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ple's Charter. The middle classes were, details were left for settlement to a future however, well satisfied on the whole with Conference. It was resolved also at this the overthrow of the rotten boroughs and conference to establish a National Comthe enfranchisement of the large towns, plete Suffrage Union. The proposed and therefore the Chartists stood alone, National Conference commenced its ineet and began to regard them with a feeling | ings in December, 1842, and was attended of hostility. Chartists were sometimes by 374 delegates. Here a rupture took found, as in all other parties, ready to place between the Chartists and the Comassist the party which differed most plete Suffrage party, and the latter were widely from them, with the object of outvoted on the question of adopting the thwarting the political objects which the People's Charter instead of the Complete middle classes had at heart. In 1838 Suffrage Bill. The minority, however, they had become a large party and em- proceeded to act upon their views as debraced a great number of the working veloped in the Complete Suffrage Bill. classes employed otherwise than in agri- This Bill does not contain any disculture. The number of signatures at- qualifying clauses. In other respects it tached to the petition presented at the differs from the People's Charter only in commencement of the session of 1839 in matters of detail. These are the only favour of the People's Charter was up-two plans connected with the extension of wards of one million and a quarter. Un- the franchise which are at present supfortunately the idea began to be enter-ported by any large class in this country. tained amongst a certain class of the The Chartists and the Complete Suffragists Chartists, that physical force might be are only nominally distinct parties; but justifiably resorted to if necessary for the former may be characterized as por obtaining political changes; and the sessing a greater hold on the working party became divided into the Physical classes than the Complete Suffragists, Force Chartists and the Moral Force whose ranks are chiefly recruited from the Chartists. The former became impli- middle classes : their objects, however, cated in disturbances which took place at are so similar, that they may at any time various times in several parts of the unite without any sacrifice of principle. country; and many persons of this class CHASE. [FOREST.] never having had correct views respect CHATTELS (in Law Latin, Catalla). ing the wages of labour, it appeared as if This term comprehends all moveable prothey had adopted the cry of “a fair day's perty, and also all estates in land which wages for a fair day's work" as an ad- are limited to a certain number of years ditional point of the People's Charter. or other determinate time. All moveable The disturbances in 1842 in the midland goods, as horses, plate, money, and the and northern counties were to some ex-like, are called Chattels Personal. Es tent encouraged by the less intelligent of tates or interests in land, which are comthe Physical Force Chartists. At the prehended in the term chattels, are called close of 1841, however, an attempt was Chattels Real. “Goods and Chattels” is made to combine the middle classes with a common phrase to express all that a the Chartists in their attempt to obtain an man has, except such estates in land as extension of the suffrage. Early in 1842 are freehold estates; but the word chatteis a Complete Suffrage Union was formed alone expresses the same thing as “ goods at Birmingham, and in April of the and chattels.” The word goods is merely same year a Conference, consisting of a translation of the Latin word Bona, eighty-seven Delegates. was assembled which was used by the Romans to express at Birmingham, which sat for four days; all property, and generally all that a three of which were spent in agreeing man was in any w:

entitled to. (Trig, upon a basis of union between the middle 50, tit 16, s. 49.) The nature of personal and working classes, and the last day in property in England is further considered adopting plaus of practical organization. under PROPERTY. Chattels of each de The six points of the People's Charter seription pass to the personal representa were adopted by the Conference, and the tives of the deceased proprietor, and are

