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rated places which are still known only came to be granted by parliament in the by the name of towns or boroughs. form of supplies, the entire expenditure Richelet (Dictionnaire) says that the was still left with the crown, and the French word cite is only used in general supplies were either voted for no specific when we speak of places where there are purpose, or when they were voted for a two towns, an old town and another special purpose, parliament had no conwhich has been built since; and he adds trol over their application. that “la cité de Paris” means old Paris. This state of things continued to the

Sir William Blackstone, following Coke Restoration in 1660. A distinction was (1 Inst. 109 b), says, “ A city is a town then made between the military expenses incorporated, which is or hath been the of the government, or those occasioned see of a bishop.” (Comm. Introd., sec. iv.) by war, which were considered of the But Westminster is a city, though it is nature of extraordinary expenses, and not incorporated. Thetford is a town, those incurred in the maintenance of the though incorporated, and once the seat of ordinary establishments of the country. a bishop. Whether Westminster owes its The revenues appropriated to the latter designation to the circumstance that it were called the hereditary or civil-list had a bishop for a few years of the reign revenues, and were provided for partly of Henry VIII., and in the reigu of from the crown lands that remained unEdward VI., may be doubted. But there alienated, and partly from certain taxes are, besides Thetford, many places which imposed by parliament expressly for that were once the seats of bishops, as Sher- purpose during the life of the reigning burn, and Dorchester in Oxfordshire, king. In the reign of King William which are never called cities. On the II. the sum applicable to the civil whole, we can rather say that certain of list, on an average of years, amounted our ancient towns are called cities, and to the annual sum of about 680,0001. their inhabitants citizens, than show why This sum was applied in defraying this distinction prevails and what are the the expenses of the royal household criteria by which they are distinguished and of the privy purse, the maintefrom other towns. These ancient towns nance and repairs of the royal palaces, are those in which the cathedral of a the salaries of the lord chancellor, the bishop is found ; to which are to be added judges, the great officers of state, and the Bath and Coventry, which, respectively ambassadors at foreign courts; and out with Wells and Lichfield, occur in the of it were also paid the incomes of the designation of the bishop in whose dio- members of the royal family, the secret cese they are situated ; and Westminster, service money, pensions, and a long list which in this respect stands alone. of other claims. The interest of the

In the United States of North America national debt, however, was never dethe name City is usually given to large frayed from the sum allotted for the civil towns, as New York, Philadelphia, and list. others.

In the reign of Queen Anne the civil CIVIL LAW. (Roman Law.] list remained of nearly the

same amount CIVIL LIST. The expenses of the as in the reign of King William. The English government, including military principal taxes appropriated to it were an expenses, were formerly comprehended in excise of 28. 6d. per barrel on beer, which one general list, and defrayed out of what produced about 286,000l. per annum, a was called the royal revenue. For a con- tonnage and poundage duty, which prosiderable period after the Conquest this duced about 257,0001., and the profits of revenue, derived from the rents of the the post-office, from which about 100,0001. crown lands, and from other sources, was was derived. at the command and under the un At the commencement of the reign of controlled management of the crown George I., 700,0001. a year was voted through the exercise of the prerogative. parliament for the civil list, and cert Even when at a later period the greater taxes, as usual, were appropriated to portion of the expenses of the government | branch of the public expenditure,


On the accession of George II it was Another committee inquired into the provided, that if the taxes which had subject of the civil limt in 1815, and it was been appropriated to the civil list in the upon the report made by this committee previous reign did not produce 100,0001. that the amount of the civil list was net, per annum, the deficiency should be thed, on the accommion of George IV., at made up by parliament, and that any 810,0001, per annum, 295,0001. of ammal surplus beyond that sum should be re- charge bring at the mome time transferred tained by the crown.

from this branch to other funds. It was At the accession of George III. he calculated that the distribution of this sum surrendered the larger branches of the would be under the following heads:hereditary revenue of England, and the 1. His Majesty's privy puree, 60,00l. sum of 100,0001, was again voted by par. 2. Allowances to the lord chancellor, liament for the civil list, but no particular judges, and Apeaker of the Home of taxes were set apart to provide that reve. Commone, 32,9661. 3. Halarios, &c. of

