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CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS IN THE THIRTY CLASSES INTO WHICH
THE EXHIBITION IS DIVIDED.
RAW MATERIALS. I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products. II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Products generally. III. Substances used for Food. IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornament.
MACHINERY. V. Machines for direct use, including Carriages and Railway and Naval Mechanism. VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools. VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building Contrivances. VIII. Naval Architecture and Military Engineering ; Ordnance, Armour, and Accoutrements. IX. Agricultural and Horticultural Machines and Implements. X. Philosophical Instruments and Processes depending upon their uge; Musical, IIorological, and
XV. Mixed Fabrics, including Shawls, but exclusive of Worsted Goods (Class XII.).
XX. Articles of Clothing for immediate personal or domestic use. XXI. Cutlery and Edge Tools. XXII. Iron and General Hardware. XXIII. Working in precious Metals, and in their imitation, Jewellery, and all articles of Virtu and Luxury,
not included in all other Classes. XXIV. Glass.
XXV. Ceramic Manufactures, China, Porcelain, Earthenware, &c.
Cements, Artificial Stones, &c. XXVIII. Manufactures from Animal and Vegetable Substances, not being Woven or Felted, or included in
other Sections. XXIX. Miscellaneous Manufactures and Small Wares.
XXX. Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art.
I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, b. Models of Minerals and Crystals, &c. and Mineral Products.
c. Collections of Minerals for scientific or educa
tional use. A. MINING AND QUARRYING OPERATIONS.
5. Minerals used in various Arts and Manufactures. 1. Quarries and open workings.
a. Simple bodies or compounds containing the Al2. Streaming; washing alluvial deposits.
kalis or Alkaline Earths-3. Mines worked on the lode.
Those used principally for culinary purposes or a. Sinking of shafts.
for Medicine, as Salt, Mineral Waters, &c. b. Cutting adits.
Those used in various manufactures, as Sulphur, c. Driving levels.
Borax, &c. 4. Mines worked on the bed.
b. Earthy and semi-crystalline Minerals. a. Sinking shafts.
Minerals used for grinding and polishing, as b. Driving levels.
Grindstones, Honestones, Emery, &c. c. Cutting stalls or headings.
Lithographic Stones, Drawing Chalks, and 5. Salt deposits.
Slate Pencils. 6. Ventilation; Safety Lamps, and other modes of
Earthy and other Minerals used as pigments, 7. Methods of raising Men, Ore, and Water.
or for staining, dyeing, and colouring. a. Raising Ore.
Various Minerals used in Manufactures; as b. Lowering and raising Miners.
Alum Schist, Fuller's Earth, French Chalk, c. Draining
Casting Sands, &c. B. GEOLOGICAL Maps, PLANS, AND SECTIONS.
6. Soils and Mineral Manures. C. ORES AND METALLURGICAL OPERATIONS. 1. Ores and the Methods of dressing and rendering Ores | II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Promerchantable.
A, CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN MANUFACTURE.
1. From the Mineral Kingdom. c. Ores used for various purposes, without reduc
a. Non-metallic substances. tion, as Peroxide of Manganese, &c.
Those used principally in their elementary 2. Methods of roasting, smelting, or otherwise reducing
state, as Sulphur, Phosphorus, &c. Ores.
Acids, as Sulphuric, Muriatic, Nitric, Boracic, a. The common Metals, as Iron, Copper, Zinc, Tin,
Miscellaneous Manufactures, as Sulphuret of b. The Metals more generally used in combination,
Carbon, Chloride of Sulphur, &c. as Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Co
b. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds. balt, Nickel, &c.
Alkalies and their Alkaline Salts, as Soda, Pot3. Methods of preparing for use the nobler Metals, as
ash, Ammonia, and the Carbonates, &c. Gold, Silver, Mercury, Palladium, Platinum, &c.
