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Arguments for.-1. The trouble and expense entailed by the freezing of pipes and cisterns in the case of outdoor water closets need not be considered in the case of slop-closets, as experience has shown that, apart from the temporary inconvenience arising from frozen gullies (a trouble which is easily rectified), frost does not affect the working of the system.

2. By utilising the slop-water of a household for flushing closets, considerable economy is effected in the consumption of water, providing the supply is honestly used and the taps are not allowed to run simply as a means of flushing the closets.

3. The volume of sewage to be dealt with is greatly lessenedan important consideration, especially in towns where it has to be pumped to the disposal works.

4. Experience has shown that with proper and systematic inspection—a condition common to both systems—the trouble arising from carelessness on the part of persons using the closets is, possibly, not greater in the one case than in the other.

Arguments against.—1. Slop-closets are certainly not so cleanly as ordinary water-closets, but for outdoor purposes probably no very serious objection can be raised against them on this score.

2. Undoubtedly if slop-closets were generally introduced, the difficult question of drain and sewer ventilation would be greatly complicated, partly because of the lessened flushing power of the Bewage, owing to its diminished bulk, but mainly owing to the rapidity with which putrefaction takes place in such sewage, a considerable portion of which, especially during the night, must have remained in the tippers for some hours.

3. The general introduction of slop-closets in many cases would add to the difficulties of sewage disposal, owing to the highly concentrated nature of the sewage and the want of aëration, consequent upon the absence of a clean water-closet flush, and upon the fact that most of the fluid contributing to the flow has been boiled. This difficulty, however, has been lessened by modern methods of disposal. It must be remembered that flushing of the closets by allowing the taps to run does not uniformly dilute the sewage, as it is generally during the night, when the sewage flow is at its lowest, that the water is left running.

4. Experience in certain towns where this system has been largely introduced has proved that the objections raised by the Water Companies to its introduction have by no means been ill founded, as it undoubtedly does lead to a considerable waste of water in many cases.

5. Nuisance frequently arises, and house drains often beoome obstructed owing to the misuse of such closets by careless peoplo who frequently make use of them as receptacles for solid house refuse—broken crockery, brick ends, &c.

In weighing the arguments for and against the slop-closet system, it must not be forgotten that some of those which tell against it are largely attributable to the absence of efficient inspection. Authorities who adopt the system muso face the necessity of systematic inspection at short intervals, and appoint inspectors specially for that purpose. When first introduced, the system, from the point of view of the Sanitary Authority, appeared to be both efficient and economical, but practical experience has shown that this is not quite the case. If we could ensure that the closets had proper attention, no doubt little trouble would be experienced, but among the working classes it is the exception, not the rule, to meet with persons who will take the slightest trouble to look after any appliance, however simple, the majority being content to let matters slide until the time comes when it is beyond their power to remedy what might in the first instance have so easily been prevented.

When the system was first introduced it was thought that it would prove to be a simple solution of the vexed question of water carriage versus conservancy methods. Probably, however, most of the Authorities who were enthusiastic advocates of the system in the first instance have since had reason to doubt whether they were well advised in adopting it. It is true that in districts where it has been in operation a considerable annual saving has been effected, even in cases wbere the cost of its introduction has been defrayed by the Authorities, but economy should not be the first consideration, and, while all are agreed that the conservancy method in towns must be discarded, it is daily becoming more and more apparent that the water carriage system proper is the only alternative.

On the whole then, for the reasons given, it is more than doubtful whether the disadvantages of the slop-closet system do not outweigh its advantages.

EFFECT OF FROST ON OUTDOOR WATER-CLOSETS. As regards the actual injury resulting from frost in the case of outdoor water-closets, there is considerable difference of opinion among engineers, and it is most desirable, in view of the preceding arguments, that facts bearing upon the subject should be collected.

