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tion of Ireland was 6,000,000. The size of England is 50,000 square miles and Ireland 32,000 square miles, showing that the proportion of population of Ireland should be two-thirds that of England. That was the condition when the act of union, passed on the 1st of January, 1801, which Gladstone characterized as the most corrupt act ever passed in England.
We say that the proposed league of nations is un-American and that it can not be depended on to guard the interests of America, that it can not safeguard the interest of America. We speak for people who are devoted to America above everything else, who have done everything possible to stand by American traditions and ideals. We urge upon you very strongly, speaking practically for one of every five persons in America, that the Senate report against this proposed league of nations and recommend that the Senate reject it, and if under any circumstances any part of it should be accepted that under no condition should article 10 or article 11 be accepted, or any other things from which there would be a curtailment of American sovereignty and American independence. We are opposed to the whole league of nations. We believe it is un-American, and urge and insist that in it there can be no justice and no just and permanent peace, and that by adopting it you are only making for a continuance of the war.
Senator Moses. Judge Cohalan, you spoke of your speaking for one of every five persons in the United States. Do you intend to imply that there are 20,000,000 of inhabitants of this country who are of Irish origin?
Judge COHALAN. We think there are many more than that.
Senator MOSES. And the views that you express are shared by that 20,000,000?
Judge COHALAN. Suppose I give you some evidence of it. I would like to put in the record the reasons I have for that opinion. On the 22d and 23d of February, in the city of Philadelphia, I had the honor of presiding over the most patriotic gathering of American citizens that I have ever seen. There were 5,132 accredited delegates to the convention. The resolutions that were passed were offered by Cardinal Gibbons, seconded by a distinguished Episcopalian minister and by a distinguished Presbyterian minister and by a famous Jewish rabbi..
Among those thousands of delegates were hundreds representing the Friends of Irish Freedom, hundreds representing the Ancient Order of Hibernians, with its more than quarter million members, and represented at this hearing by its national president, Judge Deery of Indianapolis, and its other national officers. Many speakers there represented the Women's Auxiliary of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and that order is today represented here by its national president, Mrs. McWhorter, and its other national officers; and present also were representatives from practically every Irish American society in this country. From compilations frequently made from statistics as to the racial origin of the people of our country, we feel that we are well within bounds in claiming that without regard to religious belief, at least 1 in every 5 of our citizens is of Irish origin.
Senator MOSES. Can you explain, then, why it is that the Irish Senators are so lukewarm?
Judge COHALAN. Senator, I came here for the purpose of making an argument showing our position to-day. I came here to make an argument that would appeal to all the Senators, no matter what races they represent, and when the hearing is concluded I hope that the Senators will be convinced.
Senator JohnSON of California. The difficulty is that you have been addressing yourself thus far to members of this committee who are of one mind upon this subject.
Judge COHALAN. Looking around and seeing the number of them, I am glad that that is so.
Senator JOHNSON of California. I wish it were possible for you to address them all.
The CHAIRMAN. Are you ready to go on?
Judge COHALAN. I am going to call upon Mr. Patrick J. Lynch, of the Supreme Court of Indiana, to read the memorial on the behalf of those who have come here. They have come from practically every State in the Union, from all walks in life, and from all over the country. We wish that it were possible to get people from the different parts of the country to be heard, but we have prepared a general memorial, and then later we will hand in the names of those who have signed.
(The following memorial was read by Mr. Patrick J. Lynch:)
MEMORIAL TO THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES.
SENATORS: We, citizens of the United States, of Irish blood, but attached above all things to this Republic and its Constitution, respectfully pray that the proposed treaty now before you be rejected as a direct violation of the principles on which this war was fought, as they were defined by President Wilson in these words, addressed to Congress :
“ National aspirations must be respected; peoples may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. "Self-determination" is not a mere phrase. It is an imperative principle of action, which statesmen will henceforth ignore at their peril.”
And, again, in the President's address delivered at Mount Vernon July 4, 1918:
"The settlement of every question, whether of territory, of sovereignty, of economic arrangement, or of political relationship, upon the basis of the free acceptance of that settlement by the people immediately concerned, and not upon the basis of the material interest or advantage of any other nation or people which may desire a different settlement for the sake of its own exterior influence or mastery.".