Neutral Salts of the Alkalies, as Sulphate, Ni4. Adaptation of Metals to special purposes.
trate of Soda, Salt petre, Borax, &c. a. Metals in various Chemical states, as Iron in the
Earths and their compounds, as Lime, Magcondition of Cast and Malleable Iron, Steel,
nesia, Barytes, Strontia, Alumina, &c. &c.
c. The compounds of Metals proper, as Salts of b. Metals in their progress to finished Manufac
Iron, Copper, Lead, &c. tures, as Pigs and Ingots, Sheets, Bars, Wires,
d. Mixed Chemical Manufactures, as Prussiate of &c.
Potash, &c. 5. Alloys, and methods of rendering more generally 2. From the Organic Kingdom, and not included in useful Metals and their alloys
Sections INI. and IV. a. Statuary, Bronze, Gun, Bell, and Speculum Me
3. Manufactured Pigments, Dyes, and miscellaneous tals.
Chemical Manufactures. (See also Section IV.) b. Brass, and alloys used as a substitute for it.
a. Pigments employed in House Decoration, and c. White alloys, as Britannia Metal, German Silver,
for colouring Woods. Pewter, &c.
b. Pigments used for Textile Fabrics. d. Type, Sheathing Metals, and other alloys.
c. Pigments used for Paper Hangings, and for D. Nox-METALLIC MINERAL PRODUCTS.
felted and laid Fabrics generally. 1. Minerals used as Fuel
d. Artists' Colours. a. All kinds of Coal and derived products.
e. Miscellaneous Chemical Manufactures. b. Lignite and Peat
B. RARER CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES, MANUFACTURED CHIEFLY c. Bituminous bodies and native Naphtha.
FOR THE USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CHEMIST. 2. Massive Minerals used in construction.
1. From Substances of the Mineral Kingdom. a. For purposes of construction generally
C. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES USED IN MEDICINE AND IN PILAR-
1. From the Mineral Kingdom. Marbles.
a. Non-metallic substances and their compounds. Alabaster, Spar, &c.
b. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds. Serpentine and other hard rocks susceptible of
c. Metallic Preparations. high polish
2. From the Vegetable Kingdom, when shown for c. Cements and Artificial Stones--
Pharmaceutical purposes. (See also Sections III. Calcareous and Hydraulic Cements.
and IV.) Puzzuolanas, Trass, &c.
a. Vegetable Infusions, Decoctions, and Solutions, Gypsum for plaster.
clear or saccharine. Artificial Stones.
b. Tinctures. 3. Minerals used in the manufacture of Potter and
c. Extracts and Inspissated Juices. Glass
d. Resins, Gum Resins, and Oleo Resins and Sands, Limestones, &c., for Glass-making.
e. Aloes, &c.
f. Gums as Acacia, Tragacanth, &c. tery and Porcelain.
9. Essential Oils, Cajeput, Savine, Turpentine, &c. Siliceous, Calcareous, and other Minerals, used in
h. Fixed Oils, as Castor, Croton, Almond, Olive, &c. Plastic Arts.
i. Vegetable parts, as leaves of Digitalis, Hemlock, 4. Minerals used for personal Ornaments, or for Me
roots of Jalap, Ipecacuanha, &c. chanical and Scientific purposes.
j. Barks as imported, Cinchona, Cascarilla, Cusa. Gems and Precious Stones.
k. Vegeto-Alkalies, their Salts and other Crystalline | IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in
principles of medicinal substances. 1. Vegetable Acids.
Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornaments. m. Miscellaneous Compounds.
VEGETABLE. 3. From the Animal Kingdom.
A. GUM AND RESIN SERIES.
Gums made artificially, as British Gum.
Mucilaginous Seeds, Barks, Pods, and Seaweeds. tions of them.
2. Resinsc. Antispasmodics, as Musk, Castoreum, Civet, Am
Resins and Balsams of all kinds. bergris, &c.
Gum Resins. d. Phosphorus, Ammonia, and their products.
