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thirty, forty, or fifty such foundations. Sometimes chantries were established When the church allowed no more space in edifices remote from any church, a for the introduction of chantries, it was chapel being erected for the express purusual for the founders to attach little pose. chapels to the edifice. It is these chantry In chantries of royal foundation, or in chapels, the use and occasion of which chantries founded by the more eminent are now so generally forgotten, which prelates or barons, the service was conoccasion so much of the irregularity of ducted sometimes by more than one perdesign which is apparent in the parish son. But usually there was ouly one churches of England. They were gene- officiating priest. The foundation deeds rally erected in the style of architecture generally contain a specification of his which prevailed at the time, and not in duties, which consisted for the most part accommodation to the style of the original in the repetition of certain masses : but fabric.

sometimes the instruction of youth in When chapels were erected for the grammar or singing, and the delivering especial purpose of the chantries, they pious discourses to the people, made part were usually also the places of interment of the duty of the chantry priests. They of the founder and his family, whence also contain an account of the land settled we sometimes find such chapels belong- by the founder for the support of the ing, even to this day, to particular fa- priest. The names of the persons whom milies, and adorned with monuments of he was especially to name in his services many generations. One of the most beau are set forth, as well as the mode of his ::ful chapels of this kind is in the little appointment and the circumstances in village of Sandal, a few miles from Don- which he might be removed. Generally caster, the foundation of Rokeby, arch- the king was named together with the bishop of Dublin, who died in 1521. founder and members of his family. The church of Sandal being small, af- | This, it was supposed, gave an additional forded no scope for the design of this chance of the foundation being perpetumagnificent prelate. Having determined | ated. The king's licence was generally that this should be the place of his inter- obtained for the foundation. ment, he erected a chapel on the north In many towns and country places side of the choir, open, however, to the there are ancient houses called chantry church on one side, being separated from houses, or sometimes chantries, or colit only by open wainscot. On entering leges, which were formerly the residence it by the door the whole economy of one of the chantry priests, and when called of these chapels is manifest. Under the colleges they were the places where they window looking eastward an altar has lived a kind of collegiate life. These, as stood ; the piscina on the right remains. well as all other property given for the

In each side of the east window is a niche support of the chantry priests, were seized where once, no doubt, stood an effigies of by the crown and sold to private persons, u saint whom the archbishop held in pe- when by an act passed in the first year of culiar honour. In the centre is a brass King Edward VI. cap. 14, all foundaindicating the spot in which the body of tions of this kind were absolutely supthe prelate lies; and in the north wall is pressed and their revenues given to the a memorial of him, haviug his arms and king. An account had been taken a few sffigies, with an inscription setting forth years before of all the property which his name and rank and the day of his was settled to these uses, by the commisdecease, with divers holy ejaculations. sioners under the act 26 Hen. VIII. cap. The stone and wood work have been 2, whose returns form that most important wrought with exquisite care, and the ecclesiastical document the * Valor Ecclewindows appear to have been all of siasticus' of King Henry VIII. The painted glass. The Beauchamp chapel Valor' has been published by the comat Warwick contains the very fine monu missioners on the Public Records in ment and effigy of Richard de Beauchamp, five volumes folio. Earl of Warwick, who died in 1439. The act of Edward VI. gave the king