In the course of a few years, how his Majesty's ambassadors and other miever, a large amount of debt had accu misters, malaries to consuls, and pension mulaud in this department, and to pay it to retired ambassadors and minintura, off, two sums amounting together to con 226,9501. 4. Expenses, except salarie, of siderably above 1,000,0001. wore voted by his Majesty's household in the department parliament in 1769 and 1777. In the of the lord steward, lord chainberlain, latter year also the civil list revenue was master of the horse, master of the role, permanently, raised to 900,000. This and surveyor general of works, 209, 0 however, did not prevent further della 5. Mularies in the last-mentioned de. ciencies, which were again made good by partinents, 140,7001. 6. Pensions limited parliament in 1784 and 17815, to the ex by Act 22 Gro. III. C. 42, 95,0001. 7. tent of about 270,0001,

Mularies to certain officers of state, and In 1780 Mr. Burke brought in his bill various other allowances, 41,3061. &. for the better regulation of the civil list, Salarios to the commissioners of the trea which, although it was greatly mutilated sury and chancellor of the exchequer, before it passed into a law (in 17M2), 1:3,4221. 9. Occasional payments not abolished several weens offices, and of comprised in any of the aforesaid clari, focued some reduction of expenditure, 26,0001. The crown was left besides ia

According to the report of a committee the enjoyment of the hereditary revenus of the House of Commons which sat upon in Scotland, amounting to about 110,00 the subject of the civil list, in 1802, the per annum; and also of a civil dint for total average annual expenditure in that Ireland, of 207,0001. branch since 1786 had been 1,900,1671., On the 15th of November, 18:30, imunder the following heads :-- royal family mediatly after the acconmion of Kings in all its branches, 209,98 l,; great William IV., the late Lord Conglettile ofhcers of state, 1:3,2791.; foreign minin. then Mir Henry Parnell, carried in the ters, 811,6261.; tradesmen's billa, 174,6971.; House of Commons a motion for appointmenial

the household, ing a select coinmittee to inquire into this 92,4241, ; pensions, 114,8171. ; salaries | civil list. The chief object propored to various officers, 76,0137.; commission was the separation of the proper exported erx of the treasury, 14,4551. ; occasional of the crown from all those other charges paymenta, 203,9641. At this time another which will continued to be mixed up with Num of above 990,0001. was voted by par them under that title. The consequent liament to pay the debts on the civil lint; of the succum of this motion (besides the and in 1806 the civil-list revente was overthrow of the Wellington adminis. raised to 960,0001. In 1812 it was fur tion and the introduction of the Reforna ther augmented to 1,080,0001,; Besides Bill) was another report, opon which was which, annuities to the amount of 200,0007, founded the Act i will. IV. c. 25, 66 were then paid to the different branches the reguimion of the civil list.

Thie of the royal family out of the consoli committee which was appointed on the dated fund.

mnotion of Sir H. Parnell, reconnmended



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that the civil-list charges should be con on an average of twenty years, 4000l. a fined to expenses proper for the mainte- year clear to the crown. As to Wales nance of their Majesties' household, and the and the county palatine of Chester, I sum of 510,0001. was granted to his Ma- bave my doubts whether their productive jesty by the above act under the following exchequer yields any returns at all."* classes : -1. l'or their Majesties' privy The Civil List of Queen Victoria was purse, 110,000). 2. Salaries of his Majesty's settled by i Vict. c. 2. This act contains household, 131,3001. 3. Expenses of his a very important and salutary provision, Majesty's household, 171,5001. 4. Spe which will shortly be noticed, respecting cial and secret service, 23,2001. 5. Pen- pensions. The preamble of the act states sions, 75,000l. A separate civil list for that her majesty had placed unreservedly Ireland was discontinued ; and the Scotch at the disposal of the commons in parhereditary revenues, as well as the droits liament those hereditary revenues which of admiralty, and the 4.4 per cent. duties, were transferred to the public by her imwere to be paid into the Exchequer for mediate predecessors, and that her mathe use of the public.

jesty felt confident that her faithful comSpeaking of the civil list as settled by mons would gladly make adequate pro1 Will