Gum Elastics and Gutta Percha.
Distilled Resins and Varnishes.
B. OIL SERIES.
1. Volatile Oils, including Camphor.
2. Drying Fat Oils. III. Substances used as Food.
3. Non-drying Fat Oils,
4. Solid Oils. VEGETABLE KINGDOM.
5. Wax. A. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE-CEREALS, Pulses, OIL, SEEDS,
6. Distilled Pat Oils.
C. Acids, AS ACETIC, Citric, TARTARIC, OXALIC, &c. 1. Common European Cereals.
D. DYES AND COLOURS. 2. Cereals more rarely cultivated in Europe.
1. Indigos. 3. Millet and other small Grains used as food.
2. Madders. 4. Pulses and Cattle Food.
3. Lichens and their preparations. 5. Grasses, Fodder Plants, and Agricultural Roots. 6. The Flours or preparations of the above classes.
4. Dyeing Barks, as Acacias, Quercitron, Mangrove, &c. 7. Oil Seeds and their Cakes.
5. Woods, as Logwood, Brazil wood, Peach wood, Fus8. Hops and other aromatic plants used for like pur
6. Flowers and Berries, as Persian Berries, Safflower, poses.
Saffron. B, DRIED FRUIT AND SEEDS.
7. Miscellaneous, as Turmeric, &c. 1. Raisins, Currants, Figs, Plums, Cherries, Apricots, &c. E. TANNING SUBSTANCES. 2. Dates, Tamarinds, Dried Bananas, &c. 3. Almonds, Chesnuts, Walnuts, &c.
1. Pods, Berries, Seeds, and Fruits of various kinds, as 4. Cocoa-nuts, &c.
Algaroab, Acacia, Nib-nib and Divi-divi Pods, &c.
2. Barks of various kinds, as Barks of the Babool, BraC. SUBSTANCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF DRINKS.
zilian Acacias, Murici, Bucida, Gordonia. 1. Real Teas of all kinds.
3. Galls, and similar Tanning Materials. 2. Substitute for Teas, as Paraguay, Arabian, Ben
4. Catechu, Kino, Gambeer, &c. coolin, &c.
F. FIBROUS SUBSTANCES, INCLUDING MATERIALS FOR CORDAGE 3. Coffee of all kinds, and Cocoa Seeds and Nibs.
AND CLOTHING. 4. Various substances, as Chicory Roots, Amande de 1. Cottons of all kinds. Terre, Guarana Bread, &c.
2. llemp and Flax; Manilla Hemp and New Zealand D. INTOXICATING Drugs, FERMENTED LIQUORS, AND Dis
3. China Grass, Nettle Fibre, Plantain, and Pine Ap1. Fermented Liquors and Spirits from unusual sources.
ple Fibre. 2. Tobacco.
4. Sunn, Jute, and other tropical substitutes for Hemp,
Flax. 3. Opium. 4. Liemp, and other Intoxicating Drugs.
5. Coir, or Cocoa-Nut Fibre, Gomuti, &c.
6. Rushes and Miscellaneous Substances. E. SPICES AND CONDIMENTS.
G. CELLULAR SUBSTANCES. 1. Cinnamon, Cassia, and their substitutes.
1. Corks of all kinds. 2. Nutmegs and Mace; Cloves and Cassia Buds.
2. Woods and Roots used for Corks, as the Ochroma 3. Peppers, Capsicum, Mustard, Vanilla, Pimento, Car
lagopus and Anona palustris damums, &c.
3. Rice-paper of China. 4. Ginger, Turmeric, &c.
4. Birch Bark, Pottery Bark, Citrus Rind, &c. F. STARCH SERIES.
5. Substances used as Amadou. 1. Starches of all kinds prepared from Wheat, Rice, H. TIMBER AND FANCY Woods USED FOR CONSTRUCTION Potatoes, Maize, &c.
