 per cent. on the population of gular tacts illustrative of the state and 1831 ; and from returns which have been destinies of our country. In following furnished from the Emigration Board, it these, however, it will be necessary to appears that the total excess of emigration consider Great Britain and Ireland sepa- in the ten years ending 1841, compared rately.

with the ten years ending 1831, may be The first point illustrative of the con estimated at 282,322.” (See Preface, p. dition of the people is, that the increase 11.) Thus, instead of attributing this in the number of inhabited houses in apparent decrease to the pressure of poEngland and Wales since 1831 was two verty by which the natural growth of per cent. greater than that of the popula- population was checked, we must ascribe tion. Too much reliance, however, must it to a cause which is calculated to raise not be placed upon this bare statistical the wages of labour in this country, result, as the quality of the houses may while it affords to the emigrants a wider be a more important matter than their field and, we trust, a larger reward for positive number; but so far as it goes it their industry. is satisfactory. The misery and destitu Another fact of the highest importance tion which prevail in many parts of Great is clearly proved, viz.—that the comBritain are undeniable ; squalid poverty merce and manufactures of Great Britain and glittering wealth meet the eye in alone afford employment for the increasing every street; but the apparent fact of an population. While the increase upon the increased house accommodation should whole kingdom amounted, as already make men hesitate before they declare stated, to 13.2 per cent., the increase in that poverty is spreading at one extremity the manufacturing and commercial counof society while wealth is agglomerating ties was greatly above that proportion, at the other. Apart from this direct evi- and in the agricultural counties considence that one of the most painful results derably below it. In Chester the increase of poverty, the overcrowding of many was 18:3 per cent.; in Durham, 2707; families into the same houses, though in Lancaster, 24:7; in Middlesex, 16; painfully prevalent in Liverpool and in. Monmouth, 36:9; in Stafford, 24:3; some other places, has not generally in Warwick, 19.3; and in the West Riding increased--it may be asked what better of York, 18.2. In Buckingham the inproof, amongst many, can be given of crease was only 6-4 per cent.; in Cumthe general prosperity of the masses of berland, 4:9; in Devon, 7*8; in Dorset, the people than the application of so vast 9.9; in Essex, 8.6; in Hereford, 2:4; in a capital to productive industry as must Norfolk, 5•7; in Oxford, 6*2; in Suffolk, have been required for the building of 6:3; in Westmoreland, 2'5; and in the 500,000, new houses in a space of ten North Riding of York 7 per cent. It is years?

useless, therefore, to discuss the relative It is well known that the rate of increase importance of agriculture and manufacof the population from 1831 to 1841 in tures in the abstract; for agricultural England and Wales was apparently less counties cannot support their own populathan in the preceding ten years, by 13 tion; while the manufacturing and comper centa; and if the bare fact of nume mercial counties find employment for rical increase were taken as a test of their own natural increase and for the national strength and prosperity, this fact surplus of other counties which the land might be deemed a symptom of decay. cannot maintain. To this discouraging view, however, a The relative increase of the agriculcomplete answer is given by the commis- tural and commercial population is shown sioners, who ascribe the apparently dimi- by the following proportions per cent. :nished rate of increase wholly to emigra

Agricul- Commer- Miscellation. “The additional population which

neous. would be required in order to make the 1831

28 42 ratio of increase. equal to that of the 1841 22

32.

tural

cial.

