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considered themselves the best part. | mæans, are supposed to have founded They gave the name lonia to their new Parthenope (Naples). settlements in Asia from the country in The Greek colonies on the east coast the Peloponnesus, once called Ionia, and of Italy, setting aside the confused trasubsequently Achæa, from which they ditions of Arcadian and other immigrahad been driven by Achæans who settled tions, consisted chiefly of Dorians and there. As the lonians consisted of twelve Achæans from the Peloponnesus. Crostates in their old country, so they made ton, Sybaris, and Pandosia were Achæan twelve states in their new_settlements. colonies. Tarentum was a colony of La(Herodotus, i. 143, &c.) Four genera- cedæmonians, and Locri Epizephyrii of tions before the Ionian emigration, ac- the Locrians. Greek colonies were cording to Strabo (p. 582, ed. Cas.), the settled both on the north and east sides Æolians and some Achæans, two nearly of the Pontus (Black Sea), and also on allied races, being driven away from part the north coast and in the modern Criof the Peloponnesus by the Dorians, had mea. Many of them, as already observed, emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor, were Milesian colonies. where they formed colonies from Cyzicus The relation which subsisted between on the Propontis as far southwards as the the Greek colonists and the prior inHermus. Phocæa was the most northern habitants of the countries which they of the Ionian towns, and it was on the occupied, was undoubtedly in most cases borders of Æolis. The Æolians also co that of conquerors and subjects. Either lonized the islands of Lesbos, Tenedos, the natives withdrew into the interior and and others in that part of the Ægean. left the ground to the new occupants, as These emigrations were posterior to the the Siculi did in several instances, or time of Homer, who mentions other they resisted, in which case, when overpeople as occupying that coast. The powered, the men were exterminated or Athenians at a later date colonized Eu- reduced to slavery, and the conquerors bea, where they founded Chalcis and kept the women for themselves. In some Eretria; and they also sent colonies to instances the older inhabitants were reNaxos, to the islands of Ceos, Siphnos, duced to the condition of serfs or bondSeriphos, and other islands of the men to the new settlers. The records of Ægean. Many of these colonies, having authentic history do not present us with thriven and increased, became colonizers an instance of any colony being settled in in their turn. The enterprising mariners a country where there were not previous of Phocæa formed various colonies, the inhabitants. The consequence of the most celebrated of which is Massilia immigration of a new race, who seek to (Marseille), on the south coast of Gaul. possess themselves of the land, must be Miletus, also one of the Ionian cities, the extermination or gradual decay of the was the parent of numerous colonies, prior race, unless the old inhabitants are many of which were on the south coast made slaves. So far as we trace the hisof the Black Sea. The Chalcidians of tory of Greek colonies in the scattered Eubæa founded Cumæ, on the west coast fragments of antiquity, such were the of Italy, in the country of the Opici. consequences of their colonial settlemeuts. Pirates from Cumæ, founded Zancle in On the coast of Italy it would appear that Sicily, on the Straits of Messina ; but a the Greeks pursued a more humane or fresh colony of Samians and some Milesians more politic course. They are said to escaping from the Persian invasion, in have allied themselves to and intermarthe time of the first Darius, B.c. 494, took ried with the natives, and by their supeZancle, and were afterwards their rior civilization to have acquired great turn dispossessed by Anaxilas, tyrant of influence. It may here be remarked that Rhegium, who called the town Messene the Greeks, so far from being averse to (now Messina), from the name of his ori- foreign intermixture, as some have said, ginal country in the Peloponnesus. The mingled their blood freely with that of Æolians founded Dicæarchia, afterwards all the nations with whom they came into Puteoli, in Italy, and they, with the Cu- contact, and thus the civilization of the
Hellenic stock was gradually introduced | tomary honours and deference in the pub among nations less advanced in the useful lic solemnities and sacrifices, as the other
colonies were wont to pay to the mother The relations between these Greek country.” They accordingly took offence colonies and the mother country, and at the Corinthians accepting the surrender between those colonies that were of a of Epidamnus, and the result was a war kindred race, may be gathered pretty between Corcyra and Corinth. clearly from Thucydides (i. 24, &c.). Again, the Corcyræan deputies, who Epidamnus was a colony of Corcyra : were sent to seek the alliance of the but the leader of the colony (oikiotńs), Athenians against Corinth, stated in anthe founder of the colony, or the person swer to the objection that they were a under whose conduct it was settled, was colony of Corinth, that “a colony ought a Corinthian, who was called or invited, to respect the mother country as long as says Thucydides, froin the mother city the latter deals justly and kindly by it, (called by the Greeks the metropolis