AND ORNAMENT, AND PREPARED BY DYEING. 2. Arrowroots of all kinds, Tous les Mois. 3. Sagos from the Palms, Cassava, Tapioca, &c.
1. Suited chiefly for purposes of construction, or for
the Navy. 4. Lichens of all kinds.
2. Suited chiefly for Ornamental Work. 5. Other Starchy Substances, as Portland Sago from
3. Prepared Woods, as by Kyan's, Payne's, Bethell's, Arum Maculatum, and from various like plants.
and Boucherie's processes. G. SUGAR SERIES.
I. MISCELLANEOUS SUBSTANCES. 1. Sugars from the Cane and Beet.
1. Substances used as Soap, as Quillai Bark, Soap BerMaple and Palms.
ries (Sapindus saponaria), Soap Roots (Saponaria Birch, Poplar, Oak, and Ash.
oficinalis, &c.). Grape Sugar.
2. Perfumes, as Pucha Pat, Vetiver, Spikenard, Tonka 2. Liquorice, Sarcocoll, &c.
3. Substances used mechanically, as Teazels, Dutch ANIMAL KINGDOM.
Rushes, &c. H. ANIMAL FOOD AND PREPARATIONS OF FOOD AS INDUS- 4. Seeds and fruits used for Ornamental purposes, as TRIAL PRODUCTS.
Ganitrus Beads, the Ivory Nut, the Doom Palm, 1. Specimens of preserved Meats.
Coquilla Nuts, Bottle Gourds, &c. 2. Portable Soups, and concentrated nutriment, as con
ANIMAL. solidated Milk, &c. 3. Caviare, Trepang, &c.
J. FOR TEXTILE FABRICS AND CLOTHING. 4. Articles of Eastern commerce, as Shark Fins, Nest of 1. Wool, Hair, Bristles, Whalebones. the Java Swallow, &c.
2. Silk from the Silk-worm Bombyx Mori, and from 5. Honey and its preparations.
other species in India, e.g. Bombycilla Cynthia 6. Blood and its preparations.
and Attacus Paphia. 7. Industrial Products, as Glue, Gelatine, Isinglass, 3. Feather, Down, Fur, Skins. Gluten, &c.
K. FOR DOMESTIC OR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES, OR FOR THE
MANUFACTURE OF IMPLEMENTS. 1. Bone, Horn, Hoofs, Ivory, Tortoiseshell, Shagreen,
Quills. 2. Pearls, Seed Pearl, Mother-of-pearl, Coral, and Shells
generally. 3. Oils, Tallows, Spermaceti, Wax, Lard. 4. Miscellaneous, as Sponge, Goldbeater's-skin, Catgut,
Silkworm-gut, Bladders, &c.
phorus, the Prussiates, the Superphosphates, &c. N. For PIGMENTS AND DYES.
1. Cochineal and Carmine.
FOR COMMERCIAL AND NOT FOR PHILOSOPHICAL
PURPOSES. 1. Commercial Weighing Instruments. 2. Instruments of Measure. 3. Registering Instruments, Gauges, Indicators, and
Railway and Naval Mechanism.
AND VARIOUS OTHER PRIME MOVERS.
strong's. 7. Vacuum Power Engines. 8. Electro-Magnetic Engines, &c.
9. Miscellaneous. B. SEPARATE PARTS OF MACHINES, SPECIMENS OF WORKMAN
SHIP. (See also Water and Gas Works in VII.) 1. As heavy Castings or Forgings in the rough ; Cast
ings or Forgings, plain, intricate, or beautiful, in
the Rough. 2. Specimens of Turning in Metals. 3. Specimens in filing and finished Work in Metals,
such as Surfaces, Irregular Figures, &c.
1. Air Pumps.
(See also VII.)
Pumps and Fire Engines.
Water-meters, &c. 2. Cranes
Any sort of Crane motion and contrivances, Jacks
Blocks, see VIII. E.)