all the colleges, free chapels, chantries, tical Memoirs, ii. 101–103, ii. 423, hospitals, fraternities or guilds, which iii. 222, vi. 495.) were not in the actual possession of King CHAPEL (in French, chapelle; in Latin, Henry VIII. to whom the Parliament in capella), a word common to many of the the thirty-seventh year of his reign had languages of modern Europe, and used to made a grant of all such colleges, &c., nor designate an edifice of the lower rank apin the possession of King Edward. The propriated to religious worship. preamble of the act of Edward states that In England it has been used to desigthe object of the act was the suppression nate minor religious edifices founded of the superstitions which such founda- under very different circumstances and tions encouraged, and the amendment of for different objects. such institutions, and the converting them 1. We have a great number of rural to good and godly uses, as for the erection ecclesiastical edifices, especially in the of grammar-schools, and for augmenting north of England, where the parishes are of the universities, and better provision large, which are not, properly speaking, for the poor and needy. But this act was churches, ecclesia, though they are somemuch abused, as the act for dissolving times so called, but are chapels, and not religious houses in King Henry VIII's unfrequently called parochial chapels. reign had been, and private persons got Most of them are of ancient foundation, most of the benefit of it. The money was but still not so ancient as the time when not only not appropriated as it ought to the parochial distribution of England was have been, but both many grammar- regarded as complete, and the right to schools and much charitable provision tithe and offerings was determined to be. for the poor were taken away under the long to the rector of some particular act. As already observed, the teaching of church. In the large parishes a family youth was sometimes one of the duties of of rank which resided at an inconvenient the chantry priests, and it is probable distance from the parish church would that wherever there was a school and a often desire to have an edifice near to chantry provided by the same foundation, them, for the convenience of themselves the existence of the chantry was made a and their tenants. On reasonable cause pretext for suppressing the whole endow- being shown, the bishop would often yield ment. Thus at Sandwich, in Kent, the to applications of this kind; but in such chantry of St. Thomas was suppressed. cases he would not suffer the rights of One of the priests of this chantry was the parish church to be infringed; no bound to teach the children of Sandwich tithe was to be subtracted from it and to read. The citizens, feeling the loss of en to the newl erected foundation, their school, raised money by subscription nor was that foundation to be accounted for making a new school, and Roger Man- in rank equal to the older church, or its wood, afterwards chief baron of the Ex- incumbent otherwise than subordinate chequer, was at the head of the subscrip- minister to the incumbent of the parish tion. This is the origin of the present free church. But the bishop generally, grammar-school of Sandwich. (Journal perhaps always, stipulated that there of Education, vol. x. p. 63.)

King should be

endowment by the Edward founded a considerable num- founder of such an edifice. Frequently ber of grammar-schools, and the endow- in edifices of this class there was the ments were for the most part out of double purpose of obtaining a place of tithes formerly belonging to religious easier resort for religious worship and houses, or out of chantry lands given ordinances, and a place in which perpeto the king in the first year of his reign. tual prayers might be offered for the These schools are now generally called family of the founder. [CHANTRY.] King Edward VI.'s Free Grammar- | Others of these rural chapels were Schools ; and many of them, such as Bir- founded by the parishioners. The popumingham for instance, are now well en- lation of a village, which lay remote from dowed in consequence of the improved the charch of the parish within whose value of their lands. (Strype, Ecclesias- limits it was included, would increase, and


thus the public inconvenience of having of this is at Conisbrough, near Doncaster. to resort to the parish church on occasion But more frequently chapels of this kind of christenings, churchings, marriages, were erected near to the apartments ap and funerals, besides the services on the propriated to the residence of the family. festivals, become great; they would Most of the baronial residences, it is protherefore apply to the bishop in petitions, bable, had chapels of this kind. How many of which are in the registers of the splendid they sometimes were we may sees, setting forth the distance at which see in St. George's Chapel at Windsor they lived, the impediments, constant or and St. Stephen's Chapel at Westminster, occasional, in the way of their ready both chapels of this class attached to the resort to their parish church, as want of residences of our kings. good roads, snow, the rising of waters, 3. The chapels of colleges, as in the and the like, on which the ordinary two universities; of hospitals, or other would grant them the leave which they similar foundations. desired, reserving, however, as seems al 4. Chapels for private services, chiefly most always to have been the case, what services for the dead, in the greater ever rights and emoluments had before churches, as the chapel of Saint Erasmus, time belonged to the parish church. In and others, in the church of Westminster. the parish of Halifıx there are twelve of Additions made to the parish churches these chapels, all founded before the Re- for the support of chantries are sometimes formation. In the parish of Manchester, called chantry chapels. and in most of the parishes of Lancashire, 5. Places of worship of modern founsuch subsidiary foundations are numerous. dation, especially those in towns, are Those foundations of this class which called chapels of ease, being erected for could be brought within the description the ease and convenience of the inhabiof superstitious foundations were dissolved tants when they have become too numeby the act of i Edward VI, for the sup- rous for the limits of their parish church. pression of chantries; but while the en- Most of these are founded under special dowment was seized, it not unfrequently Acts of Parliament, in which the rights happened that the building itself, out of and duties of the incumbent and the founthe piety of the person into whose hands ders are defined. Under the Chureh it passed in the sale of the chantry lands, Building Acts the commissioners may asor the devotion of the persons living near sign districts to chapels under care of it, and long accustomed to resort to it, curates. By 3 Geo IV. c. 72, they may continued to be used for religious worship convert district chapelries into separate in its reformed state, and remains to this parishes. {BENEFICF, p. 343. ] day a place of Christian worship, the in 6. The word chapel is pretty generally cumbent being supported by the casual used to denote the places of worship endowments of the period since the Re- erected by various sects of Dissenters formation, and especially by what is under the Act of Toleration, though the called Queen Anne's Bounty, in which Quakers and some of the more rigid Dismost of the incumbents of chapels of this senters of other denominations, out of class have participated.