comprehended under the general term cheque, which is signed by the drawer. * Personal Property.” The law as to Cheques are immediately payable on chattels is now, owing to the great in- presentment. They are not liable to crease of wealth, and particularly of move- stamp-duty, and are therefore limited in ables, of equal importance with the law their functions in order to prevent their relating to land; but under the strict circulating as bills of exchange. They feudal system, and the laws to which it must, for example, be payable on demand, more immediately gave rise, chattels (in- without any days of grace, and must be cluding even terms for years) were con drawn on a banker within fifteen miles of sidered of small importance in a legal the place where they are issued. The point of view, and, indeed, prior to the place of issue must therefore be named, reign of Henry VI., were rarely men and they must bear date on the day of tioned in the law treatises and reports of issue. A cheque should be presented on the day. (Reeve, Hist. Eng. Law, 369.) the day which it is received, or within a Many articles which are properly chattels, reasonable time. One of the first rules to owing to their intimate conuexion with be observed in writing a cheque is to other property of a freehold nature, and draw it in a business-like manner, so as to being necessary to its enjoyment, descend prevent a fraudulent alteration in the therewith to the heir, and are not treated amount, for if otherwise the drawer may as chattels. Thus, for instance, the mu be liable. A “ crossed” cheque is an niments of title to an estate of inheritance, ordinary cheque with the name of a pargrowing trees and grass, deer in a park, ticular banker written across the face of and such fixtures as cannot be removed it for security, or it may be crossed simply from the freehold without injury to it, “ & Co.”; and in this case it will only are not chattels, because they pass to the be paid through that banker. If presented heir. in the hands of a person however by any other person, it is not paid without who has a limited interest in such things further inquiry. The Bankers' Magathey become his chattels, and pass to his zine' for Oct. and Nov. 1844, and Jan. executor. Chattels, except so far as they and Feb. 1845, contains some valuable may be heir-looms, cannot be entailed, information on the Law of Cheques. though they may be limited so as to vest One of the great advantages of a bankwithin twenty-one years after the death ing account is the convenience of drawof a person or persons in being. They ing cheques. A person is thus relieved are not within the Statute of Uses, inas- of the necessity of keeping ready money in much as the proprietor of a chattel is his hands, and a cheque is some evidence said to be possessed of it, not seised, which of payment in the absence of a proper is the word used in that statute. The receipt. The Bank of England allows same forms were not required in passing cheques to be drawn for sums of 5l., but a chattel by devise, as in the case of real a few years ago it allowed no cheques property, and a will of chattels might under 101. also be made at an earlier age than one

CHICORY. [ADULTERATION.] which lisposed of real estate; at fourteen CHIEF JUSTICE. [COURTS.] years of age by a male, and twelve by a CHILD-KILLING. [INFANTICIDE. female. But this is now altered by 1 CHILD-STEALING. [ABDUCTION.] Vict. c. 26, and no person under twenty CHILTERN HUNDREDS. A portion one years of age can now dispose of any of the high land of Buckinghamshire is thing by will. Chattels do not go in suc- known by the name of the Chiltern Hills. cession to a corporation sole, except only "Formerly these bills abounded in timber, in the cases of the king and the chamber- especially beech, and afforded shelter to lain of the city of London. (Co. Litt.; numerous banditti

. To put these down, Blackstone, Conim.)

and to protect the inhabitants of the CHEQUE,

an order on a banker by a neighbouring parts from their depredaperson who has money in the bank, direct- tious, an officer was appointed under the ing him to pay a certain sum of money to crown, called the steward of the Chiltern the bearer or to a person named in the Hundreds.” (Geog. of Great Britain,

by the Society for the Diffusion of Use-, lending my assistance to the fulfilment of ful Knowledge.) The duties have long any tigagement which may have been since ceased, but the nominal office is entered into as arising out of any such retained to serve a particular purpose. compromise, I should, in some sort, make A member of the House of Commons, myself a party to transactions which I do who is not in any respect disqualified, not approve, and of which the House of cannot resign his seat. A member there- Commons has implied its condemnation. fore who wishes to resign, accomplishes I feel, moreover, that by a refusal on my his object by applying for the steward-part of the means by which alone such ship of the Chiltern Hundreds of Stoke, engagements can be fulfilled, I afford the Desborough, and Bodenham, which, being most effectual discouragement to the held to be a place of honour and profit entering into similar compromises in under the crown, vacates the seat, and a future, and thus promote, so far as is in new writ is in consequence ordered. my power, the intentions of the House of This nominal place is in the gift of the Commons." chancellor of the exchequer. As soon as

CHIMNEY - SWEEPER, a person the office is obtained it is resigned, that it whose trade it is to cleanse foul chimmay serve the same purpose again. neys from soot. The actual sweepers Another office which is applied for under were formerly boys, of very tender age, similar circumstances, is the stewardship who were taught to climb the tiues, and of the manors of East Hendred, North- who, from the cruelties often practised stead, and Hempholme. The offices upon them by their masters, had for the which have been held to vacate seats may last half-century become objects of partibe collected from the several General cular care with the legislature. The first Journal Indexes, tit. “ Elections.” and chief act by which regulations con