By hand power, or steam.
Pile Extractors, &c.
1. Railway Locomotives.
7. Buffers, Couplings, &c.
1. Permanent Way complete.
V. a. Carriages generally--not including those con
nected with Rail or Tram Roads.
A. For Town USE.
C. For GENERAL USE.
Invalid Bath Chair.
VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools, or Systems of
the undermentioned purposes.
LAID FABRICS. 1. Machinery for the complete formation from the Raw
Material of all Fabrics of Cotton, Wool, Flax, Hemp,
Silk, Caoutchouc, Gutta Percha, Hair. 2. Paper-making and Staining.
3. Printing and Bookbinding. B. MANUFACTURES OF METALS. 1. The manufacture of Metals from the Ore into Bars,
Rods, Wire, Sheets, and other general forms; also
casting and polishing of Metal, &c.
Tools, such as Lathes; Machines for Planing,
Shearing, Riveting, Punching.
ver, and Plated Goods. 4. Machines and Tools used by the Makers of Cutlery,
Nails, Screws, Pins, Needles, Buttons, and metal
lic Pens, &c. 5. Machines and Tools used by Locksmiths, Die
C. MANUFACTURES OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES AND MINING 9. Dredging-machines, Hedgehogs, and other Machines MACHINERY. (See also SECTION I.)
employed in Harbour Works, for removing Shoals, 1. Machines and Tools for the preparation and working
F. RooFS, BUILDINGS, AND CONTRIVANCES FOR COVERING 2. Machines and Tools used in the preparation and work
LARGE AREAS. ing of Gems, &c.
1. Examples of Timber and Iron Trusses. D. MANUFACTURES OF VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.
2. Roofs for Markets, Railway Stations, &c. 1. Machines and Tools for the preparation and working 3. Roofs for Theatres. of all kinds of Wood.
4. Fire-proof Buildings, arranged so as to be applicable 2. Mills and other machinery for Grinding, Crushing,
to the economical methods of construction. or Preparing Vegetable Products.
5. Coverings for Roofs. E. MANUFACTURE OF ANIMAL SUBSTANCES.
G. WATER-WORKS, AND THE ENGINEERING CONTRIVANCES Machinery and Tools for working in Horn, Bone, Ivory, CONNECTED WITH THE OBTAINING, STORING, AND DISTRILeather, &c.
BUTION OF WATER IN Towns. F. MACHINERY AND APPARATUS FOR BREWING, DISTILLING,
1. Well-sinking and Boring, and the Apparatus conAND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTRY.
nected therewith. 2. Storing, Filtering, and Distributing Reservoirs, and
the Contrivances connected with them.
3. Contrivances for maintaining and producing efficient VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building
Heads, and the Apparatus connected with Street
4. Services, and Apparatus connected with Domestic
Water Supply. (See also V., B.)
H. GAS-WORKS, AND CONTRIVANCES CONNECTED WITH THE 1. Application of the Screw Pile for the Foundations
ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL Ligir. of Piers, Jetties, &c., Beacons, and Ships' Moor
1. Retorts and Distillatory Apparatus. ings.
2. Condensing, Separating, and Purifying Apparatus. 2. Pneumatic Piling, Machinery illustrative of the
3. Governors and Station Meters. mode of sinking and guiding the Cylinders, also
4. Gauges, Valves, and contrivances connected with the Contrivances for overcoming difficulties where
Mains for the Distribution of Gas. (See also obstructions are offered to their sinking.
XXII.) 3. Coffer-dams on soft and rock bottoms, and Appa- 1. SEWERAGE, CLEANSING, PAVING, AND THE CONTRIVANCES ratus connected with them.
CONNECTED WITH THE SANITARY CONDITION OP 4. Foundations of Lighthouses exposed to the violent
Towns. action of the sea.