dislike to the nomenclature of an ecclesi2. The term chapel is used to desig- astical system which they do not approve, nate those more private places for the prefer to call such edifices by the name of celebration of religious ordinances in the meeting-houses. The pame chapel is now castles or dwelling-houses of persons of also generally given, by Protestants at rank. These chapels, says Burn, were least, to the Roman Catholic places of anciently all consecrated by the bishop. | worship. We find in some of the oldest specimens CHAPLAIN (capellanus, a word of the castles of England some small formed from the middle Latin, capella, apartment which has evidently been used chapel). A chaplain is properly a clergyfor the purposes of devotion, and this man officiating in a chapel, in contradissometimes in the keep, the place of last tinction to one who is the incumbent of a resort in the time of a siege. An instance | parish church, But it now generally de

signates clergymen who are either (1) chaplain to each regiment, but there are residing in families of distinction and ac a few clergymen appointed for the army tually performing religious services in the under the name of Chaplains to the Forces. family; or (2) who are supposed to be so, The magistrates in quarter-sessions are thongh not actually so engaged. This required by 4 Geo. IV. c. 64, to appoint fiction proceeds on the assumption that a chaplain to every prison within their every bishop and nobleman, with some of jurisdiction. His salary is regulated by the great officers of state, have each their the number of persons which the prison is private chapel, to which they nominate a capable of containing, and must not exceed priest, or more than one. Certain privi- 1501. when the number of prisoners does leges respecting the holding of benefices not exceed fifty, nor 2001. if the number belonged to these chaplains, by reserva- of persons which the prison can contain tion out of the Act against Pluralities, does not exceed one hundred ; and the 21 Henry VIII.c. 13, which were restricted salary may be fixed at the discretion of by 57 Geo. III. c. 59; and by 1& 2 Vict. the justices when the number of prisoners c. 106, both these acts were repealed so exceeds two hundred. A chaplain to a far as they related to the subject of plura- prison must be a clergyman of the Church lities. By 21 Henry VIII, the number of of England, and be licensed by the bishop chaplains which noblemen and other per- before he can officiate. The magistrates sons may nominate was limited : an have the power of removing him from his archbishop may nominate eight; a duke office in case of misconductand neglect, and or a bishop, six; a marquis or earl, five; of granting him an annuity when incapable a viscount, four; a baron, a knight of the from infirmity of performing his duties : garter, or the lord chancellor, three ; the his duties are pointed out by the above treasurer of the king's house, the comp- act, and amongst other things he is retroller of the king's house, the clerk of quired to keep a journal. The duties of the closet, the king's secretary, the dean chaplains in jails are further regulated of the chapel, the almoner, and the master by 2 & 3 Vict. c. 56. They must not of the rolls, may nominate each two; the reside more than a mile from the prison. chief justice of the King's Bench and the A chaplain in any jail in which the warden of the Cinque Ports, each one; a number of prisoners confined at one time dachess, marchioness, countess, and baro- during the three years preceding his apness, being widows, are allowed to nomi- pointment was not less than one hundred, nate each two.

cannot hold a benefice with cure of The Speaker of the House of Commons souls, or any curacy with the office of appoints his chaplain, who reads prayers chaplain. An assistant chaplain or chapdaily at the House before business com- lains may be appointed in jails where

In the House of Lords prayers the number of prisoners exceeds 250. are read by the bishop last raised to the The reports of chaplains are sometimes episcopal bench.

