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CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS IN THE THIRTY CLASSES INTO WHICH

THE EXHIBITION IS DIVIDED.

CLASS.

RAW MATERIALS. I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products. II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Products generally. III. Substances used for Food. IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornament.

MACHINERY. V. Machines for direct use, including Carriages and Railway and Naval Mechanism. VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools. VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building Contrivances. VIII. Naval Architecture and Military Engineering ; Ordnance, Armour, and Accoutrements. IX. Agricultural and Horticultural Machines and Implements. X. Philosophical Instruments and Processes depending upon their uge; Musical, IIorological, and

Surgical Instruments.

MANUFACTURES.
XI. Cotton.
XII. Woollen and Worsted.
XIII. Silk and Velvet.
XIV. Manufactures from Flax and Hemp.

XV. Mixed Fabrics, including Shawls, but exclusive of Worsted Goods (Class XII.).
XVI. Leather, including Saddlery and Harness, Skins, Fur, Feathers, and Hair.
XVII. Paper and Stationery, Printing and Bookbinding.
XVIII. Woven, Spun, Felted, and laid Fabrics, when shown as specimens of Printing or Dyeing.
XIX. Tapestry, including Carpets and Floor-cloths, Lace and Embroidery, Fancy and Industrial Works.

XX. Articles of Clothing for immediate personal or domestic use. XXI. Cutlery and Edge Tools. XXII. Iron and General Hardware. XXIII. Working in precious Metals, and in their imitation, Jewellery, and all articles of Virtu and Luxury,

not included in all other Classes. XXIV. Glass.

XXV. Ceramic Manufactures, China, Porcelain, Earthenware, &c.
XXVI. Decoration Furniture and Upholstery, including Paper-hangings, Papier Maché, and Japanned

Goods.
XXVII. Manufactures in Mineral Substances, used for building or decoration, as in Marble, Slate, Porphyries,

Cements, Artificial Stones, &c. XXVIII. Manufactures from Animal and Vegetable Substances, not being Woven or Felted, or included in

other Sections. XXIX. Miscellaneous Manufactures and Small Wares.

FINE ARTS.

XXX. Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art.

I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, b. Models of Minerals and Crystals, &c. and Mineral Products.

c. Collections of Minerals for scientific or educa

tional use. A. MINING AND QUARRYING OPERATIONS.

5. Minerals used in various Arts and Manufactures. 1. Quarries and open workings.

a. Simple bodies or compounds containing the Al2. Streaming; washing alluvial deposits.

kalis or Alkaline Earths-3. Mines worked on the lode.

Those used principally for culinary purposes or a. Sinking of shafts.

for Medicine, as Salt, Mineral Waters, &c. b. Cutting adits.

Those used in various manufactures, as Sulphur, c. Driving levels.

Borax, &c. 4. Mines worked on the bed.

b. Earthy and semi-crystalline Minerals. a. Sinking shafts.

Minerals used for grinding and polishing, as b. Driving levels.

Grindstones, Honestones, Emery, &c. c. Cutting stalls or headings.

Lithographic Stones, Drawing Chalks, and 5. Salt deposits.

Slate Pencils. 6. Ventilation; Safety Lamps, and other modes of

Graphite.
Lighting

Earthy and other Minerals used as pigments, 7. Methods of raising Men, Ore, and Water.

or for staining, dyeing, and colouring. a. Raising Ore.

Various Minerals used in Manufactures; as b. Lowering and raising Miners.

Alum Schist, Fuller's Earth, French Chalk, c. Draining

Casting Sands, &c. B. GEOLOGICAL Maps, PLANS, AND SECTIONS.

6. Soils and Mineral Manures. C. ORES AND METALLURGICAL OPERATIONS. 1. Ores and the Methods of dressing and rendering Ores | II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Promerchantable.

ducts generally.
a. Ores of the more common Metals, as of Iron,
Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead.

A, CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN MANUFACTURE.
b. Native Metals, as Gold, Silver, Copper, &c.

1. From the Mineral Kingdom. c. Ores used for various purposes, without reduc

a. Non-metallic substances. tion, as Peroxide of Manganese, &c.