During the severe frost in the winter of 1895, the author instituted an inquiry in two towns in Staffordshire (A and B), the results of which are shown in the following table :

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own A = 12:0. Percentage precautions, { Town

B = 1.5. Of course, no reliable conclusions can be drawn from one set of observations, and it is only by repeated inquiries, in many towns, and under varying conditions of frost, that satisfactory evidence can be obtained; still, the figures are given for what they are worth, and they point at least to one interesting conclusionnamely, that the injury resulting from frost may differ greatly in different towns. It will be noticed that in the case of town A the percentage of frozen pipes which burst was more than six times greater than in town B, a circumstance which can easily be explained, for in the former town the watercarriage system had long been in operation, and the plumbing work was of the most inferior description, whereas in the latter outdoor water-closets had only lately been introduced, and the plumbing work was much more substantial. It will be noticed that although the bursting of pipes was excessive in town A, the percentage freezing was less than in town B. This is probably explained by the fact that in the former case the water-supply was an old gift to the town, and only a nominal charge was made for it, in consequence of which the cistern pulls were frequently purposely fixed to allow the water to flow continuously during the frost, whereas, in the case of town B, no such licence was allowed. The difference in this respect is shown by the relative percentage of precautions adopted in each case, most of which were of this nature.


AND PIGGERIES. The general requirements in these buildings are defined in the model bye-laws (see Appendix), but it may be well to describe a little in detail how they should be drained.

All slaughter-houses, cowsheds, and stables should be disconnected from the drains—that is, no trap should be placed within the buildings. The floors should be laid in impervious material, such as brickwork set in cement on a bed of concrete, and a plentiful supply of water should be available for cleansing purposes.

The floor of a slaughter-house should have a slight fall from all sides towards one point close to the wall, through which * pipe should be carried to a gully on the outside. The gully best suited for the purpose is one similar to that which is represented on p. 90, Fig. 41, which is provided with a bucket to allow of easy removal of any deposit.

The floor of a COWTHHE


shed should have slight fall towards & central shallow channel, which should have an inclination towards the outside wall, through which a pipe should pass to a gully in the manner just described.

Stables should be drained in the manner, except that the surface channels should be constructed of half

channel iron pipes, coated EFFI PH

with a protective coatFig. 66.

ing, such


Smith's preparation, and covered with movable, perforated iron-plates, as is represented

in the drawing (Fig. 66). These plates should be periodically removed for the purpose of washing out the channels. For the sake of appearances, the gully, in place of being fixed on a level with the surface of the ground, may in all these cases be sunk a little distance, so as to admit of the pipe which passes

through the wall discharging underneath an additional grating, placed above that which covers the gully, on brickwork laid in cement, in the manner shown in section in the drawing (Fig. 67), or a gully with side inlet may be used.

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Fig. 67.

Piggeries, as they are usually constructed, give rise to great nuisance, but this may at least be considerably modified if the styes are properly built, and ordinary attention is paid to cleanliness. Wood is frequently used for the flooring, and it soon becomes saturated with decomposing filth. The floors should be properly paved with impervious bricks or asphalt, and although, in this case, the drain may be connected with a gully placed within the enclosure, it is more cleanly to make the connection in the manner described in the case of cowsheds, &c.

It is a common practice among pig-keepers to allow a large collection of manure to remain within the enclosure, so that it may be trodden by the pigs, with the object of adding to its virtue as a manure. This, besides creating a nuisance, must injure the health of the animals.



The connection of the various sanitary appliances with the drains—that is, the plumbing work—has now to be considered, and it is here we meet with the most glaring defects. The appliances themselves may comply, in every respect with the principles laid down already, and yet the useful purposes for which they have been designed may be entirely defeated through the ignorance or culpability of the workmen employed in fixing them. The public are greatly to blame for this. So long as plumbers are employed whether they can show any evidence that they possess a knowledge of their work or not, so long will scamped work be turned out, money wasted, and health endangered. The best way to correct this is to refuse to employ all uncertificated plumbers, and only engage those who possess recognised certificates. If there is one branch of work in which the maxim efficiency before economy is specially applicable, it is that of plumbing. All cheap plumbing is bad, and good plumbing must be paid for.

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