In the session of 1842 a committee of cerning them were enforced was the 24 the House of Commons was appointed | Geo. III. c. 48. In 1834 the act 4 & 5 "to inquire whether certain corrupt com Will. IV. c. 35, was passed for the better promises had been entered into in speci- regulation of Chimney-sweepers and their fied boroughs, for the purpose of avoid-Apprentices, and for the safer Construcing investigation into gross bribery, tion of Chimneys and Flues. From that alleged to have been practised in them;" date no child who was under ten years of and a member for one of these boroughs age could be apprenticed to a chimney(Reading) having applied to the chan- sweeper. A particular form of indenture cellor of the exchequer, requesting that of apprenticeship is required in the case of the stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds chimney-sweeps. In 1840 another act 13 might be conferred on him, the chancellor & 4 Vict. c. 85) was passed, 7th August, of the exchequer, who anticipated similar for the regulation of chimney-sweepers and applications from members of some of chimneys. This act annulled existing the other boroughs implicated, decided | indentures of chimney-sweepers' apprenupon refusing the appointment. The ticeship, where the apprentice was under reasons he alleged for this retusal, ir a sixteen, and prohibited in future the bindletter addressed to the member for ing of any child under that age. Any Lista Reading, were as follows:-“ Under or son who compels, or knowingly allows, dinary circumstances I should not feel any young person under the age of twentyjustified in availing myself of the dis. one, to ascend or drscend a chimney, or cretion vested in me in order to refuse or enter a flue, for the purpose of sweeping delay the appointment for which you or extinguishing fire, is liablı, under this have applied, when sought for with a act, to a penalty not exceeding lil, and view to the resignation of a seat in par not less than 57. That part of the act liament. But after the disclosures which 3 & 4 Vict. c. 85, which related to chin. have taken place with respect to certain neys is rep'uled by 7 & 8 Viet. c. 84. the boroughs, of which Reading is one, and Metropolitan Buildings Act), which sube after the admission of the facts by the stitutes new regulations as to the dimenparties interested, I consider that by sions and construction of chimneys.

The number of persons returned as “ The holy fathers have also appointed chimney-sweepers in 1841 was 4620 in that men should give their tithes to the England, 56 in Wales, aud 331 in Scot- church of God, and the priests should land. Two-fifths (1974) were under come and divide them into three parts, twenty years of age.

one for the repair of the church, and the About the beginning of the present cen- second for the poor, but the third for the tury, a number of individuals joined in ministers of God, who bear the care of offering considerable premiums to any that church.” (Wilkins, Concilia, i. 253.) one who would invent a method of cleans- | The same division of tithes was enacted ing chimneys by nechanical means, so by King Æthelred and his councillors as to supersede the necessity for climbing- in Witenagemot assembled, in the year boys. Various inventions were in con- | 1014. A portion the fines paid to sequence produced, of which the most churches in the Anglo-Saxon times for successful was that by Mr. George Smart offences committed within their jurisdicThe principal parts of the machine are a tions was also devoted to church repairs. brush, some hollow tubes which fasten The bishops were likewise required to coninto each other by means of brass sockets, tribute from their own possessions to the and a cord for connecting the whole. repair of their own churches. A decree

CHIVALRY, COURT OF. [Courts.] of King Edmund and his councillors, CHURCH BRIEF. [BRIEF.] in 940, headed “Of the repairing of CHURCH-RATES are rates raised, churches,” says that “ Each bishop shall by resolutions of a majority of the pa- repair God's house out of what belongs rishioners in vestry assembled, from the to him, and shall also admonish the king parishioners and occupiers of land within to see that all God's churches be well a parish, for the purpose of repairing, provided, as is necessary for us all.” maintaining, and restoring the body of (Schmid, Gesetze der Angel-Sachsen, i. the church and the belfry, the churchyard 94.) One of King Canute's laws says, fence, the bells, seats, and ornaments, and “ All people shall rightly assist in repairof defraying the expenses attending the ing the church;” but in what way it is service of the church. The spire or not said. There is no pretence however tower is considered part of the church. for interpreting this law of Canute's as The duty of repairing and rebuilding the referring to anything like church-rate. chancel lies on the rector or vicar, or A payment to the Anglo-Saxon church, both together, in proportion to their be called cyric-sceat (church scot), has been nefices, where there are both in the same erroneously identified with church-rate church. But by custom it may be left to by some writers. This was a payment the parishioners to repair the chancel, and of the first-fruits of corn-seed every St. in London there is a general custom to Martin's day (November 11), so much for