1. Forms of Sewers, their Entrances and Junctions. 5. Diving-bells, Helmets, and Apparatus connected
2. Contrivances for Cleansing, Flushing, and Ventiwith them.
lating Sewers. 6. Boring Tools, and Contrivances for ascertaining the
3. Contrivances for removing and distributing Sewage. stratification on Sites of intended Structures.
4. Traps, and other means of preventing emanations. B. SCAFFOLDING AND CENTERINGS.
(See also XXII.) 1. Scaffolding for the erection of Brick Chimney Shafts,
5. House Drains, and the Internal Sanitary arrangeColumns of Masonry, Towers, and Spires.
ments of Houses. (See also XXII.)
6. Pavements. 2. Portable Scaffoldings, Ladders, and Fire Escapes. 3. Scaffolding for the erection of Monolithic Blocks, as J. WARMING AND VENTILATING DOMESTIC RESIDENCES, AND Obelisks, &c., and for the hoisting of great
THE CONTRIVANCES CONNECTED THEREWITH.
1. Arrangements for Warming, as with Hot Air, Water, 4. Fixed and Turning Scaffolding for the repairs, &c.,
Steam, &c. of Domes, &c., internally and externally.
2. Contrivances for preventing Smoke, and Chimney5. Scaffolding and Contrivances for the erection of large
sweeping Machines. Girder Bridges (as Britannia Bridge).
3. Contrivances for Ventilation on a large Scale. 6. Centerings for Arched Bridges, Domes, and Vaults. 7. Centerings for Tunnels, Shields, and Contrivances K. MISCELLANEOUS.
for facilitating their excavation. C. Bridges, Tunnels, AND ENGINEERING CONTRIVANCES VIII. Naval Architecture, Military Engineering ;
FOR CROSSING RIVERS, RAVINES, &c. 1. Timber Bridges.
Ordnance, Armour, and Accoutrements. 2. Cast-iron Bridges.
A. ILLUSTRATIONS BY MODELS OF SHIPBUILDING FOR PUR3. Wrought-iron Bridges (Girder or Lattice). 4. Turning or Swing Bridges.
1. Ships. 5. Lifting or Bascule Bridges.
2. Barks. 6. Draw and Rolling Bridges.
3. Brigs and Brigantines. 7. Suspension Bridges.
4. Snows and Ketches. 8. Temporary Bridges. (See also VIII. M.)
5. Schooners. 9. Floating Bridges, as across the Lamoaze, and to
6. Sloops and Cutters. receive Railway Trains, as across the Humber.
7. Luggers, Barges, &c. 10. Examples of Brick and Stone Bridges.
B. ILLUSTRATIONS BY MODELS OF SHIPBUILDING FOR PURD. Dock, HARBOUR, RIVER, AND CANAL Works.
POSES OF WAR. 1. Docks and Slips for the building and repair of 1. Ships of the Line. Ships.
2. Frigates. 2. Mercantile Docks, and Arrangements connected
3. Sloops, Corvettes, and Brigs. therewith, for the loading and unloading of 4. Cutters, Brigantines, Ketches, Schooners, Barges, &c. Ships.
5. Bomb or Mortar Vessels, Fire-ships, Gun-boats, &c. 3. Sea and Canal Locks, Gates and Entrances, Stop-C. ILLUSTRATIONS by Models of SHIPBUILDING FOR THE gates, Sluices, &c.
APPLICATION OF STEAM OR OTHER POWERS. 4. Marine Railway Slips and Hydraulic Docks. 5. Harbours of Refuge.
1. Great War Steamers. 6. Breakwaters, Piers, Jetties, Wharfs, and Landing- 2. Steam-vessels of large burden for long Passages. piers.
3. Steam-vessels for Inland, River, or Lake Navigation. 7. Groynes, Sea-defences, &c.
4. Sailing-vessels fitted for the temporary appliance of 8. Perpendicular Lifts for Canals, and other Engineering
Steam or Human Power. Contrivances instead of Locks.
POSES OF COMMERCE,