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Fine Arts.

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Illustrations,

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j The place or places where manufactured.

b The uses.
k Whether the Manufacture is patented; c The novelty in design or treatment.
whether the design is registered.

d Superiority of execution.
1 Where price is an element for considera- e New use of known Materials.

tion, the price at which the importer f Use of new materials.
or manufacturer can sell the Article.

9 New combination of Materials.
m Any particular features which the Exhi- h Improvements in processes of production.
bitor desires to be noticed by the Jury. i The place where the Article was made.

j If the Article is repeated in quantities for
In SECTION 4. FINE ARTS, MODELS, SCULP-

trade, the price at which it is sold by TURE, and PLASTIC ART, the descriptions

the Producer should be stated. should specify

k Any particular features which the Exhia The name of the Artist or Designer, if

bitor desires should be noticed by the
the same should not be the Exhibitor.

Jury.
6. Exhibitors are required to make their descriptions brief, and to confine them as much as
possible to facts.

7. Two Copies, in the English Language, of the Exhibitor's descriptions, both being
precisely alike, must be furnished before the Articles can be permitted to enter the Building.
If an Exhibitor's Articles are sent in several packages, the list should indicate the contents of
each separate package.

8. Her Majesty's Commissioners have consented to allow Illustrations of Articles exhibited to be inserted in the large Catalogue, after approval by the Executive Committee. Exhibitors desirous to avail themselves of this privilege must communicate their intention of providing the Illustrations, and state their character, whether Engraving on Wood, on Steel, or Lithography. Communications are to be addressed to the Executive Committee, at the Building for the Exhibition, Hyde Park, London, marked on the outside, “ CATALOGUE.”

9. Exhibitors who may desire that their names and the descriptions of their productions should appear in any French and German Editions of the Catalogue which may be authorized, are requested to furnish at the same time with the two English Copies, a French and German translation of the descriptions, made out in all respects as before prescribed.

That a careful attention to these instructions would have developed a vast amount of most valuable and interesting knowledge, can scarcely be questioned;

and that in a considerable proportion of cases such has been the result, will appear Attention paid to on examination of the contents of this volume. That such a degree of attention

was not universal is only what was to have been expected, both in consequence
of the pressure of time under which many exhibitors laboured, and also from the
fact that a large proportion, occupied in exclusively industrial pursuits, were
unused to literary composition. The forms, with their duplicates, on being filled
up, were transmitted to the Executive Committee; the duplicate being retained
by the Executive, the other copy was placed in the compilers' hands.

The first step in preparing these forms for the press was their arrangement
into classes corresponding to the thirty divisions decided upon by the Executive.
The number and variety of objects embraced by the returned forms rendered this

a tedious and difficult task. On its being effected, the forms remained to be
preparation for
printing. examined, and put into such a state as to satisfy the requirements of the printer.

They were consequently read, and as far as possible thrown into that state of
connection of parts, and removal of superfluous material, which might enable
them to be set up in a convenient form in type.

Although much had been by these means effected in the preparation of the
material of the catalogues, the most important part of the labour involved, prior

to its assuming its present form, remained to be accomplished. The scientific and Scientific revision technical inaccuracies of a large proportion of the returned forms, together with

their literary reconstruction rendered in a large proportion of cases absolutely
necessary, demanded attentive revision and correction. Several considerations
rendered this extremely difficult. Among these were the shortness of the period
absolutely allotted for the completion of the work, the impossibility of verifying
the descriptions given with the objects of which they treated, and the immense
variety of subjects comprehended by the Exhibition itself, and necessarily described

Rules,

First stage of

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correction and annotation.

in these forms in a manner in many instances more or less imperfect. The occasion called for a large amount of peculiar knowledge—of knowledge not to be gained by study, but taught by industrial experience, in addition to that higher knowledge, the teaching of natural and experimental philosophy. To meet these requirements the following plans were devised, and carried into operation. A Plans adopted. number of scientific gentlemen gave their consent to undertake the revision and correction of proofs of the returned forms in their peculiar departments, with a view to remove from them those errors which might present themselves, and to supply what might appear requisite to give prominence to their really important features. In addition to this it appeared advisable, as critical observations wero necessarily inadmissible, to relieve the tedium of mere description, and to assist in pointing out the leading features of interest in the objects described, or in direct relation with them, by appending, as the subjects of the proofs suggested, such brief annotations as might appear best calculated to effect these objects. As a certain degree of harmony of procedure was considered absolutely neces- Suggestions as to

principles of sary, in order to give a consistent character to such corrections and annotations, supplied as they would be from a variety of sources, a few suggestions of certain general principles were adopted, and as far as possible acted upon. It is not necessary to reproduce the whole of these suggestions in their original form; but since it is important that exhibitors should be informed of the principles which, to a great extent, guided and determined the corrections and annotations which are found in this work, they are here subjoined. Attention is particularly directed to suggestion 5, under the head annotations, by which it will be perceived that the character of critical notices has been strictly excluded from the annotations appended to the descriptions in this work. 1. Corrections. These will be chiefly of the following kind :

