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went so far as to have a Uniate bishop appointed for the United States. Gentlemen, the truth has not yet been half told about the dastardly work they have been carrying on here. We talk about a paltry $6,500 for these advertisements that they have inserted in the newspapers. In all the years that have gone by, even prior to this war, they have spent a great deal more. They have tried to corrupt our electorate in the United States in order that it should serve the interests of Hungary, because all this was being done by Hungarians, and I am talking now of government of Budapest. They sent a flag over here inscribed “Magyar, be ever loyal to your fatherland," and with this flag they sent also some soil from Hungary, and they had that flag traveling throughout the communities in the United States.

I ask you who represent this great and glorious country of ours what do you think of the force which seeks to divide our citizenship along such lines, which seeks to make those men who have entered into our American citizenship loyal only to the country of their birth. We have been talking about divided citizenship, about the dangers that threaten our country, and for years these people have been doing it. That has been the propaganda which they have been spreading here, and it is on a par with the German propaganda. There is only one loyalty that American citizens should know, and that is loyalty to the United States.

Senator HARDING. Was the purpose of all that to prevent Americanization?

Mr. SVARC. Yes; this was the real purpose of it. Senator HARDING. Why was the priesthood employed ? Mr. SVARC. Because the priesthood was the only element that could reach these people. It was political. In other words, everything that they have done has been for one purpose, and that purpose has been the Magyarization of the country; it has been the impression of that chauvinistic imperialism which tried to make this its nation, as Hungarian-Magyar, and they have used all of these means. They do not know where to stop. In other words, they get insane about it.

The CHAIRMAN. I want to suggest that it is nearly 12 o'clock, and that at 12 o'clock we shall have to stop.

Mr. Svarc. Very well, Mr. Chairman. May I ask that these advertisements become a part of the record, with your consent?

The CHAIRMAN. Certainly. Mr. Svarc. Mr. Koreff is here as my colleague and he wants to be heard.

The CHAIRMAN. We will hear him for 10 minutes. Senator SWANSON. And they can file additional briefs ? The CHAIRMAN. Oh, certainly. Mr. SVARC. Just a few words and I shall close. I think we are all agreed as to the great principles for which America entered this war. We have loved liberty over here, we have loved truth, we have loved righteousness. If anything disgusts the Americans it is when we discover that we have been overreached, that we have been wilfully deceived, that people have misrepresented things to us, that they have distorted the truth. Under these conditions I know there must be a revulsion of feeling. We who have come from the other side, or whose fathers and mothers have come from the other side,

has set upgress of historer there, bec. Thank

have been close to the situation over there. We are Americans because of destiny through the force of conditions, economic, if you please, the love of freedom. That has brought us over here. Thank God the time has come when the situation over there, because of that tremendous flood in the progress of history, has simply wiped out the old order and has set up a new condition of affairs. The treasure that we have spent, the lives of our brave soldiers that we have sacrificed—all these tremendous sacrifices will have been in vain, if you gentlemen through your action here do anything which will seek to restore that old order of things, which made that economic, that political slavery over there possible. I know that you are in consonance with the spirit of the American people, and that you fully appreciate the sacrifices that have been made by not only our brave men, but by those other brave men who have, in the face of great opposition, in the face of great dangers, proudly walked to the gallows, who have proudly stood up against a wall to be shot down as traitors—not as traitors, but as defenders of the cause which represented the liberty and the brighter future of their people.

Senator HARDING. And you found under existing conditions here the greater opportunity for which you came?

Mr. Svarc. Oh, I was born here. Senator HARDING. Can you speak for those who came? Mr. Svarc. I have been on the other side, so that I know of that greater opportunity. _

Senator HARDING. That is all.

Senator Knox. I understand you to say that you are a nativeborn American citizen? Mr. SVARC. Yes. The CHAIRMAN. That is all. We thank you.

(The advertisement referred to is here printed in the record in full, as follows:)

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The Hungarian situation has reached a stage of such acuteness that the peace conference and the home Governments of the principal Allies as well are greatly disturbed. Ultimatums, hurriedly telegraphed to Roumania, demanding a modification of the severe terms imposed on the Hungarians have proved futile.

Because of the obdurate attitude of the Roumanians, the transportation sys. tem of central Europe has been upset, making it impossible to forward supplies to the starving populations.

Mr. Balfour, the Foreign Secretary of England, in the strongest possible terms, condemned the Roumanian invasion of Hungary's capital and, according to cable dispatches, the peace conference unanimously demanded the withdrawal of the Roumanian troops from Budapest and did not recognize Roumania's ultimatum to Hungary.