. IV. c. 25, and comparing it with vision for the support of the honour and the civil list of King Geo. IV., Lord dignity of the crown. It is then enacted, Congleton remarked - Financial Reform,' that the hereditary revenue shall be p. 205) “ that there was no real reduction carried to the Consolidated Fund during in that arrangement, for whatever ap- the life of her majesty, but that after pears to be a reduction, has been pro- her demise it shall be payable to her suc duced by a transfer of charge from one cessors. The latter part of the enactment head to another of the old civil list. The is a mere form. By $ 3 the clear yearly chief difference in this arrangement from sum of 385,000l. is to be paid out of the the former consists in the transfer of Consolidated Fund for the support of her about 460,0001. a year from the civil list majesty's household and of the honour to the consolidated fund, and in providing and dignity of the crown, to be applied for the gradual reduction of the pensions according to a schedule as under:to 75,0001. a year.” William IV. retained the revenues of 2. Salaries of her Majesty's

1. For her Majesty's privy purse £60,000 the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall,

household and retired alwhich are considered to be the hereditary lowances

131,260 revenues, not of the crown, but of the 3. Expenses of her Majesty's duchies of Lancaster and of Cornwall.


172,500 The duchy of Lancaster is permanently 4. Royal bounty, alms, and Cornwall belongs to the crown when there 5. Pensions to the extent of 12001.

13,200 is no Prince of Wales. No account of the amount of these revenues had ever been

per annum. laid before parliament until

6. Unappropriated monies 8,040

very recently. In his speech on Economical Reform

£385,000 in 1780, Mr. Burke said, “ Every one of those principalities has the appearance of The restriction to which allusion has been a kingdom, for the jurisdiction over a few made relates to class 5 in the schedule. private estates; and the formality and

* The gross revenues of the duchy of Cornwall charge of the Exchequer of Great Britain, in 1843 amounted t., 40,1007 The two largest for collecting the rents of a country

items were, reuts and arrears 14,0691 ; compensasquire. Cornwall is the best of them ;

t.on in lien of the tin coinage duties 15, 417. The but when you compare the charge with

sum required to detray salaries, allowances, and

annuities Wits 231. the payments made to the the receipt, you will find that it furnishes rise of the Prince of Wales, ind which in the previ20 exception to the general rule. The ons rrigu were enjoyed Isy The king, were 18,5 91., duchy and county palatine of Lancaster

and a sim oi 2000), was expended in purchasing

the urreni.r of leneficial leases The sum set do not yield, as I have reason to believe, down as balances and arrears was 84861. The gross


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This check upon the wanton and extra Now, the fundamental notion of civivagant disposal of the public money is lization is that of a progressive movethoroughly in accordance with just and ment, of a gradual development, and a constitutional principles. The amount tendency to amelioration. It always which can be granted in pensions by the i suggests the idea of a community, of a crown in any one year is not to exceed political body, of a nation, which is ad. 1200l. ; and the Civil List Act restricts, vancing methodically, and with distinct though in a comprehensive spirit, the per- and clear views of the objects which it sons to whom they are to be granted, who seeks to attain : progress, continual immust be such persons only as have just provement, is therefore the fundamental claims on the royal benevolence, or who by idea contained in our notion of the term their personal services to the crown, by Civilization. the performance of duties to the public, or As to this progress and improvement by their useful discoveries in science and involved in the term Civilization, to what attainments in literature and the arts, have do they apply? The etymology of the merited the gracious consideration of their word answers the question. From this sovereign and the gratitude of their coun we learn that it does not contemplate the try. A list of all such pensions must be actual number, power, or wealth of 3 laid before parliament yearly. [Pen- people, but their civil condition, their SIONS; WOODS AND FORESTS.]

social relations, and intercourse with CIVILIZATION. The words civi- each other. Such then is the first imlization, education, and religion, with pression which arises in our mind when many others, are often used without any we pronounce the word Civilization. It precise ideas being attached to them; yet seems to represent to us at once the there are no words that require to be greatest activity and the best possible more thoroughly analysed.