, but if the colony be injured and wrongly untpótonis, or parent state), according used by the mother country, then the tie to an ancient usage. Thus it appears is broken, and they become alienated from that if a colony wished to send out a each other, because, said the Corcyræans, new colony, this was properly done with colonists are not sent out as subjects, bat the sanction of the moiher country. Some as free men to have equal rights with Corinthians and other Dorians joined in those who remain at home.” (i. 34.) This the settlement of Epidamnus, which be- shows the kind of relation as understood came a thriving community, and inde- by the Greeks between the metropolis and pendent both of Corcyra and Corinth. Io its colonies. The colonies were in fact the course of time, however, civil dissen- sovereign states, attached to the mother sions and attacks from the neighbouring country by ties of sympathy and common barbarians induced the Epidamnians to descent, so long as those feelings were apply to Corcyra, as to their metropolis, fostered by mutual good-will, but do furfor assistance, but their prayers were not ther. The Athenians, it is true, in the attended to. Being hard pressed by the height of their power, exacted money enemy, they turned themselves to the from their own colonies as well as from Corinthians, and gave up their town to the colonies of other people, and punished them, as being the real founders of the severely those who swerved from their colony, in order to save theinselves from alliance, such as Naxos; but this was not destruction. The Corinthians accepted in consequence of any original dominion the surrender, and sent a fresh colony to as supposed to belong to the mother cour Epidamnus, giving notice that all the try over the colony. Many of the colo new settlers should be on an equal foot- nies, especially the earlier ones, which ing with the old settlers: those who did were the consequence of civil war or not choose to leave home were allowed to foreign invasion, were formed by large have an equal interest in the colony with parties of men under some bold leader, those who went out, by paying down a without any formal consent being asked sum of mc-ey, which appears to have from the rest of the community: they been the price of allotments of land. took their families, their arms, and their Those who went out gave their services; | moveables with them, to conquer a new those who stayed at bome gave their country for themselves; they left their money. “ Those who went out,” says native soil for ever, and carried with Thucydides, “were many, and those who them no political obligations. Those that paid down their money were also many.” | went off in more peaceful times, by a For the moneyed people it was in fact an common understanding of the whole comaffair of pure speculation. The Corey- monwealth, went also away for ever, and ræans, themselves originally a colony freely and voluntarily, though under a from Corinth, having become very power leader appointed by the parent state, to fu! by sea, slighted their metropolis, and seek a country where they could find an "did not pay to the Corinthians the cus- | easier subsistence than at home. Le
either case it was a complete separation | 401) deprived the Athenians of their of a member from the body. Such were foreign dependencies, though they were the proper colonists (årolkiai) of the partially recovered. But Athens never Greeks, but they were not colonies in succeeded in establishing a system of cothe modern sense of the word, nor colo- lonies on a sure and lasting basis, as the nies in the Roman sense. We have | Romans did. derived from the Romans the name of That the Greek settlements of a kincolony, and our colonies resemble theirs dred race should feel a common interest in a great degree, and bear no resem- in opposition to those of a rival branch is blance to the so-called Greek colonies. natural, and is proved, among other inIndeed, the Greek colonies should be stances, by the case of the deputies from called by another name; and the word Egesta in Sicily, who, while requesting “ foreign settlements,” or the German the assistance of the Athenians against term “auswanderung,” comes nearer to the Syracusans and Selinuntians, urged the sense of Apoikia (anoikia) than the as an additional plea that the Leontines, term colony. When the Athenians, in who were originally Chalcidians, and later times, took possession of parts of therefore akin to the Athenians, had been Eubea (Thucyd. i. 114), and of Ægina expelled from their town by the Syra(ii. 27), of Melos (v. 116), and shared the cusans, and showed that it was the inlands among their own citizens who went terest of the Athenians to assist a kindred there, the relationship thus formed was of people against the prevailing power of a different