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DEDICATED, BY PERMISSION, TO HER MAJESTY.

NATURAL HISTORY

OR

Second Division of "The English Cyclopædia,”

CONDUCTED BY

CHARLES KNIGHT.

VOLUME II.

LONDON:
BRADBURY, EVANS, & co., 11, BOUVERIE ST., FLEET ST., E.C.
SCRIBNER, WELFORD, & Co., 654, BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

1867.

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CLIVI'NA, a genus of Coleopterous Insects of the family Scaritida, the genus Lycopodium ; that to which the name is most commonly and section Geodephaga. It has the following characters :-Body applied is L. clavatum. (LYCOPODIUM.] elongate, somewhat cylindrical; antennæ moniliform, the basal joints' CLUNCH, a name given to the lower and harder beds of the rather long (the first longest), the remaining joints short and rounded; Cretaceous Rocks. They are occasionally used for building purposes, palpi with the terminal joint long and pointed ; mentum trilobate; and have been especially employed for internal work in cathedrals thorax nearly square; anterior tibiaa broad and compressed, with two and other large public buildings. This material stands well if not notches externally, leaving three long pointed tooth-like processes ; exposed to accidents from mechanical violence. (Ansted, Elementary the intermediate pair of legs with one of these external processes on Geology.) the tibia.

CLUPE'IDÆ, a family of Fishes of the section Abdominales. The Dejean incorporates with this genus that of Dyschirius, but we Clupeide are placed by Cuvier between the Salmonidce and the think without sufficient reason.

Gadidæ : in fact they form the fifth and last division of his section These insects are of small size, and live under stones in damp | Malacopterygiens Abdominaux.' The fishes of this division may be situations, particularly on the margins of rivers, lakes, &c. Their distinguished by their wanting the adipose fin, by having the upper dentated anterior tibiæ enable them to burrow like the Lamellicorn jaw composed of the intermaxillary bones in the middle, and the Beetles.

maxillaries at the sides, and by the body being always covered with Of the genus Clivina but few species are known. In England there scales. Some of the species ascend rivers. are two; the more common is C. fossor (or C. arenaria of some The genus Clupea, as now restricted by Cuvier, may be thus authors). This species is rather more than ths of an inch in length, characterised :-Maxillaries arched in front; opening of the mouth and of a black or brown colour; the legs, antennæ, and palpi, are moderate; upper jaw entire; body compressed and covered with reddish. C. collaris, the other British species, is rather less than the large scales; teeth minute or wanting. To this genus belong the one just described. It is black, and has chestnut-red elytra, sometimes Herring, Sprat, Whitebait, Pilchard, &c. with a black dash on the suture.

I C. Harengus, Linn., the Herring (French, Le Hareng Commun), is a The species of the genus Dyschirius are distinguished from those of fish well known. Its characters however will be useful to distinguish Clivina principally by their having the thorax globular, the terminal it from some allied species; they are as follows: joint of the palpi thicker in proportion, and somewhat securiform. Small teeth in both jaws; suboperculum rounded; veins on the The body is generally shorter in proportion, and more convex, or less infra-orbitals and gill-covers; dorsal fin behind the centre of gravity; cylindrical; they are almost always of a brassy metallic colour, this fin commences about half way between the point of the upper whereas the species of Clivina are black or brown, and without any jaw and the end of the fleshy portion of the tail; ventrals placed metallic hue.

beneath the middle of the dorsal fin; tail forked ; length of the head Of the genus Dyschirius between twenty and thirty species are one-fifth of that of the body; the greatest depth of the body one-fifth known. Their habits are much like those of the genus Clivina, but of the whole length. The upper part of the fish is blue or green, they are less frequently found under stones, and often make cylin according to the light; the sides, belly, and gill-covers are silverydrical burrows in the ground in banks at the margin of rivers or white; ordinary length, ten to twelve inches. other pieces of water. Upwards of twelve species inhabit this country, The term Herring is the same as the German Häring, which, the largest of which is scarcely more than one-eighth of an inch in according to some, is derived from Heer, an army, and is applied to length.

these fishes from their visiting the coasts in such immense numbers. CLOANTHITE, a cobaltiferous arsenide of nickel.

“The Herring inhabits the deep waters all round the British CLOT. [BLOOD.)

coasts, and approaches the shores in the months of August and CLOTHO, a genus of Fossil Bivalve Shells, established by Faujas September for the purpose of depositing its spawn, which takes place de Saint Fond. Shell oval, subregular, striated longitudinally, equi. in October, or the beginning of November. It is during these months valve, subequilateral. Hinge formed by a bifid tooth, curved into a that the great fishing is carried on, for after the spawning is over it hook, a little larger in one valve than in the other. Ligament returns to deep water. The mode of fishing for herrings is by driftexternal.

nets, very similar to those employed for taking mackerel and pilchard, CLOTHONIA. [BOIDE.]

with a slight difference in the size of the mesh. The net is suspended CLOUDBERRY, a dwarf kind of Bramble, with herbaceous stems, by its upper edge from the drift-rope by various shorter and smaller and orange-yellow fruit, found in turfy alpine bogs; it is the Rubus ropes, called buoy-ropes; and considerable practical skill is required chamaemorus of botanists. Its fruit is excellently well flavoured when in the arrangement, that the net may hang with the meshes square, newly gathered. [RUBUS.]

smooth and even, in the water, and at the proper depth; for according CLOVE-PINK, & species of Dianthus, so called from a supposed to the wind, tide, situation of their food, and other causes, the herrings resemblance in odour between its flowers and the cloves of the shops. swim at various distances below the surface. [DIANTHUS.]

“The size of the boat used depends on the distance from shore at CLOVER. (TRIFOLIUM.)

which the fishery is carried on, but whether in deep or in shallow CLOVES. CARYOPHYLLUS.]

water, the nets are only in actual use during the night. It is found CLUB-MOSS, or SNAKE-MOSS, is a prostrate moss-like plant, that the fish strike the nets in much greater numbers when it is dark with small scaly imbricated leaves, found in alpine or damp situations than when it is light : the darkest nights therefore and those in which in most parts of the world. Its fructification consists of little two- | the surface of the water is ruffled by a breeze are considered the most valved cases, containing powdery matter. All the species belong to l favourable. It is supposed that nets stretched in the daytime alarm

NAT. HIST. DIV. VOL. II.

B

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