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A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES. LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

Vol. VII.

Philadelphia:

CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK

BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY

CARTER, HENDEE & BABCOCK.

1831.

EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit: BE !T REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time ; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography'; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."

In conformity to the act of the Congross of the United States, ontitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :” and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, * An Åct for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the author's and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.''

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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Ind uction, in logic; a conclusion from treasure for the church, of which the
the particular to the general. Strict con- pope has the keys, and is authorized to
clusions are made from the general to distribute as much or little as he pleases,
the particular. The general premise be- in exchange for pious gifts. The histor-
ing true, the application to the particular ical origin of indulgences is traced to the
case which is included in it follows with public penances and the canonical pun-
logical' certainty. Induction gives only ishments, which the old Christian church
probability. If, for instance, we conclude, imposed on the community, especially
from the earth being habitable, that the on those who did not remain firm unto
other planets are so, the conclusion is martyrdom. When ecclesiastic discipline
only probable. Induction rests upon the became milder, and the clergy more coy-
belief that general laws and rules are ex- etous, it was allowed to commute these
pressed in the particular case ; but a pos- punishments into fines, for the benefit of
sibility always remains, that these general the church. At first, the only source of
laws and rules are not perfectly known. indulgences was in Rome, and they could
An induction may be perfect or imperfect. be obtained only by going there. At
To make it perfect, the premises must in- Rome, this treasure of the church was di-
clude all the grounds that can affect the vided among many churches, of which
result._ If this is not the case, it is imper- seven principal ones were gifted the most
fect. For instance, every terrestrial ani- largely by the popes. These churches
mal lives, every aërial animal lives, every were termed stationes indulgentiarum.
aquatic animal lives, every reptile' lives; One of the richest was the church in the
therefore, every animal lives. If we pow Lateran, on which were bestowed, at its
allow that there exists no animal not in- renewed consecration, as many days of in-
cluded in the four enumerated classes, the dulgence as the drops which fall in a rain
induction is perfect.

continuing three days and three nights.
INDULGENCE, in the Roman Catholic The whole treasure of indulgences of the
system; the remission of sin, which the churches in Rome was accordingly inex-
church has power to grant.' (We shall haustible. When the popes were in want
first give the Protestant, and then the of money, and the number of pilgrims
Catholic views on this

subject.) The vis- who resorted to Rome to obtain the reible head of the church, the pope, distrib- mission of their sins began to decrease, utes indulgences in various ways. They indulgences were put into the hands of are divided into temporary and plenary. the foreign archbishops and bishops;

and, The principle of indulgences rests on that finally, ngents were sent about, who made of good works ; for the Catholic theologi- them an object of the meanest traffic. ans prove the authority of the church to During the period of jubilee (see Jubilee) isue indulgences in this way :-many the people were taught to believe that the saints and pions men have done more efficacy of indulgences was doubled, and good works, and suffered more than was the richest harvests were always reaped at required for the remission of their sins, this time. Leo X, famous for his love of and the sum of this surplus constitutes à splendor, commenced his reign in 1513 ;

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