kind, and came nearer to the the Dorian colonies in Sicily. (Thucyd. nature of a Roman and a modern colony. vi.) Yet Thucydides calls the settlers in Me Before we pass to the Roman colonies, los, A poikoi (Toukot); but the name Cle we must say something of the system of ruchi was usually given to such settlers: colonization among the other inhabitants and their allotments were called Cleruchiae of the Italian peninsula in the ante(kanpouxíai). In the case of Ægina the Roman times. The Etruscans extended whole population, which was of Hellenic their conquests north of the Apennines in stock, was turned out, and a body of the great plain of the Po, and founded Athenians occupied their place, with the there twelve colonies, the principal of express object of being as a body or com- which was Felsina (Bologna). Aftermunity subordinate to the state of Attica, wards, having defeated the Umbrians, in order to prevent the annoyance to many years before the assumed foundawhich Attica had long been subject tion of Rome, they extended themselves by the proximity of an independent is into East and South Italy, penetrated into land so well situated both for the pur- Latium, and took Campania from the pose of annoying Attica and for self-de-Oscans, where they founded likewise fence. The relation between the settlers twelve colonies, the principal of which called Cleruchi and the parent state of was Capua. The Etruscans, being skilled Athens appears not to have been always in architecture, surrounded their towns the same; that, in some cases at least, with solid walls built of massive stones they retained all the privileges of Athe- without any cement; they were also well nian citizens is sufficiently clear, Of versed in agriculture and hydraulics, and these Athenian settlements the earliest is several of the earliest drains and canals the instance mentioned by llerodotus (v. in the Delta of the Po are attributed to 77), which belongs to the last part of the them. They subjected, but at the same sixth century B.c., of the settlement of four time civilized, the people among whom thousand Athenians in Chalcis on the con- they settled. Their colonies seem to have quered lands. The system subsequently formed independent communities, though was extended to other places, as appears allied by a kind of federation. The Etrusfrom the passages above referred to; and, cans also founded colonies in the Picenum, among other places, the island of Lesbos such as Hatria, Cupra Montana, and Cureceived Athenian settlers. (Thucydides, pra Maritima. They took from the Liiii. 50.) The battle of Ægospotami (B.C. gures the country around the gulf now
Spezia, and founded the city | sent out to form a community elsewhere of Luna. They likewise sent colonies to by a decree of their state, or with the the islands of Elba and Corsica, for the general consent of the people from whom Etruscans were a commercial as well as they have departed. Those who leave agricultural people; they navigated the without such a consent, but in conse sea, and in the sixth century B.c. they quence of civil dissensions, are not colodefeated the Phocæans, and drove them nies.” The notion of an early Roman out of Corsica. The Etruscans contri- colony was this: the colonists occupied buted to civilize Italy by means of their set a city already existing; and this, with tlements; but, unlike Rome, they did not perhaps one exception or two, was the keep them united under a central power. general character of the early Roman
The Sabini, an agricultural and pastoral colonies in Italy. These colonists were people, lived in the Apennines of Central a part of the Roman state; they secured Italy, and occupied part of the modern her conquests and maintained the subject Abruzzi : they sent out colonies in very people in obedience. When the Romans early times to other parts of Italy. It afterwards extended their conquests into was a custom common among many of countries where there were no regular the old Italians, after the lapse of a cer- towns, or where the population was fierce tain number of years, to celebrate solemn and hostile, and the Roman settlers must sacrifices in the spring season, and to be ever on their guard against them, they consecrate to the gods a number of young built new towns in some favourable posimen, who were to quit their native land, tion. Such was the case in several parts and proceed under the auspices of Hea- of Gaul, Germany, and Spain. The first ven to seek a new country. (Dionysius, Roman colony beyond the limits of Italy Roman Antiquities, i. 16.) In this man was that founded on the site of Carthage, ner the Piceni and the Samnites are said in the tribunate of Caius Gracchus, B.C. to have been colonies of the Sabini. The 122. This colony, which was originally Samnites in their turn sent out other called Junonia, did not succeed, or was ne colonies, and the Lucanians were one of glected, owing to the dissensions at Rome: these. The Samnites, as well as the Sa- it was restored, or finally established, by bini, were entirely given to agricultural C. Julius Cæsar. (Plutarch, Caius Gracpursuits.