every hide of land, to the church; and The burden of repairing the church the laws of King Edgar and King Canute was anciently charged upon tithes, which direct all cyric-sceat to be paid to the were divided into three portions, one for old minster. (Schmid, i. 99, 165.) Cythe repair of the church, one for the poor, ric-sceat was otherwise called cyricand one for the ministers of the church. amber, amber being the measure of payPope Gregory had enjoined on St. Au- ment. gustine such a distribution of the volun Churches continued to be repaired with tary offerings made to his missionary a third of the tithes after the Norman church in England; and when Chris- conquest, and to as late as the middle of tianity came to be established through the thirteenth century. How the burden the land, and parish churches generally came to be shifted from the tithes to the erected, and when the payment of tithes parishioners is involved in much obscuwas exacted, the tithes were ordered to rity. The following conjectural sketch be distributed on Pope Gregory's plan. of the rise of church-rates is from a pamThus

, one of Archbishop Ælfrie's canons, phlet by Lord Campbell :-“ Probably made in the year 970, is as follows :- the burden was very gradually shifted to

that effect.


the parishioners, and their contributions the burden of repairing the church is on to the expense were purely voluntary. the rector, and not on the laity. “Bat The custom growing, it was treated as an certainly,” he adds,“ by custom even the obligation, and enforced by ecclesiastical lay parishioners are compelled to this censures. The courts of common law sort of repair; so that the lay people is seem to have interposed for the protection compelled to observe this laudable cusof refractory parishioners till the statute (Const. Legatin. 113.) of Circumspecte Agatis, 13 Ed. I., which Church-rates are imposed by the pais in the form of a letter from the king to rishioners themselves, at a meeting sumie his common law judges, desiring them to moned by the church wardens for that use themselves circumspectly in all mat- purpose. Upon the churchwardens, conters concerning the bishop of Norwich jointly with the minister, devolves the and his clergy, not punishing them if care of the fabric of the church and the they held plea in court Christian of such due administration of its offices. With a things as are merely spiritual, as “si view to provide a fund for such expenses, prælatus puniat pro cimeterio non clauso, it is the duty of the church wardens to ecclesia discooperta vel non decenter summon parish-meetings for the purpose ornata.” Lord Coke observes, “that of levying rates; and if they neglect to some have said that this was not a statute, do so, they may be proceeded against cribut made by the prelates themselves, yet minally in the ecclesiastical courts. They that it is an act of parliament.” In the may also be punished by the ecclesiastical priuted rolls of parliament, 25 Ed. II. courts for neglecting to make repairs for No. 62, it is called an ordinance; but in which money has been provided by the the statute 2 & 3 Ed. VI. c. 13, $ 51, it is parish; but if they have no funds in expressly styled a statute, and it must hand, and if they have not failed to call now clearly be taken to be the act of the the parishioners together, they cannot be whole legislature. From the year 1285 punished. A mandamus also is grantable therefore the bishops were authorized to to compel the church wardeus to call a compel the parishioners by ecclesiastical meeting. If the parish fail to meet, the censures to repair and to provide orna- church wardens then constitute the meetments for the church.” Sir John, now ing, and may alone impose a rate : but if Lord, Campbell's Letter to Lord Stanley the parish should assemble, it rests with on the Law of Church- Rates, 1837.) But the parishioners themselves to determine for long after the existence of the custom the amount of the rate, or to negative the of making the parishioners contribute to imposition of a rate altogether. the repairs of the church, and after the The repair of the parish church and statute Circumspecte Agatis, the original the provision of the necessaries for divine obligation on the clergyman to repair ont service are thus entirely at the option of of the tithes was remembered. Lord the majority of the parishioners assebled. Campbell quotes in the same pamphlet a Before the Reformation the parishio er passage from a MS. treatise in the Har- could be punished in the ecclesiastical leian Collection, written in the reign of courts for failing to repair the parish Henry VII., by Edward Dudley, a privy church; and the punishment was, to councillor of that king, which thus lays place the parish under an interlict, or down the law for appropriation of the in- sentence of excommunication, by which comes of the clergy: - One part thereof the church was shut up, the adininistra for their own living in good household tion of the sacraments suspended, and hospitality; the second in deeds of cha- any parishioner who died was buried rity and alms to the poor folk, and spe without bell, book, or candle. But there cially within their diocese and cures, is now no means of compelling the pawhere they have their living; and the rishioners to provide church-rates. There third part thereof for the repairing and is po remídý by mudamus : the Court building of their churches and mansions." | of King's Bench will grant a mandulnius, Lyndwode, who wrote in the fifteenth as has been already said, directing churchcentury, says that by the common law i wardens to call a parish meeting, but not

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