1. To correct in a general way any obvious typographical inaccuracies.
2. To correct with care all technical and scientific errors in names, places, and things.
3. Occasionally, if time permit, to recast badly composed sentences or expressions.
4. To delete redundancies and self-laudatory terms, or expressions that could in any

way be so construed, or critical and extraneous statements. 2. Annotations. Many of the proofs will undoubtedly suggest interesting elucidatory notes. Annotations. As it is desirable that the same notes should not be repeated, the information which, under other circumstances, or in a volume of a different kind, it would be well to present in a mass, may be conveniently subdivided, and a portion appended to the most appropriate proofs on the subject to which it refers. Thus, for a vegetable or animal product, a line or two as to its history might be attached to one proof, a note upon the natural order or tribe yielding it to another, the uses to a third, the commercial importance, &c., to a fourth, &c. In the selection of proofs for annotation, those of course will be preferred which are in themselves the most interesting and suggestive. is considered desirable that these notes should as far as possible partake of the following characters :

1. To be as short, clear, and definite as possible.
2. To have reference, as far as may be, if the article cannot be seen-

a. To the article as described by the Exhibitor,
b. To its uses, history, consumption, production, &c. (See Memorandum for

the instruction of Exhibitors in preparing the descriptions contained in forms

for the Catalogue.)
3. To be of the following average length-
a. Articles of primary importance, as, for example, "cotton," “ iron," "steam-

engine,” and such like, eight or ten lines.
b. Articles of secondary importance, four and three lines.
4. The same annotations not to be repeated or appended to more than one proof.
5. OBSERVATIONS OF A CRITICAL CHARACTER, IN EITHER SENSE OF THAT TERM, ARE

Corrections.

Character of.

INADMISSIBLE.

So soon as the work actually commenced, a mechanical difficulty of no common Difficulties atten. proportions presented itself. On the distribution of proofs for the purpose of and return of annotation and correction, they were necessarily cut up into separate portions,

Technological mistranslations.

which had destinations as far distant as Germany and remote parts of the United Kingdom, whither they were despatched for the purpose of ensuring their scientific and technical accuracy. Many thousand proofs were thus scattered in various directions, yet all were required to be gathered together again, and arranged precisely in the same form and order as that assumed prior to their dispersion. Some of these proofs were not more than three inches long, and not broader than a narrow ribbon, containing only two or three lines; the difficulty of determining and immediately affixing the proper place of such a minute strip in a work of such magnitude as the present, seemed to be great. A simple method of ascertaining not merely the place in the catalogue, but its entire

history, its destination, annotator, and return was, however, contrived, and the Record of history history of every proof has thus been accurately recorded. The information thus of proofs. obtained, was so accurate and precise, that on the temporary delay of very

small proofs, their original destination was instantly discovered, together with the date of transmission, and the name of the annotator to whom they had been sent. Much punctuality characterized the return of the dismembered portions of this large volume. Had not such been the case, the original plan of scientific and technical revision could not have been persisted in. As a general rule, it was considered advisable to limit annotations to an average of eight or ten lines in length; but in certain instances, where peculiar technical, local, or scientific information has been available, this rule has been to a very considerable extent departed from

The language of the arts among various nations has always been regarded as of extreme difficulty in translation. A considerable portion of this work is necessarily written in this language, and it is therefore to be expected that, notwithstanding the precautions employed, errors of description may occur in those parts of it which describe the productions of foreign exhibitors. It is requested that these may be pointed out. In a number of instances technical terms have been explained by notes. As far as it was possible foreign weights and measures have been converted into English.

The mottoes on the title-pages of this work were selected and placed by His ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT.

There is a peculiar feature in this Catalogue to which attention requires to be directed. This is the fact, that it embodies to a large extent the science of

An attempt has been made here to convert the changing and inaccurate conventional terms of trade into the precise and enduring expressions of science. In classes 1 to 4 of the Exhibition, are contained specimens of a vast proportion of the raw materials upon which human industry daily operates throughout the world. In the majority of the descriptions of the articles exhibited in these

four classes, will be found the commercial names of the materials, together with their Catalogue valu. scientific equivalents. As an instance, may be mentioned the woods employed

for furniture, which are enumerated, with their commercial names, their Latin names, their native habitats, and the uses to which they are applicable. In the present edition of this work, prepared as it has necessarily been under highly unfavourable circumstances as to accuracy and correction, this attempt may not be as successful as in future editions; but such arrangements are made in order to obtain this important and valuable result, as will render future editions of this Catalogue permanently valuable in this respect, not only to the naturalist, but also to commercial men. That this feature of the Catalogue will not be without

Mottoes selected by Prince Albert.

commerce.

able as illustra. tive of the science of trades.

