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THE ETHNOLOGICAL

JOURNAL:

A MONTHLY RECORD OF

Ethnological Research and Criticism.

AND

- ARE

THEY

Contents of No. I.-July 1865. I. ETHNOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY

DISTINCT SCIENCES ?

1. INTRODUCTORY ADDRESS ON THE STUDY OF ANTHROPOLOGY. Delivered before the Anthropological Society of London, February 24th, 1863, by JAMES Hunt, Ph.D.F.S.A., F.R S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropological Society of Paris ; President.

2. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. Delivered before the Anthropological Society of London, January 5th, 1864, by James Hunt, Ph.D., &c., &c.; President.

3. ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS, &c., &c. Delivered January 3rd, 1865, by JAMES Hunt, Ph.D., &c., &c.; President.

4. REVIEW OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF Paris. By M. Paul Broca, SecretaryGeneral, Honorary Fellow

of the Anthropological Society of London.' Delivered June 4th, 1863. II. LUBBOCK ON THE UNITY OF MAN AND NATURAL SELECTION. III. REMARKS ON THE INADEQUACY OF MERELY ANATOMICAL

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE HUMAN CRANIUM IN THE STUDY OF

ETHNOLOGY. By THOMAS SYMES PRIDEAUX, Esq. IV. ON THE PLACE OF MAN IN THE ANIMATE SCALE. By LUKE

BURKE, Esq.
V. NOTES ON THE SOUTH SLAVONIC COUNTRIES IN AUSTRIA AND

TURKEY IN EUROPE.
VI. THE ETANOLOGICAL JOURNAL.
VII. PROCEEDINGS

ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY; RECENT
CONTRIBUTIONS TO ETHNOLOGY, &c.

OF

THE

Contents of No. II.- August 1865.
I. THE PLACE OF MAN IN THE ANIMATE SCALE.

No. 2. By
LUKE BURK Esq.
II. PHRENOLOGY-WHAT IS IT? By ETHNICUS.
III. SIR JOHN LUBBOCK ON PRE-HISTORIC TIMES.
IV. ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
V. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

1. Captain Wilson on “The Indian Tribes inhabiting the Vicinity of the 49th Parallel of North Latitude."

2. Dr. Donovan on “Craniology and Phrenology in relation to Ethnology."

3. Professor BELL on “Visible Speech."

TRÜBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW.

I. THE PLACE OF MAN IN THE ANIMATE SCALE. No. 3. II. LANGUAGE AS A TEST OF THE RACES OF MAN. III. ON THE TERMS CAUCASIAN, ARYAN, AND TURANIAN, IN

ETHNOLOGY.
IV. ON THE REPRESENTATIVE AFFINITIES OF THE EUROPEAN

AND ASIATIC RACES.
V. MEETING

A DEPUTATION FROM THE COMITÉ
D'ARCHÉOLOGIE AMÉRICAINE DE FRANCE.
VI. THE ANTRHOPOLOGICAL CONGRESS.
VII. CORRESPONDENCE : ANTHROPOLOGY AND THE BRITISH

ASSOCIATION. VIII. THE ETHNOLOGICAL JOURNAL :-ETHNOLOGY AND AN

THROPOLOGY.

OF

Two Vols., 8vo., price 32s. DESCRIPTIVE ETHNOLOGY. By R. G. LATHAM, M.A., M.D., F.R.s., late Fellow of King's Coll., Cambridge, &c.

THE ETHNOLOGY OF INDIA. May be had separately, 8vo., 16s.
THE ETHNOLOGY OF EUROPE. Fcap. 8vo., 5s.
THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. Fcap. 8vo., 5s.
THE ETHNOLOGY OF THE BRITISH COLONIES AND DEPEN.

DENCIES. Fcap. 8vo., 58.
MAN AND HIS MIGRATIONS. Fcap. 8vo., 5s.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE VARIETIES OF MAN. 8vo.,
Illustrated, 21s.

JOHN VAN VOORST, 1, Paternoster. Row.

Price Twopence; in Monthly Parts, Tenpence.

THE

GEOLOGICAL & NATURAL HISTORY REPERTORY;

An Ellustrated Popular Weekly Magazine of GEOLOGY, PALÆONTOLOGY, MINERALOGY, AND ZOOLOGY,

AND

JOURNAL OF PREHISTORIC ARCHÆOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY. LONDON: Published every Saturday by KENT & Co., and TRÜBNER & Co.,

Paternoster Row; and ED. STANFORD, Charing Cross.

of

organization of the young may be of the highest importance in their education and destination. DR. DONOVAN has bad long experience in this most valuable science, and may be consulted at the London School of Phrenology, 111, Strand, nearly opposite Exeter Hall.

Just Published, crown 8vo, pp. 324, price 4s., cloth extra. ETHNOLOGY AND PHRENOLOGY AS AN AID

TO THE HISTORIAN.

By J. W. JACKSON, F. A. S. L. London : TRÜBNER & Co., 60, Paternoster Row. Edinb.: M‘LACHLAN & STEWART.

the same Author. ECSTATICS OF GENIUS. Price ls. 6d. MESMERISM IN CONNECTION WITH POPULAR SUPER

STITIONS. ls.
LECTURES ON MESMERISM. ls.

London: BAILLIERE, 219, Regent Street. Edinb.: M‘LACHLAN & STEWART.

ALEXANDER Stewart, Curator, Phrenological

MUSEUM I, SURGEON SQUARE, EDINBURGH, respectfully intiinates that he supplies Casts illustrative of Phrenology and Ethnology, from National Crania, and from Casts, Busts, and Masks of various remarkable individuals. Single Copies, from 2s. to 58. each.