And now that it has been so fatefully demonstrated that an ally of the allies may commit deeds that are wrong, the "American Committee for the Relief of Hungary” would like to state a few facts which will show that the demands of Hungary's neighbors for territory are wrong as well, and while based upon racial grounds, are clearly imperialistic.

The American people had so little opportunity to hear Hungary's side of the story that this information should be welcomed by every fair-minded citizen of this country.

To begin with, thousand-year-old Hungary has been in the course of its history a great power for good. The constitution of Hungary is as old as its history. Next to the English, the Hungarian constitution is the oldest in

Europe. Then it must be remembered that Hungary has always been the classical land of religious liberty. As far back as 1554 the Transylvanian Diet at Torda enacted the legal equality of all denominations then known there. That Hungary for a century and a half has been fighting the Turks and preventing them from extending their rule over western Europe is a known historical fact. Hungarian music, Hungarian literature and art, as well as Hungarian scholarship, have contributed to a large extent to the world's knowledge, enjoyment, and enlightenment. Hungarian culture has an individuality all of its own. Shall it cease now? Shall Hungary be dismembered, vivisected, annihilated ?

The neighboring nations want to dismember Hungary on racial grounds, but what are the facts?

Thousand-year-old Hungary does not possess any provinces conquered by the sword. Her frontiers have not changed for ten centuries. The country is inhabited by Hungarians or Magyars, who established themselves there in the ninth century, and by other races which immigrated there in later times. Most of the Germans immigrated as colonists. In the eleventh century the ancestors of the Slovaks of today were admitted from the upper valleys of the Morava, Oder, and Vistula. In the fourteenth century Ruthenians made a habit of crossing the mountains in the northeast to pasture their cattle in those tracts of the country. In the middle of the thirteenth century the Hungarians permitted Roumanian shepherds from Wallacha and Bulgaria to settle in the southern parts of Hungary. The number of the Roumanians and Serbians increased when many thousands of those races came to Hungary in order to find there an asylum where they would be safe from Turkish rule. The Hungarians welcomed them and made them feel at home in their country.

It is, therefore, an outstanding historical fact that those parts of Hungary which to-day are inhabited by various nationalities did not belong originally to those races, but have been populated by the ancestors of the Slovaks, Ruthenians, Roumanians, Serbians, and Germans through immigration,

The other outstanding fact is that not only has Hungary within her present limits been a political unit for more than a thousand years, but her territory is perhaps the finest natural geographic unity in Europe, as a glimpse at the map will show. Economically her parts are interdependent, northern Hungary having iron, wood, water power; central and western Hungary having wheat, corn, pasture grounds; southeastern Hungary (Transylvania), coal, salt, oil, and natural gas. Each section apparently is-economically speaking. a cripple; together they constitute a fine, self-supporting organism. Belonging to the same river system, they communicate easily with each other. History has been the interpreter of nature when she created and preserved the political union of Hungary's present territory.

Life and time mingled the various races in Hungary incessantly. Other minglings were accentuated during the eighteenth century, and as one finds them now side by side, Protestant, Catholic, Jew, and orthodox, similarly there are in Hungary in the same region members of five or six nationalities. If we except central Hungary, which is wholly Magyar (85 per cent), and northern Hungary, which is indeed almost entirely Slovak (76 per cent), the races are so intermingled that you can not cut out an unbroken territory from any of them. Every such attempt creates new mixed territories with no clear racial majority in them.

A fair solution of the problem in Hungary, therefore, must be one which conciliates the laws of geography and political economy and the deep rooted result of history with the just demand of race.

Of course imperialism manufactures its own apparently just reasons to explain its unprincipled pretensions. Hungary's neighbors claim that the nationalities in Hungary have been oppressed. There is no space available to refute here this accusation. But what sort of an oppression could it have been that made it possible for all these races to increase in numbers to keep their language and national individuality during seven or eight centuries? Does this fact not show rather that Magyar rule was not only not oppressive but, on the contrary, liberal and generous? Other countries in Europe have during the past centuries forced their population of many races to melt together and become one nation. Hungary permitted all of its inhabitants to keep their nationality, asking them only to be good Hungarian citizens.

And the majority of these nationalities—the Slovaks, the Roumanians, the Serbs-do not want to cease to be Hungarian. It is the land-owner of the neighboring nations, their imperialism, which urges not only the dismemberment of Hungary, but demands territories where the Magyar race is in majority on the ground that some of their own nationality live there, thereby intending to subject millions of Hungarians to foreign rule.