Those used principally in their elementary 2. Methods of roasting, smelting, or otherwise reducing

state, as Sulphur, Phosphorus, &c. Ores.

Acids, as Sulphuric, Muriatic, Nitric, Boracic, a. The common Metals, as Iron, Copper, Zinc, Tin,

&c. Lead.

Miscellaneous Manufactures, as Sulphuret of b. The Metals more generally used in combination,

Carbon, Chloride of Sulphur, &c. as Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Co

b. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds. balt, Nickel, &c.

Alkalies and their Alkaline Salts, as Soda, Pot3. Methods of preparing for use the nobler Metals, as

ash, Ammonia, and the Carbonates, &c. Gold, Silver, Mercury, Palladium, Platinum, &c.

Neutral Salts of the Alkalies, as Sulphate, Ni4. Adaptation of Metals to special purposes.

trate of Soda, Salt petre, Borax, &c. a. Metals in various Chemical states, as Iron in the

Earths and their compounds, as Lime, Magcondition of Cast and Malleable Iron, Steel,

nesia, Barytes, Strontia, Alumina, &c. &c.

c. The compounds of Metals proper, as Salts of b. Metals in their progress to finished Manufac

Iron, Copper, Lead, &c. tures, as Pigs and Ingots, Sheets, Bars, Wires,

d. Mixed Chemical Manufactures, as Prussiate of &c.

Potash, &c. 5. Alloys, and methods of rendering more generally 2. From the Organic Kingdom, and not included in useful Metals and their alloys

Sections INI. and IV. a. Statuary, Bronze, Gun, Bell, and Speculum Me

3. Manufactured Pigments, Dyes, and miscellaneous tals.

Chemical Manufactures. (See also Section IV.) b. Brass, and alloys used as a substitute for it.

a. Pigments employed in House Decoration, and c. White alloys, as Britannia Metal, German Silver,

for colouring Woods. Pewter, &c.

b. Pigments used for Textile Fabrics. d. Type, Sheathing Metals, and other alloys.

c. Pigments used for Paper Hangings, and for D. Nox-METALLIC MINERAL PRODUCTS.

felted and laid Fabrics generally. 1. Minerals used as Fuel

d. Artists' Colours. a. All kinds of Coal and derived products.

e. Miscellaneous Chemical Manufactures. b. Lignite and Peat

B. RARER CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES, MANUFACTURED CHIEFLY c. Bituminous bodies and native Naphtha.

FOR THE USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CHEMIST. 2. Massive Minerals used in construction.

1. From Substances of the Mineral Kingdom. a. For purposes of construction generally

2.

Vegetable
Siliceous or Calcareous Free Stones and Flags. 3.

Animal
Granites, porphyritic and basaltic Rocks.
Slates.

C. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN MEDICINE AND IN PILAR-
6. For purposes of Ornament, Decoration, and the
Fine Arts-

1. From the Mineral Kingdom. Marbles.

a. Non-metallic substances and their compounds. Alabaster, Spar, &c.

b. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds. Serpentine and other hard rocks susceptible of

c. Metallic Preparations. high polish

2. From the Vegetable Kingdom, when shown for c. Cements and Artificial Stones--

Pharmaceutical purposes. (See also Sections III. Calcareous and Hydraulic Cements.

and IV.) Puzzuolanas, Trass, &c.

a. Vegetable Infusions, Decoctions, and Solutions, Gypsum for plaster.

clear or saccharine. Artificial Stones.

b. Tinctures. 3. Minerals used in the manufacture of Potter and

c. Extracts and Inspissated Juices. Glass

d. Resins, Gum Resins, and Oleo Resins and Sands, Limestones, &c., for Glass-making.

Balsams.
Various Clays and felspathic Minerals, as those

e. Aloes, &c.
used for Bricks, Tiles, and various kinds of Pot-

f. Gums as Acacia, Tragacanth, &c. tery and Porcelain.