On these principles other nations which have claimed their right to independence only during a period comparatively recent have been emancipated. To them America was bound by no ties save that of sympathy for the cause of freedom.
Ireland has been asserting continuously her claim to independence for eight.. centuries. America is bound to her by close ties of friendship and of obligation for manifold services in peace and war. One-fifth of this entire population is of Irish extraction. In every war which America has fought Irishmen have shed their blood in a measure far in excess of their proportion to population. We ask that Ireland be not the only nation excluded from the benefit of the glorious principles enunciated by Mr. Wilson, as those which the great war was fought to establish.
We especially denounce Article X of the proposed league of nations as a device to stifle the conscience of civilization and render it impotent to condemn, and, by condemning, to end the oppression of weak nations enslaved by powerful neighbors. It impeaches the most creditable page in our history and discredits the circumstances and conditions in which our Republic was born and our liberty achieved.
The conscience of civilization, the only force to which the oppressed can appeal, would no longer be able to take effective jurisdiction of wrongs perpe..
trated by powerful nations on weaker people. No struggling nation has ever achieved its independence except through the aid of other nations. The struggling American Colonies could never have thrown off the yoke of Great Britain without the aid of France. Cuba could never have been freed without the intervention of this country, and one of the most creditable pages in human history would never have been written.
Greece could never have escaped from the hideous domination of the Turk but for the assistance of enlightened nations.
Under article 11 it becomes the right of the council of the league to prevent an assembly of American citizens to petition their Government to afford relief to an oppressed nation. On this point article 11 specifically says:
“It is also declared to be the friendly right of each member of the league to bring to the attention of the assembly or of the council any circumstance whatever affecting international relations which threaten to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations on which peace depends."
Under that clause our Congress could not express in the future, as it did in the past, our sympathy with countries like Greece, seeking freedom fron. the Turk; the South American Republics, seeking liberty from Spain; or tender a welcome to Kossuth, of stricken Hungary; or Parnell, pleading for a self-governing Ireland.
The determination of Ireland to regain her independence has been one of the sources of every great war which scourged the world for four centuries. Any question which disturbs the peace of nations is not domestic, but international. Its settlement is, therefore, an imperative necessity of international peace.
Through long centuries of oppression Ireland has maintained her national spirit largely because she has always hitherto been able to cherish a hope that she might receive from some well-disposed foreign power the assistance which would insure her independence. She looked to Spain for this aid at the close of the sixteenth century; to France in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. She looks for it now in the twentieth century to America, and we confidently hope and pray that the Senate will not allow that light of hope to be extinguished.
John Archdeacon Murphy, member of American commission on Irish independence, attending peace conference, Paris, Buffalo, N. Y.
Charles S. Bartlett, governor, New Hampshire, Concord, N. H.
Daniel T. O'Connell, director, Irish national bureau, Washington, Boston, Mass.
John E. Milholland, New York City.
Right Rev. Monsignor Gerald P. Coghlan, treasurer Philadelphia Friends of Irish Freedom, Philadelphia.
Michael Francis Doyle, Philadelphia.
Mary F. McWhorter, national president Ladies' Auxiliary, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Chicago, Ill.
Peter F. Tague, Member of Congress, Boston, Mass.
(Fornelius ('orcoran John McBride branch, Friends of Irish Freedom, Lawrence, Mass.
Frank S. McDonald, John McBride branch. Friends of Irish Freedom, Lawrence, Mass. Michael F. Phelan, Member of Congress, Lynn, Mass. Hugh O'Neill, committee of 100 for an Irish republic, Chicago, Ill. Richard W. Wolfe, committee of 100 for an Irish republic, Chicago, Ill. James E. Murray, representing Irish societies of Montana, Butte, Mont. C. E. McGuire, Washington, D. C. D. J. Carlin, New Orleans, La.
John P. Leahy, delegate, Friends of Irish Freedom, St. Louis, Mo. W. J. O'Brien, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. M. A. Gallagher, State president Ladies' Auxiliary of Pennsylvania, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Philadelphia.
Louis E. Kavanaugh, president Omaha Association branch, Friends of Irish Freedom, Omaha, Nebr.