chus, c. 11.) Narbo Martius, Narbonne Rome, in the earliest ages, adopted the in the south of France, was one of the system of sending out colonies to those early colonies beyond the limits of Italy. parts of Italy which she conquered. The early Roman colonies then in Italy Colonies were established during the consisted of Roman citizens, who were kingly period (Livy, i. 11, 27, 56); and sent as settlers to fortified towns taken in the practice was continued after the ex war, with land assigned to them at the pulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the last rate generally of two jugera of arable king (Livy, ii. 21, 39). But the Roman land or plantatiou for each man, besides colonies were different from those of most the right of pasture on the public or other people, inasmuch as they remained common land.' The old inhabitants were strictly subject to the mother country, not ejected, or dispossessed of all their whose authority they were the means of property; the general rule was, that oneenforcing upon the conquered nations. third of the territory of the town was They were, in fact, like so many garri- confiscated and distributed among the sons or outposts of Rome. Servius (Æn. colonists, and the rest was left to the i. 16) gives the following definitions of a former owners, probably subject to some colony, taken from much older autho- charges in the shape of taxes or services. rities : -“ A colony is a society of men led The colonists constituted the populus of in one body to a fixed place, furnished the captured place; they alone enjoyed with dwellings given to them under cer- political rights and managed all public tain conditions and regulations." Again, affairs. The ownership of the publicum “ Colonia is so called a colendo; it consists or public property, including the pasture of a portion of citizens or confederates | land, was probably also vested in the new
settlers. It is natural to suppose, that for (Pro Cæcina, c. 33) argues that the joinsome generations at least, no great sym- ing such colony must be a voluntary act. pathy existed between the old and the There is also no reason for supposing that new inhabitants, and hence we frequently the joining of a Roman colony was comhear of revolts of the colonies, which pulsory; and if it was, it follows from means, not of the colonists against the what has been said, that a Roman colonist mother city, but of the old inhabitants, retained his civic rights. These Latin who rose upon and expelled the colonists. colonies were Roman colonies, inasmuch (Livy, ii. 39; vi. 21.) But these events as they were subject to the Roman generally ended by a second conquest of state; and hence they are sometimes the place by Roman troops, when the old called Roman colonies, which in one inhabitants were either pat to the sword sepse they were. But as opposed to or sold as slaves, or, under more favour- Roman colonies which consisted of able circumstances, lost at least another Roman citizens (Coloniæ civium), they third of their property. In later times, were called Latin colonies, by which during the Civil Wars of Rome, which term was denoted their political condition. commenced with the disputes between Before the Social War (B.C. 90), the Marius and Sulla, new colonies were sent following was the classification of people by the prevailing party to occupy the in the Roman dominions :place of the former ones; and the older 1. Cives Romani, Roman citizens, that colonists were then dispossessed of their is, the inhabitants of Rome, the citizens property either wholly or in part, just as of the Coloniæ Civium or proper Roman they had dispossessed the original inhabit-colonies, and the citizens of the Municipia ants. Sometimes colonies, especially at without reference to the stock to which a great distance from Rome, having they belonged. dwindled away, or being in danger from 2. Latini, or the citizens of the old the neighbouring people, asked for a re- towns of the Latin nation, with the exinforcement, when a fresh colony was ception of those towns which were raised sent, which also received grants of land. to the rank of Municipia; and also the (Livy, ii. 21; vi. 30; xxxi. 49.) Each numerous and important Coloniæ Latinæ. of the older colonies, it is observed by 3. Socii (Allies), the free inhabitants Gellius (xv. 13), was a Rome in minia- of Italy who did not belong to the two ture; it had its senators called Decuriones, classes first enumerated, and belonged to its Duumviri, Ædiles, Censores, Sacer- very various national stocks. dotes, Augurs, and other officers.
4. Provincials: the free subjects of the A distinction must be made between Romans beyond the limits of Italy. Roman colonies and Latin colonies. The This is the division of Savigny (Zeite citizens who went out to form a Roman schrift für Geschichtliche Rechtswissencolony retained all their civic rights, schaft, xi. 6); and it appears to be conalthough Sigonius and some others pre sistent with all the best ancient authoritend that they lost the franchise (jus ties. He adds that as to the political consuffragii); and yet, in various passages of dition of the people included under these Livy and elsewhere, colonists are styled four heads, those included under the first cives and Romæ cenci. The members of head, Cives Romani, were alone Cives ; Roman colonies which were called Latin those included under the three other heads (Colouiæ Latinæ), had not the Roman were Peregrini (aliens). According to citizenship, and those Roman citizens who this view, the members of Latin colonies went out in such a colony thereby lost before the Social War were simply subtheir suffrage; they voluntarily renounced jects of the Roman state: they had none part of their civic rights in consideration of those political capacities which were of a grant of lands. The practice was for the characteristics of Roman citizenship. those persons who were willing to join a As the term Peregrinus, however, was colony, to give in their names at Rome, very comprehensive, and included all who and as the consequence of joining a Latin were not Cives, it follows that, according colony was a loss of civic rights, Cicero | to this view, the Latinæ Coloniæ and