9. Essential Oils, Cajeput, Savine, Turpentine, &c. Siliceous, Calcareous, and other Minerals, used in

h. Fixed Oils, as Castor, Croton, Almond, Olive, &c. Plastic Arts.

i. Vegetable parts, as leaves of Digitalis, Hemlock, 4. Minerals used for personal Ornaments, or for Me

roots of Jalap, Ipecacuanha, &c. chanical and Scientific purposes.

j. Barks as imported, Cinchona, Cascarilla, Cusa. Gems and Precious Stones.

paria, &c.

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MACY.

ETC.

k. Vegeto-Alkalies, their Salts and other Crystalline | IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in

principles of medicinal substances. 1. Vegetable Acids.

Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornaments. m. Miscellaneous Compounds.

VEGETABLE. 3. From the Animal Kingdom.

A. GUM AND RESIN SERIES.
a. Cod-liver and other Animal Oils for internal or 1. Gums of all kinds of natural occurrence
external application.

Gums made artificially, as British Gum.
b. Unguents of Spermaceti, Lard, Oil, and combina-

Mucilaginous Seeds, Barks, Pods, and Seaweeds. tions of them.

2. Resinsc. Antispasmodics, as Musk, Castoreum, Civet, Am

Resins and Balsams of all kinds. bergris, &c.

Gum Resins. d. Phosphorus, Ammonia, and their products.

Gum Elastics and Gutta Percha.
e. Irritants, as Cantharides.

Distilled Resins and Varnishes.
f. Antacids, as Crabs'-eyes, Calcareous concretions
of the Craw-fish, Cuttle-bone, &c.

B. OIL SERIES.

1. Volatile Oils, including Camphor.

2. Drying Fat Oils. III. Substances used as Food.

3. Non-drying Fat Oils,

4. Solid Oils. VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

5. Wax. A. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE-CEREALS, Pulses, OIL, SEEDS,

6. Distilled Pat Oils.

C. Acids, AS ACETIC, Citric, TARTARIC, OXALIC, &c. 1. Common European Cereals.

D. DYES AND COLOURS. 2. Cereals more rarely cultivated in Europe.

1. Indigos. 3. Millet and other small Grains used as food.

2. Madders. 4. Pulses and Cattle Food.

3. Lichens and their preparations. 5. Grasses, Fodder Plants, and Agricultural Roots. 6. The Flours or preparations of the above classes.

4. Dyeing Barks, as Acacias, Quercitron, Mangrove, &c. 7. Oil Seeds and their Cakes.

5. Woods, as Logwood, Brazil wood, Peach wood, Fus8. Hops and other aromatic plants used for like pur

tics, &c.

6. Flowers and Berries, as Persian Berries, Safflower, poses.

Saffron. B, DRIED FRUIT AND SEEDS.

7. Miscellaneous, as Turmeric, &c. 1. Raisins, Currants, Figs, Plums, Cherries, Apricots, &c. E. TANNING SUBSTANCES. 2. Dates, Tamarinds, Dried Bananas, &c. 3. Almonds, Chesnuts, Walnuts, &c.

1. Pods, Berries, Seeds, and Fruits of various kinds, as 4. Cocoa-nuts, &c.

Algaroab, Acacia, Nib-nib and Divi-divi Pods, &c.

2. Barks of various kinds, as Barks of the Babool, BraC. SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF DRINKS.

zilian Acacias, Murici, Bucida, Gordonia. 1. Real Teas of all kinds.

3. Galls, and similar Tanning Materials. 2. Substitute for Teas, as Paraguay, Arabian, Ben

4. Catechu, Kino, Gambeer, &c. coolin, &c.

F. FIBROUS SUBSTANCES, INCLUDING MATERIALS FOR CORDAGE 3. Coffee of all kinds, and Cocoa Seeds and Nibs.

AND CLOTHING. 4. Various substances, as Chicory Roots, Amande de 1. Cottons of all kinds. Terre, Guarana Bread, &c.

2. llemp and Flax; Manilla Hemp and New Zealand D. INTOXICATING Drugs, FERMENTED LIQUORS, AND Dis

Flax.
TILLED SpiritS FROM UNUSUAL SOURCES.

3. China Grass, Nettle Fibre, Plantain, and Pine Ap1. Fermented Liquors and Spirits from unusual sources.

ple Fibre. 2. Tobacco.