Abridged
Catalogue.

its fruit in the promotion of the objects of industry, may be expected from the knowledge of the fact, that hitherto, in consequence of the absence of such information in a collected form, the greatest difficulties have been experienced by commercial men in their endeavours to introduce into trade any new material of industrial importance, or to obtain adequate supplies of materials already known, but known under a variety of changing, local, and unintelligible terms. In the seventeenth century, ROBERT BOYLE perceived the important results likely to arise from the “naturalist's insight into trades.” It may be hoped that such results will now not fail of their accomplishment.

The smaller Catalogue is an abstract of the present work. It was prepared by condensing the revised and corrected slips forming the Illustrated Catalogue. For economy of space it was necessary to confine the descriptions in that work to an average length of three or four lines.

On the first announcement of a Descriptive Catalogue, erroneous ideas as to its size prevailed, to so large an extent as to lead to the fear that a sufficiency of type of the kind required could scarcely be obtained within the necessary time. Statements appeared which gave birth to the opinion that such a work could not be contained in less than ten volumes of eight hundred pages each ; and for a considerable time it appeared probable that more than three such volumes would size. be required to complete this record of universal industry. It was soon rendered apparent that the estimates thus formed were incorrect. The articles contributed by a number of exhibitors—as in textile manufactures-were of a kind which did not admit of descriptions at length; and the returned forms of such articles were generally received written in the customary abbreviated language of commerce. In cases of another kind, where descriptions of greater length were not only admissible but desirable, economy of space has been obtained by the adoption of a condensed style. The Descriptive Catalogue has thus been reduced, notwithstanding the addition of annotations, to a convenient size.

That a work produced under the circumstances in which this Catalogue appears should contain inaccuracies, can less be cause of surprise than would its complete accuracy. One of the greatest obstacles to its correctness has been the incessant necessity for alterations of place and insertions of fresh material. In its preparation, however, an attempt has been made to communicate to it a value enduring beyond that of the occasion of its production. The vast and wonderful Permanent accumulation of the products of human industry, of which it professes to be the exponent, is gathered only for a time. The intention of this Great Collection accomplished and its objects realized, the industrial store must be again scattered among the nations contributing to the gathering. But this record of the history of the Great Exhibition must endure beyond the duration of the Exhibition itself. May it remain to indicate to other times the successful accomplishment of the greatest conception of our own, and the favour of the Divine Providence effecting that result.

ROBERT ELLIS.

ANNOTATORS OF THE CATALOGUE.

Professor OWEN, F.R.S.
Baron Justus LIEBIG, F.R.S.
Professor LINDLEY, F.R.S.
Professor Forbes ROYLE, F.R.S.
Professor BELL, F.R.S., Sec. R.S.
Professor E. FORBE3, F.R.S.
Professor ANSTED, F.R.S.
Professor HOSKING.
Professor A. DE MORGAN, M.A.
PHILIP PUSEY, M.P., F.R.S.
Rev. J. BARLOW, F.R.S.
Rev. J. BOOTH, F.R.S.
Capt. L. L. BOSCAWEN IBBETSON, F.R.S.

JAMES GLAISIER, F.R.S.
J. E. GRAY, F.R.S.
ROBERT Hunt, Keeper of Mining Records.
ROBERT Ellis, F.L.S.
SAMUEL CLEGG, Jun., F.G.S.
W. DE LA RUE, F.R.S.
J, SPURGIN, M.D.
John Wilson, F.R.S.E.
HENRY DIBDIN.
W. C. AITKEN.
H. MAUDSLAY, C.E.
ROBERT HENDRIE, Jun.
J. A. NICHOLAY.

Official Revision and Sanction for Publication by Lieut.-Colonel J. A. LLOYD, F.R.S.
Scientific Revision and Preparation by ROBERT ELLIS, F.L.S.
Historical Introduction by HENRY COLE.
Construction of the Building by M. DIGBY WYATT, C.E., F.R.I.B.A.
Classification of Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition is divided

by Dr. Lyon PlayFair, F.R.S.
Compilation and Preparation of the Abridged Catalogue by G. W. YAPP.

Technical information and assistance have also been rendered by Mr. G. TAYLOR, Mr. T. BATTAM, Professor Wallace, M.A., Mr. C. TOMLINSON, Mr. JOHN GRAHAM Mr. E. H. DENISON, and other Gentlemen. Much valuable information and assistance have also been kindl y furnished by the Royal Commissioners for several of the Foreign States exhibiting. Their contributions have been inserted partly in the form of notes, and occasionally in that of a short introduction.

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