MISCELLANEOUS CASTS of the Skull, Brain, Marked Bust, &c. &c. at various prices, including the Skull and Brain of the Male Gorilla, from the Collection of M. du Chaillu, price 10s. 6d. Copies of List sent on application.

Price Two Shillings and Sixpence,

VICTORIA TOTO CELO; or, Modern Astro

nomy Recast. With a Review of the “ Astronomy of the Ancients." By JAMES REDDIE, F.A.S.L., Hon. Mem. Dial. Soc., Edin. Univ.

*** In this work, the theory of Solar Motion in space (propounded by Sir W. Hersche 1783, and since accepted “by all astronomers who had examined the subject carefully,according to Professor Airey), was for the first time assailed ; and it was demonstrated that “either the sun's motion towards Hercules must be stopped, or Kepler's laws and the Principia of Newton must be -abandoned.” (Sect. 55.) This was in Septembrr, 1863.

PRACTICAL RESULT. The Council of the Royal Astronomical Society, in their Annual Report for 1863 (Monthly Notices, Feb. 1864, p. 104), state that " strange as it may appear,in the opinion of Mr. Airey," the whole question of solar motion in space appears to remain at this moment in doubt and abeyance.” By the same Author, and uniform with Victoria Toto Cælo,Price

Five Shillings, with numerous Diagrams.

VIS INERTIÆ VICTA; or, Fallacies affecting

Science : an Essay towards increasing our knowledge of some physical laws, and a Review of certain mathematical principles of natural philosophy.

“ We admire the book, and recommend it to all lovers of science, on account of its temperate tone and clear style.”John Bull.

THE MECHANICS OF THE HEAVENS, and

the Sun's Electro-Magnetic and Repulsive Influence. Price Sixpence. “We have the greatest pleasure in drawing attention to this most vigorous, and at the same time modest, production. ... We do not hesitate to say, that it seems to us to state, if not to prove, as much as entitles it not only to a hearing, but, as it courts, to a patient and searching examination.”-Witness.

London: ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192, Piccadilly.

THE

ETHNOLOGICAL JOURNAL.

NOVEMBER, 1865.

ON THE MYTHIC ASPECTS OF ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL

CHRONOLOGY.

No. I. The current of scientific reform is at last steadily, if still slowly, setting in the direction of antiquarian criticism. The startling discoveries of the last few years in post-glacial drifts, and the almost universal recognition by the highest authorities of the important facts which they have brought to light, have broken for ever the chronological spell which had previously fixed such definite and narrow limits to human antiquity. The contemporary of long-extinct mammalia, of the mammoth and the mastodon, of the European elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, hyena, and cave bear, the being who roamed over central Europe when central Europe had an arctic climate, can no longer have his history comprised within the brief space of six thousand years, or possibly even within sixty times six thousand. And thus have the early annals of humanity been removed for ever from the custody of traditional history, while whole literatures of speculative reasonings, accumulated through thousands of years, have been swept away at once from the face of reality by the irresistible pressure of facts.

But it is clear that we cannot stop at this point, that the current cannot here be dammed up. There is no reason why the study of Danish cromlechs should not be as unshackled by history as the study of Danish Kjökkenmöddings; why we should not speak as independently of the stones of Carnak as of the pile structures of Switzerland. If we are justified in allowing the peat bogs and diluvial caverns of Britain to supersede all our preconceived notions of antiquity, it will be impossible for us to impose silence on Abury, and Stonehenge, and Silbury Hill, should they happen to unfold a picture out of harmony with the annals of Italy. It is not to be supposed that men who in one section of archæɔlogy are in the fore

VOL. I.

P

most ranks of independent research will long allow themselves, in another, to play the part of mere obstructives; and therefore it is plain that the current of reform must ere long irresistibly sweep downwards from the head waters of primeval times, deepening and widening as it flows, bursting all barriers and carrying away all obstacles, until the longlost story of human struggle, and suffering, and crime, and glory shall gradually rise up before us under the magic of science, revealing a past as little, probably, like the past of our hypothetical annals as are the great truths of modern geology or astronomy like the dreams of our mediæval ignorance.

There are whole ranges of important monuments respecting which history is absolutely silent, or to which it alludes but faintly, indirectly, or conjecturally : why should we hesitate to study these on their merits, as simple scientific facts, to be judged of, stratified, and interpreted according to the recognised rules of scientific criticism? Why should we feel bound to harmonize them with chronologies or legends which have already broken down in a thousand points, and are perhaps not strictly provable in any? The entire range of American antiquities, the imposing array of the great Celtic monuments---circles, cromlechs, mounds, monoliths—and the still more imposing Cyclopean ruins of Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor --all these may be said to be imtouched by history, or, where touched, touched incongruously and ignorantly. Many of these works will, ere long, be found to be far beyond the ken of history, and, step by step, they will gradually be absorbed in the advancing dominions of science. The only wonder is that they are not taken possession of at once.

If we look into our histories with a little of that scepticism which a clearsighted criticism must naturally evoke, we shall soon see much that is not only unaccountable, but absolutely startling in its incongruity and extravagance; but perhaps, after all, the strangest thing about the matter is the easy faith with which the modern world, after so many experiences, stiil continues to accept the unproved tales of nations and times so utterly steeped in credulity as to have had a firm belief in the infinite absurdities of Greek and Roman Paganism. How can we reasonably expect that men trained in such schools, and breathing so gross an atmosphere of illusion, should have been clear-sighted and critical in matters of history?

There is surely room for grave suspicion when we find that a history which can give us day and date for Romulus, the son of Mars, and which remembers the minutest details of the battle of the Horatii and Curiatii, which can tell us how the ambitious Tullia drove her chariot over the murdered body of her father, and how the son of the tyrant Tarquin overcame with words of terror the resistance of the chaste and proud Lucretia

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