4. Sunn, Jute, and other tropical substitutes for Hemp,

Flax. 3. Opium. 4. Liemp, and other Intoxicating Drugs.

5. Coir, or Cocoa-Nut Fibre, Gomuti, &c.

6. Rushes and Miscellaneous Substances. E. SPICES AND CONDIMENTS.

G. CELLULAR SUBSTANCES. 1. Cinnamon, Cassia, and their substitutes.

1. Corks of all kinds. 2. Nutmegs and Mace; Cloves and Cassia Buds.

2. Woods and Roots used for Corks, as the Ochroma 3. Peppers, Capsicum, Mustard, Vanilla, Pimento, Car

lagopus and Anona palustris damums, &c.

3. Rice-paper of China. 4. Ginger, Turmeric, &c.

4. Birch Bark, Pottery Bark, Citrus Rind, &c. F. STARCH SERIES.

5. Substances used as Amadou. 1. Starches of all kinds prepared from Wheat, Rice, H. TIMBER AND FANCY Woods USED FOR CONSTRUCTION Potatoes, Maize, &c.

AND ORNAMENT, AND PREPARED BY DYEING. 2. Arrowroots of all kinds, Tous les Mois. 3. Sagos from the Palms, Cassava, Tapioca, &c.

1. Suited chiefly for purposes of construction, or for

the Navy. 4. Lichens of all kinds.

2. Suited chiefly for Ornamental Work. 5. Other Starchy Substances, as Portland Sago from

3. Prepared Woods, as by Kyan's, Payne's, Bethell's, Arum Maculatum, and from various like plants.

and Boucherie's processes. G. SUGAR SERIES.

I. MISCELLANEOUS SUBSTANCES. 1. Sugars from the Cane and Beet.

1. Substances used as Soap, as Quillai Bark, Soap BerMaple and Palms.

ries (Sapindus saponaria), Soap Roots (Saponaria Birch, Poplar, Oak, and Ash.

oficinalis, &c.). Grape Sugar.

2. Perfumes, as Pucha Pat, Vetiver, Spikenard, Tonka 2. Liquorice, Sarcocoll, &c.

beans, &c.

3. Substances used mechanically, as Teazels, Dutch ANIMAL KINGDOM.

Rushes, &c. H. ANIMAL FOOD AND PREPARATIONS OF FOOD AS INDUS- 4. Seeds and fruits used for Ornamental purposes, as TRIAL PRODUCTS.

Ganitrus Beads, the Ivory Nut, the Doom Palm, 1. Specimens of preserved Meats.

Coquilla Nuts, Bottle Gourds, &c. 2. Portable Soups, and concentrated nutriment, as con

ANIMAL. solidated Milk, &c. 3. Caviare, Trepang, &c.

J. FOR TEXTILE FABRICS AND CLOTHING. 4. Articles of Eastern commerce, as Shark Fins, Nest of 1. Wool, Hair, Bristles, Whalebones. the Java Swallow, &c.

2. Silk from the Silk-worm Bombyx Mori, and from 5. Honey and its preparations.

other species in India, e.g. Bombycilla Cynthia 6. Blood and its preparations.

and Attacus Paphia. 7. Industrial Products, as Glue, Gelatine, Isinglass, 3. Feather, Down, Fur, Skins. Gluten, &c.

4. Miscellaneous.

K. FOR DOMESTIC OR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES, OR FOR THE

MANUFACTURE OF IMPLEMENTS. 1. Bone, Horn, Hoofs, Ivory, Tortoiseshell, Shagreen,

Quills. 2. Pearls, Seed Pearl, Mother-of-pearl, Coral, and Shells

generally. 3. Oils, Tallows, Spermaceti, Wax, Lard. 4. Miscellaneous, as Sponge, Goldbeater's-skin, Catgut,

Silkworm-gut, Bladders, &c.
L. AS AGENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF VARIOUS ARTICLES.
1. Glue, Isinglass, Gelatine, Bone-black, Ivory-black,

Animal Charcoal.
M. FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES.
Blood, Bones, Horns, &c., for the production of Phos-

phorus, the Prussiates, the Superphosphates, &c. N. For PIGMENTS AND DYES.

