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of Scotland, but applicable in their general sense and in the same measure to all Churches of Christ. The concluding chapters, selected from publications now out of print, exhibit and defend the belief of Presbyterians generally, as to the place and rights of the Christian people in the calling of ministers; and although especially bearing upon the controversies that preceded the Disruption, enforce and illustrate principles in reference to the Church of Christ, of an interest and value not limited to any one time or religious communion.

As in the case of former volumes of Dr Cunningham's works, the Editors have used the discretion entrusted to them, in regard to the alterations and omissions desirable before publication. They have again to acknowledge the kindness of the Rev. John Laing, in verifying and correcting the many quotations and references that occur.


New College, Edinburgh, May 1863.


We have always had a great admiration of the talents of Archbishop Whately, and a very high appreciation of the services which he has rendered to the world by his valuable and voluminous writings. He has written upon a great variety of most important subjects—theological and ecclesiastical, philosophical and political; and upon the discussion of all of them he has brought to bear a very high measure of excellences, both intellectual and moral. He is possessed of a very rare combination of ingenuity and sagacity, of penetration and soundness of judgment. He has always advocated and practised the fullest and freest investigation of every subject of interest and importance, and has conducted his own inquiries upon most topics with an amount of real fairness and candour which are by no means common in controversial discussions, even among men of integrity and honour. We regard Dr Whately as occupying a very high place among the educators of the cultivated intellect of the age. We assign to him this most honourable position, not so much because of the amount of important truth which he has taught and commended to men's acceptance—though his services in this respect have been great—but rather because of what he has done, directly and indirectly, by precept and example, in showing men how their faculties may be most fully cultivated and most successfully employed in the investigation of truth; in what way the dangers arising from the obscurities and ambiguities of language ought to

* North British Review, No. xxxiv., Art. 7. August 1852.—1. Essays on the Errors of Romanism having their Origin in Human Nature. By Richard Whatelt, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin. 2d edit. London, 1837.—

2. Cautions for the Times: Addressed to the Parishioners of a Parish in England by their former Rector. Published occasionally; Seventeen Nos. 1851-52.


be guarded against; and what are the spirit and temper in which truth ought to be sought, and investigation ought to be conducted. In these respects Dr Whately has rendered most important permanent services to the community, which entitle him to the admiration, the respect, and the gratitude of all who are interested in the intellectual and moral advancement of society.

We differ, materially and decidedly, from some of Dr Whately's views upon theological subjects; but we have no sympathy with the persevering attempts which have been made, not only by the Tractarians or Puseyites, but also by the old orthodox party in the Church of England, as they call themselves, to run him down as a heretic. We believe that, whether tried by the standard of the Sacred Scriptures, or of the symbolical books of the Church of England, Dr Whately is much more orthodox in his theological sentiments than these classes of his accusers,—that their charges against him upon this subject are in a great measure to be traced to the unfriendly feeling awakened in their minds by his able and consistent advocacy of liberal principles on ecclesiastical and political matters.

There are some subjects on which we think Dr Whately has displayed great ability and candour, even when he has not, in our judgment, arrived at sound conclusions regarding them. One of the most striking and important instances of this is to be found in his giving up the argument commonly adduced by Arminians against Calvinism from the moral character and government of God. Dr Whately, himself an Arminian, virtually admits that the argument derived from this source, which has hitherto formed almost the whole stock-in-trade of the opponents of the Calvinistic system, is irrelevant and unsatisfactory, inasmuch as it does not really bear upon the peculiar doctrines of Calvinism, but upon great facts or results actually occurring under God's moral government. The reality of these facts or results is not disputed; and Dr Whately, in substance, admits that Arminians are just as much bound to explain them, and as incapable of explaining them fully, as Calvinists are. In short, he admits that the fundamental question between Calvinists and Arminians, so far as concerns its relation to the Divine moral character and government, virtually resolves into that of the existence and permanence of moral evil in the world,—a question of which both parties are equally called upon, and equally incompetent, to give a satisfactory solution. It

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