Now, Hungary's problem, if a lasting peace is intended, can be solved only in accordance with the principle of national self-determination. It would violate this principle to permit that territories should be shifted from one State into another without the consent of the people who live upon those territories.

Indeed, the dismemberment of Hungary would be as great an injustice as that of Poland was, and would be a cause of economic troubles and never ceasing hostilities. It would create a Magyar Irridentism much worse than any irridentism known heretofore, because the oppression and subjugation of the Magyar people would take place at the very time when justice to the nationalities has been recognized a fundamental principle of world politics.

We respectfully appeal, therefore, to the President of the United States, to the United States Senate, to the House of Representatives, and to the American Nation for justice to Hungary. AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR THE RELIEF OF HUNGARY,



Corresponding Secretary. 665 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY.


shall be

POMEREM from Pit

Mr. KOREFF. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I shall be very brief.

Senator POMERENE, Mr. Koreff, where are you from?
Mr. KOREFF. I am from Pittsburgh, Pa.

The same Magyars who came here yesterday to plead for the integrity of Hungary are the Magyars who until recently were members of the Middle European Plunderbund. The peace conference at Versailles compelled them to disgorge the subjugated races, to wit: The Slovaks, the Serbians, and the Roumanians. Twice they conspired against the safety of the civilized world. First, when their Premier Tisza pushed the hand of Vienna, and by this action started the great European conflagration which even reached the shores of this country and necessitated American intervention in Europe. The second time, when Count Michael Karolyi, seeing that the Allies and the United States stood firmly on the principle of self-determination for these subjugated races of Hungary, turned Hungary over to the forces of anarchy in order to scare civilization into concessions to the real political factor, to the only potent factor in Magyar politics, the Magyar feudal nobility of Hungary. They are the only ones interested in the integrity of Hungary. Eleven millions of nonMagyars are not.

The Magyars are basing their claims on their so-called historical rights, yet the most noted Magyar historians have discarded these historical claims as belonging into the realm of fables. But even if their historical rights were of a stronger fiber they could not strengthen their case materially. Historical rights of nations are only valid as long as they don't interfere with the natural rights of others. Our own Declaration of Independence defines these natural rights very clearly: “ We hold these truths to be self-evidentthat all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, govern

ments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness." From the standpoint of historical right, England's claim to the colonies would still be valid had not the supreme will of the colonists established a natural right for the United States to be free. And so it is with the Slovaks of Hungary, who sought and found incorporation in the Czecho-Slovak Republic. The right of the Slovaks is not only based on their right as autochthons, as aborigines, who occupied their present location since time immemorial, long before the first Magyar ever set foot on the soil of present Hungary. It is based on the principle of self-determination which entitles ipso facto 76.5 per cent of the Slovak population of Slovakia, or, as the Magyars call it, Northern Hungary, to declare themselves free and seek their natural affiliation with their racial brethren, the Czechs of Bohemia. But the Magyars purposely confuse the rights of a citizen with the obligations of a subject.

Among the Magyars themselves there are two groups as regards their history. One group still clings to the unreliable history of the anonymous notarý of King Bela, while another group, the NeoMagyars, has thrown all these makeshift “emergency” stories into discard and has tried to rebuild its history on the result of the research work undertaken by the Oriental Academy founded in 1830 by Count Szechenyi. Modern Magyar historians are discarding the fable of Arpad and his conquest of Hungary as one of the many inexplicable things in their history. The main reason is that it never happened. Another reason is that of the original Magyars, who helped the Germans to down the Greater Moravian Principality at the end of the ninth century, no more are left, and that the present Magyars are not descendants of these Magyars of the ninth century, but descendants of the tribe of the Kumany who came into Hungary at the end of the twelfth century. Vambery, one of their most noted historians, traces these Kumany into Asia Minor, near the Caspian Sea. They belong to the Ugro-Turanian race. These Kumany are very much like the Magyars in physical appearance and other common characteristics. Vambery found among them many “ arpads," which means in their language “ leader," and there is no doubt that some “arpad” led them from Asia to Europe. They were nomads, wandering from place to place with their herds of cattle in search of grazing grounds. It is improbable that they entered Hungary by the northern entrance, through the Carpathian Mountains. Such entrance would have been too cumbersome for wagons and cattle. On the other hand, it is almost certain that they followed the upstream route of the Danube River, grazing along until they reached the plains of present Hungary. These being unoccupied there was nobody to resist them, and thus they took possession of the country.

There never was any dispute as to the Magyars having been nomads. The dispute begins where their historians of the old school try to convince the student of history that the Magyars came into Hungary at the end of the ninth century, settled down after conquering the country, and gave it immediately a constitution. There

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