1. Cochineal and Carmine.
2. Dyes from the Galls of the Aphides.
3. Gall-stone, pigment from Ox-gall.
4. Indian dyes from the Coccus, the various kinds of

Lacs.
5. Miscellaneous, as Sepia, Enena d'Orient, &c.

4. Rails.
5. Switches.
6. Turntables,
7. Station Arrangements.
8. Signals.

9. Miscellaneous.
G. WEIGHING, MEASURING, AND REGISTERING MACHINES

FOR COMMERCIAL AND NOT FOR PHILOSOPHICAL

PURPOSES. 1. Commercial Weighing Instruments. 2. Instruments of Measure. 3. Registering Instruments, Gauges, Indicators, and

Telltales.

MACHINERY.
V. Machines for direct use, including Carriages and

Railway and Naval Mechanism.
A. STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS, WATER AND Wind Mills,

AND VARIOUS OTHER PRIME MOVERS.
1. Boilers.
2. Land Engines.
3. Marine Engines.
4. Windmills.
5. Water-wheels and Tourbines.
6. Water-pressure Engines, as Richenback's and Arm-

strong's. 7. Vacuum Power Engines. 8. Electro-Magnetic Engines, &c.

9. Miscellaneous. B. SEPARATE PARTS OF MACHINES, SPECIMENS OF WORKMAN

SHIP. (See also Water and Gas Works in VII.) 1. As heavy Castings or Forgings in the rough ; Cast

ings or Forgings, plain, intricate, or beautiful, in

the Rough. 2. Specimens of Turning in Metals. 3. Specimens in filing and finished Work in Metals,

such as Surfaces, Irregular Figures, &c.
4. Valves, Cocks, Pistons, Governors, &c.
C. PNEUMATIC MACHINES.

1. Air Pumps.
2. Blowing Fans.
3. Blast Engines for Furnaces, &c.

4. Miscellaneous.
D. HYDRAULIC MACHINES, CRANES, ETC., PILE DRIVERS, ETC.

(See also VII.)
1. Hydraulic Machines-

Pumps and Fire Engines.
Water Rams.
Hydraulic Presses, &c.

Water-meters, &c. 2. Cranes

Any sort of Crane motion and contrivances, Jacks
of all sorts. (For Windlasses, Capstans, and

Blocks, see VIII. E.)
3. Piling Engines.--(See also VII. A.)

By hand power, or steam.
Pile Sawing Machines.

Pile Extractors, &c.
E. LOCOMOTIVES AND RAILWAY CARRLAGES, &c.

1. Railway Locomotives.
2. Common Road Locomotives.
3. Railway Carriages, Trucks, and Waggons.
4. Railway Velocipedes, &c. &c., of all sorts.
5. Atmospheric Railway Apparatus.
6. Carriage Breaks.

7. Buffers, Couplings, &c.
F. RailwAY MACHINERY AND PERMANENT WAY.

1. Permanent Way complete.
2. Sleepers.
3. Chairs, &c.

V. a. Carriages generally--not including those con

nected with Rail or Tram Roads.

A. For Town USE.
Dress Vis-à-Vis.

Landaulet.
Dress Coach,

Step-piece Landau.
Dress Chariot.

Barouche.
Landau.

Sociable.
B. TRAVELLING CARRIAGES.
Coach.

Britska.
Driving Coach

Droitska.
Chariot.

Fourgon.
Britska Chariot.

Invalid Carriage.
Dormeuse Post Chariot Sledges, &c.
Post Chariot.

C. For GENERAL USE.
Basterna.

Curricle.
Brougham.

Cabriolet.
Double Brougham.

Headed Chaise.
Clarence.

Tilbury.
Pilentum.

Stanhope.
Cariole.

Dennett.
Domestic.

Gig.
Driving Phacton.

Irish Car.
Mail Phaeton.

Dog Cart.
Cabriolet Phaeton.

Pony Chaise.
Park Phaeton.

Invalid Bath Chair.
Pony Phaeton.

Velocipedes.
D. PUBLIC CARRIAGES.
Mail Coach.

Hansom's Cab.
Stage Coach.

Street Cab.
Omnibus.

Fly.
Hackney Coach.