organization of society; so as to be proThe meaning of a word is often formed ductive of a continual increase, and a by degrees. As soon as a particular fact distribution of wealth and power among presents itself to our notice which ap- its members, whereby their absolute and pears to have a specific relation to a relative condition is kept in a state of known term, it becomes immediately in- constant improvement. corporated with it; and hence the mean But great as is the influence which a ing of many terms gradually extends, and well organised civil society must have finally embraces all the various facts and upon the happiness of the human race, ideas which are considered to belong to the term Civilization seems to contes it. On this account, there is more depth something still more extensive, more full as well as accuracy in the usual and ordi- and complete, and of a more elevated and nary meaning of complex terms than in dignified character, than the mere perfecany definitions which can be given of tion of the social relations, as a matter them, notwithstanding the definition may of order and arrangement. In this other appear to be more strict and precise. In aspect of the word it embraces the deve the majority of instances scientific de- lopment of the intellectual and moral finitions are too narrow, and owing to this faculties of man, of his feelings, his procircumstance they are frequently less pensities, his natural capacities, and his exact than the popular meaning of terms; tastes. it is therefore in its popular and ordinary Education, which is the result of a signification that we must seek for the well ordered social arrangement, and also various ideas that are included in the its perfector and conservator, an educaterm civilization.

tion which shall give to every member

of the community the best opportunities income of the duchy of Lancaster, which, as al. for developing the whole of his faculties, ready expiamed, is enjoyed by the crown inde is the end which civilization, or a society pendent of arrangrments under the Civil List Act, in a state of continued progress, must was 33,0371. in 1843. The sum paid out of this revenue to the keeper of her majesty's privy always have in view. purse was 13,0001.

The fundamental ideas then, contained

in the word Civilization are-the con barbarous or as less civilized than their tinual advancement of the whole society own. An impartial observer may allow in wealth and prosperity, and the im- that if we measure civilization by the provement of man in his individual ca rule here laid down, the nations of Eupacity.

rope, and other nations whose social sysWhen the one proceeds without the tems have a like basis, are the most civiother, it is immediately felt that there lized. The civilization of Europe and of is something incomplete and wanting. the nations of European origin is founded The mere increase of national wealth, mainly on two elements, the Christian unaccompanied by a corresponding know- religion and the social state which grew ledge and intelligence on the part of the up from the diffusion of the power of the people, seems to be a state of things pre. Romans. The establishment of feudality mature in existence, uncertain in dura- | in many countries greatly affected the tion, and insecure as to its stability. We social basis ; and the consequences are are unacquainted with the causes of its still seen, but more distinctly in some origin, the principles to which it can be parts of Europe than in others. The eletraced, and what hopes we may form of ments of such a social system are esits continuance. We wish to persuade sentially different from those on which ourselves that this prosperity will not be is founded the system of China, of the limited to a few generations, or to a par. nations which profess Mohammedanism, ticular people or country, but that it will and of the nations of the Indian pengradually spread, and finally become the insula. European civilization is active inheritance of all the people of the earth. and restless, but still subordinate to And yet what rational expectation can constituted authority. It gives to man we entertain of such a state of things be- the desire and the means to acquire wealth coming universal? It is only by means at home, and it stimulates him to advenof education, conducted upon right prin. ture and discovery abroad. It seeks to ciples, that we can ever hope to see true assimilate the civilization of other nations national prosperity attained, and rendered to its own by conquest and colonization, permanent. The development of the and it is intolerant of all civilization that moral and intellectual faculties must go is opposed to itself. Asiatic civilization hand in hand with the cultivation of the is at present inert, it is not in a state of industrious arts; united, they form the progress, and is exposed to the inroads of great engine for giving true civilization European civilization. European civic to the world.

lization has been and is most active in In fact, without the union of these two increasing the power of states as states, elements, civilization would stop half and in increasing their wealth; it also way; mere external advantages are liable gives facilities for men of talent and ento be lost or abused without the aid of terprise to acquire wealth and power by those more refined and exalted studies means recognised as legal and just; and which tend to improve the mind, and call it is now beginning to extend the means forth the feelings and affections of the of individual improvement among all the heart. It must be repeated, civilization members of its communities more widely consists in the progressive improvement than any other civilization; but the of the society considered as a whole, and amount of poverty and ignorance which of all the individual members of which it still co-exist by the side of wealth and incomposed.

telligence, wherever European civilizaThe means by which this improve- tion has been established, show that much ment of the whole of a society and of all remains be done before the individual the members of it may be best effected, happiness of these States can be as comwill vary somewhat in different countries. plete and their internal condition as sound European nations consider and call their as their collective wealth is unbounded social state civilized, and they view the and their exterual aspect is fair and social states of other countries, which do flourishing. not rest on the same foundation, either as The nations of Europe consider their

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