of great interest and throw light upon A chaplain is appointed to each of her the causes of crime. Appended to the Majesty's ships when in active service. I act 2 & 3 Vict. c. 56, are a number of He must have been regularly ordained, | questions, the answers to which are and a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, annually returned to the Secretary of Dublin, or Durham, and not above the State; and the 28th question relates to age of thirty-five. He undergoes an ex the duties of the chaplain. amination by some competent person ap Chaplains are required to be appointed pointed by the Admiralty, and must pro to every County Lunatic Asylum. duce testimonials of good moral and The Poor Law Amendment Act religious conduet from two beneficed(4 & 5 Will. IV. c. 76) empowers the Cergymen. The pay of a chaplain is Poor Law Commissioners to appoint paid

21. 58. per month for ships of all rates, officers of parishes and unions, and this and the half-pay is 5s. or 10s. a day, includes chaplains. The act contemplates according to length of service. In the that the inmates of union workhouses, of formy it is not necessary to appoint a whatever religious persuasion, should have


instruction in that persuasion. It is not | interpretation, of which the ministers of peremptory to appoint a clergyman of the Charles X. availed themselves to issue Church of England as chaplain, and the the ordonnances which gave rise to the guardians may appoint a dissenting mi- revolution of July, 1830, was altered on nister.

the accession of Louis-Philippe, and it Both in jails and union workhouses was clearly explained that “ the king licensed dissenting ministers are allowed issues the necessary ordonnances and to visit the inmates of their respective regulations for the execution of the laws, persuasions at reasonable times and under without having the power in any case to certain restrictions: By the Irish Poor suspend the course of the law or to delay Law Act (1 & 2 Vict. c. 56) three chap- its execution.” The “Charte de 18:30, lains may be appointed for the union with this and one or two more modifica. workhouses, one of the Established tions of minor importance, was sworn to Church, one Roman Catholic priest, and by Louis-Philippe on the 9th of August, one Protestant dissenter.

1830. Since that date, a change has been CHAPTER. The canons in the ca made by the legislature in the constitution thedral or conventual churches, when of the Chamber of Peers. The Peers are assembled, form what is called the chap- only for life, and the peerage is conseter, capitulum ; anciently the council of quently not hereditary. the bishop. Other religious communities, As France is so closely connected with when assembled for business, sat in England in the progress of constitutional chapter. Attached to many cathedral history, we give an abstract of the “Charte and conventual churches are buildings for de 1830." The general outline of the the meeting of the chapter, called chapter-government of France bears a resem. houscs. The buildings of this kind con blance to our own, being an hereditary nected with the churches of Westminster constitutional or limited monarchy. Its and York are octagonal and of singular general constitution is defined in the beauty.

charter granted by Louis XVIII. upon The members of the College of Arms, his restoration in A.n. 1814; modified in that is, the king's heralds and pursui- 18:30, after the revolution which drove out vants, are said to hold a chapter when the elder branch of the Bourbons; and they confer on the business of their office; farther modified since that time. The and in like manner chapters of the order Charte, as modified after the revolution of the Garter are held.

of 1830), and as it now stands, consists of CHARGE D'AFFAIRES. [Am-sixty-seven articles, arranged under seven BASNADOR, p. 126.]

heads. CHARITABLE USES. (Uses, CHA Ist head, containing cleven articles.--RITABLE.

Droit public des Français (Public or ngCHARTA MAGNA. [MAGNA tional Rights of the French).-- This head CHARTA]

provides for the equality of all FrenchCHARTE, from charta, “paper," was men in the eye of the law, their equal the name given te the letters of franchise admissibility to civil and military em. granted by the kings of France during ployments, and their equal freedom from the middle ages to several towns and arrest otherwise than by legal process. communities, by which they were put in It guarantees the full enjoyment of relipossession of certain municipal privileges, gious liberty; and while it recognises such as the free election of their local | Catholicism as the religion of the mamagistrates and others. The word Charte jority of Frenchmen, it provides for the is now used in France to signify the solemn payment not only of the Catholic priestacknowledgment of the righis of the na- hood, but of the ministers of other Christion made by Louis XVIII. on his resto- tian denominations, out of the public ration in 1814. The Charte is the purse.* It ensures the liberty to all fundamental law of the French constitutional monarchy: One article of this

• A law of Feb, 8, 1831, includes payment charte, having given occasion to a false the ministers of the Jewish religiou.

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