Hearse.
Hackney Chariot.

Caravan.
Glass Coach.
E. Carts And Waggons of ALL KINDS, NOT BEING Agri-

CULTURAL.

VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools, or Systems of
Machinery, Tools, and Implements employed for

the undermentioned purposes.
A. MANUFACTURES OF ALL SPUN, WOVEN, FELTED, OR

LAID FABRICS. 1. Machinery for the complete formation from the Raw

Material of all Fabrics of Cotton, Wool, Flax, Hemp,

Silk, Caoutchouc, Gutta Percha, Hair. 2. Paper-making and Staining.

3. Printing and Bookbinding. B. MANUFACTURES OF METALS. 1. The manufacture of Metals from the Ore into Bars,

Rods, Wire, Sheets, and other general forms; also

casting and polishing of Metal, &c.
2. The cutting and working of Metals by Machine

Tools, such as Lathes; Machines for Planing,
Drilling, Boring, Slotting, Sawing, Stamping,

Shearing, Riveting, Punching.
3. Machines and Tools used by the Makers of Gold, Sil-

ver, and Plated Goods. 4. Machines and Tools used by the Makers of Cutlery,

Nails, Screws, Pins, Needles, Buttons, and metal

lic Pens, &c. 5. Machines and Tools used by Locksmiths, Die

sinkers, &c.

C. MANUFACTURES OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES AND MINING 9. Dredging-machines, Hedgehogs, and other Machines MACHINERY. (See also SECTION I.)

employed in Harbour Works, for removing Shoals, 1. Machines and Tools for the preparation and working

&c.
of all kinds of Glass, Stone, Granite, Alabaster, E. LIGHTHOUSES AND BEAcons.
Slate, Clay, &c.

F. RooFS, BUILDINGS, AND CONTRIVANCES FOR COVERING 2. Machines and Tools used in the preparation and work

LARGE AREAS. ing of Gems, &c.

1. Examples of Timber and Iron Trusses. D. MANUFACTURES OF VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.

2. Roofs for Markets, Railway Stations, &c. 1. Machines and Tools for the preparation and working 3. Roofs for Theatres. of all kinds of Wood.

4. Fire-proof Buildings, arranged so as to be applicable 2. Mills and other machinery for Grinding, Crushing,

to the economical methods of construction. or Preparing Vegetable Products.

5. Coverings for Roofs. E. MANUFACTURE OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.

G. WATER-WORKS, AND THE ENGINEERING CONTRIVANCES Machinery and Tools for working in Horn, Bone, Ivory, CONNECTED WITH THE OBTAINING, STORING, AND DISTRILeather, &c.

BUTION OF WATER IN Towns. F. MACHINERY AND APPARATUS FOR BREWING, DISTILLING,

1. Well-sinking and Boring, and the Apparatus conAND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTRY.

nected therewith. 2. Storing, Filtering, and Distributing Reservoirs, and

the Contrivances connected with them.

3. Contrivances for maintaining and producing efficient VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building

Heads, and the Apparatus connected with Street

Mains.
Contrivances.

4. Services, and Apparatus connected with Domestic

Water Supply. (See also V., B.)
A. FOUNDATIONS AND BUILDING CONTRIVANCES CONNECTED
WITH HYDRAULIC WORKS.

H. GAS-WORKS, AND CONTRIVANCES CONNECTED WITH THE 1. Application of the Screw Pile for the Foundations

ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL Ligir. of Piers, Jetties, &c., Beacons, and Ships' Moor

1. Retorts and Distillatory Apparatus. ings.

2. Condensing, Separating, and Purifying Apparatus. 2. Pneumatic Piling, Machinery illustrative of the

3. Governors and Station Meters. mode of sinking and guiding the Cylinders, also

4. Gauges, Valves, and contrivances connected with the Contrivances for overcoming difficulties where

Mains for the Distribution of Gas. (See also obstructions are offered to their sinking.

XXII.) 3. Coffer-dams on soft and rock bottoms, and Appa- 1. SEWERAGE, CLEANSING, PAVING, AND THE CONTRIVANCES ratus connected with them.