30

46

But in 1831 the returns referred to fami- , vants, say 90 per cent. Thus the two lies, and in 1841 to individuals; and as classes who earn the lowest wages were a greater number of children are em- alone stationary or retrograde: the highest ployed in manufactures than in agricul. class in wealth and intelligence had inture, the difference may have been slightly creased 323 per cent.; and the domestic augmented by this form of enumeration. servants, whose numbers are a certain · A still more important point of com- indication of the means of their employers, parison is the relative increase of different had increased 90 per cent. Nor must classes of occupations in the same period another important fact be omitted in conof 10 years from 1831 to 1841. A com nexion with the decrease in the class of parative return of the Commissioners labourers, viz. the immense numbers of (Preface, p. 21) includes males only Irish who notoriously perform the most aged 20 years and upwards, and exhibits laborious parts of industry. In Lancathe following results :—The number of shire the persous born in Ireland formed, occupiers and labourers in agriculture had in 1841, 6.3 per cent. upon the whole decreased in that period from 1,251,751 population; in Cheshire, 3 per cent; to 1,215,264; but the Commissioners ex in Middlesex, 3•6 per cent. ; in Ayr. plain this result by supposing that nu- shire, 73; in Dumbartonshire, 11; and merous farm-servants had been returned in in Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire, up1841 as domestic servants instead of as wards of 13 per cent. It would seem, agricultural labourers. Persons engaged therefore, that the class of British labourin commerce, trade, and manufacture had ers are gradually raising themselves into increased from 1,572,292 to 2,039,409 a higher condition and more lucrative (or 29:7 per cent.): capitalists, bankers, employments ; and that the demand for professional and other educated men, the lowest description of labour, caused from 216,263 to 286,175 (or 32-3 per by their withdrawal from it, is supplied cent.): labourers employed in labour by their Irish brethren. not agricultural had decreased from The number of female domestic ser611,744 to 610,157: other males 20 vants increased in Great Britain from years of age, except servants, had in- 670,491 in 1831, to, 908,825 in 1841, or creased from 237,337 , 0 392,211: male 35 per cent. servants 20 years of age and upwards In concluding this statement of the inhad increased from 79,737 to 164,384, dustrial occupations of the people of Great including, however, as already noticed, Britain, it is gratifying to learn that the many farm-servants. For the purpose of whole of the “almspeople, pensioners, pauinstituting a just comparison of the rela- pers, lunatics, and prisoners” amounted in tive increase of particular employments, it 1841 to 1'1 per cent. only upon the popumust be understood that the total number lation. of male persons 20 years of age and We may now pass to some of the most upwards (exclusive of army, navy, and material facts disclosed by the census of merchant seamen) had increased, in this Ireland. The constant migration of laperiod of ten years, from 3,969,124 to bourers from the agricultural counties of 4,707,600 (or 18.6 per cent.). Making England to the manufacturing districts, due allowance for the probable error in and the extensive einigration of the last the return of agricultural labourers, we ten years, have been already noticed ; and are forced to conclude that that class had precisely the same circumstances are obeither not increased at all or had increased servable in Ireland. In the period from in a very small degree: and that the class 1831 to 1841 no less a number than of labourers not agricultural had po- 403,459 persons left Ireland, either to sitively diminished : while capitalists, settle in the populous towns of Great bankers, professional and other educated Britain or to emigrate to the British men, had increased 32-3 per cent.; per- Colonies or the United States ; while an sons engaged in trade and in manufac- extensive migration was taking place, tures 29-7 per cent.; and domestic servants within Ireland itself, to Dublin and to other 106 per cent., or allowing for farm-ser-commercial and manufacturing places.

The returns of house accommodation similar classification had ever been in Ireland present a very lamentable adopted before, no comparison is pracpicture. The Commissioners have adopted ticable with any preceding period. a judicious classification by which the The report of the Irish Census Comhouses are distinguished under four missioners abounds in highly interesting classes, the last being that of the cabin inquiries into the condition of the Irish or mud hut with one room, and the third people; but as they do not afford any class but one degree better. The follow- comparison with the year 1831, the ing statement shows the proportion per object which we had proposed cannot be cent. which the number of families in carried any further with respect to that cach class of accommodation bear to the country. total number of families :

This suocinct view of the material pro1 Class. 2 Class. 3 Class. 4 Class, gress of society, as far as it admits of Rural dis

elucidation by statistics, is certainly intricts 1.2 15:3 40 43.5 complete without a consideration of its Civic dis

advances or retrogression in religion, in tricts 7. 22:4 33.9 36.7

morals, and in education ; but these

questions, far more important in themThe value of this classification is ob- selves than any we have here discussed, vious, and if hereafter adopted in England are not so immediately connected with it will render the statistics of house ac

the results of the Census. commodation of considerably greater CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. weight, in estimating the social condition [Circuits.) and habits of the people. A mud hut CERTIFICATE. [BANKRUPT, P. upon a common ought not to rank even, 292.] in the array of figures, with the mansions

CERTIORA'RI, in law, is a writ issuof wealthy cities.

ing from one of the superior courts, diEven in Ireland it appears that manu, recting the judges or officers of an inferior factures are attracting the agricultural court to transmit or cause to be certified population; for the number of families (certiorari facias) records or other proengaged in trade and manufactures have ceedings. The object of the removal is increased five per cent. since 1831 ; and either that the judgment of the inferior the number employed in agriculture have jurisdiction may be reviewed by the sudiminished in a corresponding propor-perior court, or that the decision and the tion.

proceedings leading to it may take place The population have been divided by before the higher tribunal. An instance the commissioners into three great classes, of the former is where the convictions of nearly equivalent to the three ordinary magistrates or the judgments or orders grades of society: and the proportions of of courts of quarter-sessions are removed families appear as follow :

by certiorari into the court of King's

Rural. Civic. Vested means, Professions, &c. 1.8

Bench by way of appeal against their The direction of labour

validity, in which case the decision which Their own manual labour

has previously been given is re-consi36:4

dered, and is confirmed or set aside. An Means not specified.

1.9 70

instance of the latter is where an indictThe occupations of all individuals ment found against a peer by an inferior above 15 years of age are classified: Ist, jurisdiction is certified or transmitted into as ministering to food ; 2nd, as minister- the Court of Parliament or the Court of ing to clothing; 3rd, as ministering to the Lord High Steward, in order that the lodging, &c.; 4th, as ministering to further proceedings and the adjudication health, education, &c.; and 5th, as may take place before the proper tribunal. unclassified or miscellaneous; each class By this writ, indictments, with the probearing respectively the following proceedings thereon, may, at any time before portions to the entire population, viz.actual trial, be removed from the assizes 23:3; 11•. 2.; 17; and 6. But as no or quarter-sessions into the Court of

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