CONNECTED WITH THE SANITARY CONDITION OP 4. Foundations of Lighthouses exposed to the violent

Towns. action of the sea.

1. Forms of Sewers, their Entrances and Junctions. 5. Diving-bells, Helmets, and Apparatus connected

2. Contrivances for Cleansing, Flushing, and Ventiwith them.

lating Sewers. 6. Boring Tools, and Contrivances for ascertaining the

3. Contrivances for removing and distributing Sewage. stratification on Sites of intended Structures.

4. Traps, and other means of preventing emanations. B. SCAFFOLDING AND CENTERINGS.

(See also XXII.) 1. Scaffolding for the erection of Brick Chimney Shafts,

5. House Drains, and the Internal Sanitary arrangeColumns of Masonry, Towers, and Spires.

ments of Houses. (See also XXII.)

6. Pavements. 2. Portable Scaffoldings, Ladders, and Fire Escapes. 3. Scaffolding for the erection of Monolithic Blocks, as J. WARMING AND VENTILATING DOMESTIC RESIDENCES, AND Obelisks, &c., and for the hoisting of great

THE CONTRIVANCES CONNECTED THEREWITH.
Weights.

1. Arrangements for Warming, as with Hot Air, Water, 4. Fixed and Turning Scaffolding for the repairs, &c.,

Steam, &c. of Domes, &c., internally and externally.

2. Contrivances for preventing Smoke, and Chimney5. Scaffolding and Contrivances for the erection of large

sweeping Machines. Girder Bridges (as Britannia Bridge).

3. Contrivances for Ventilation on a large Scale. 6. Centerings for Arched Bridges, Domes, and Vaults. 7. Centerings for Tunnels, Shields, and Contrivances K. MISCELLANEOUS.

for facilitating their excavation. C. Bridges, Tunnels, AND ENGINEERING CONTRIVANCES VIII. Naval Architecture, Military Engineering ;

FOR CROSSING RIVERS, RAVINES, &c. 1. Timber Bridges.

Ordnance, Armour, and Accoutrements. 2. Cast-iron Bridges.

A. ILLUSTRATIONS BY MODELS OF SHIPBUILDING FOR PUR3. Wrought-iron Bridges (Girder or Lattice). 4. Turning or Swing Bridges.

1. Ships. 5. Lifting or Bascule Bridges.

2. Barks. 6. Draw and Rolling Bridges.

3. Brigs and Brigantines. 7. Suspension Bridges.

4. Snows and Ketches. 8. Temporary Bridges. (See also VIII. M.)

5. Schooners. 9. Floating Bridges, as across the Lamoaze, and to

6. Sloops and Cutters. receive Railway Trains, as across the Humber.

7. Luggers, Barges, &c. 10. Examples of Brick and Stone Bridges.

B. ILLUSTRATIONS BY MODELS OF SHIPBUILDING FOR PURD. Dock, HARBOUR, RIVER, AND CANAL Works.

POSES OF WAR. 1. Docks and Slips for the building and repair of 1. Ships of the Line. Ships.

2. Frigates. 2. Mercantile Docks, and Arrangements connected

3. Sloops, Corvettes, and Brigs. therewith, for the loading and unloading of 4. Cutters, Brigantines, Ketches, Schooners, Barges, &c. Ships.

5. Bomb or Mortar Vessels, Fire-ships, Gun-boats, &c. 3. Sea and Canal Locks, Gates and Entrances, Stop-C. ILLUSTRATIONS by Models of SHIPBUILDING FOR THE gates, Sluices, &c.

APPLICATION OF STEAM OR OTHER POWERS. 4. Marine Railway Slips and Hydraulic Docks. 5. Harbours of Refuge.

1. Great War Steamers. 6. Breakwaters, Piers, Jetties, Wharfs, and Landing- 2. Steam-vessels of large burden for long Passages. piers.

3. Steam-vessels for Inland, River, or Lake Navigation. 7. Groynes, Sea-defences, &c.

4. Sailing-vessels fitted for the temporary appliance of 8. Perpendicular Lifts for Canals, and other Engineering

Steam or Human Power. Contrivances instead of Locks.

8. Miscellaneous.

POSES OF COMMERCE,

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