P. M. Halloran, representing Irish societies of Anaconda, Mont.
Thomas Darragh Mullins, member national council, Friends of Irish Freedom, Pittsburgh.
Dudley Field Malone, Croton on the Hudson, N. Y.
Joseph P. Mahoney, president United Societies of Cook County and Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
Rev. James Mattan Mythen, representing national council, Baltimore, Ma.
Patrick Lee, secretary American commission on Irish independence, Richmond Hill, N. Y.
Hon. David J. O'Connell, Representative, Congress, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Very Rev. Edward C. O'Reilly, representing Catholic clergy of diocese of La Crosse, Baraboo, Wis.
P. J. McGarvey, Philadelphia, Pa. Hugh McCaffrey, Philadelphia, Pa. Bernard J. Rocks, Newcastle, Pa. P. T. McCourt, committeeman, Friends of Irish Freedom, Akron, Ohio. T. A. Clancy, Hartford delegate, Hartford, Conn. Patrick J. Lynch, Indianapolis, Ind. Margaret T. Mulvaney, State secretary Ladies' Auxiliary Ancient Order of Hibernians, Providence, R. I.
M. E. Smith, treasurer, St. Louis, Mo., St. Louis. Robert Emmett O'Malley, delegate, Michael Davitt branch. Kansas City, Mo. P. J. Ryan, member of executive council, Washington, D. C. M. O'Neil, president, Friends of Irish Freedom, Akron, Ohio. James A. Kelly, Danville, N. Y. Katherine Hughes, secretary, Irish national bureau, Washington, D. C. Joseph T. Brennan, secretary Federation of Catholic Societies, Boston, Mass. John R. Haverty, director John McBride branch, Lawrence, Mass. Timothy P. Donohue, treasurer, John McBride branch, Lawrence, Mass. Rev. Walter P. Gough, director of Columbus, Philadelphia, Pa. Margaret L. Brosnahan, district president Ladies' Auxiliary, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Washington, D. O.
Margaret Buckley, district treasurer Ladies' Auxiliary, Ancient Order of Hibernians.
Thomas J. Blewett, representing Thomas Francis Magher branch, Bridgeport, Conn.
H. B. Cassidy, Syracuse, N.Y.
Edward Ryan, president Friends of Irish Freedom, Syracuse branch Syracuse, N. Y.
John B. London, secretary Ancient Order of Hibernians, Philadelphia, Pa. E. J. Devine, delegate Norfolk branch, Norfolk, Va. James O'Neill, president John McBride branch, Lawrence, Mass. Rev. Joseph Byrne, D. D., president St. Mary's College, Darien, Conn. Matthew Donovan, District Council 40, Philadelphia, Pa. James 0. Reilly, Ancient Order of Hibernian delegate, Philadelphia, Pa. Henry J. Phillips, secretary Robert Emmet branch, Philadelphia, Pa. Patrick King, Young Men's Union, Philadelphia, Pa. Joseph P. O'Neill, Federation of Irish County Societies, Philadelphia, Pa. O'Neill Ryan, St. Louis, Mo., former justice supreme court. Michael Heffernan, Chester, Pa., Thomas Clarke branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
William J. Hurley, New York, N. Y., secretary Maj. John McBride branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
John J. Buckley, New York, N. Y., president Roger Casement branch, New York City.
P. J. Kilduff, Hoboken, N. J., State organizer.
Dr. T. C. McNamara, Hoboken, N. J., State organizer, Friends of Irish Freedom.
Thomas O'Brien, New York, N. Y., president St: Columcille branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
Rev. William T. McLaughlin, Jersey City, N. J., State president, Friends of Irish Freedom.
· Michael J. O'Connor, New York, N. Y., Innisfail branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
Thomas J. Maloney, Jersey City, N. J., president P. Lorillard Co.
Shaemas O'Sheel, New York, N. Y., William Pearse branch, Friends of Irish Freedom and William Rooney Society.
Thomas F. J. Connolly, Port Chester, N. Y., Friends of Irish Freedom, Port Chester and Rye, N. Y.
Roderick J. Kennedy, New York City, N. Y., confidential attendant Supreme Court, State of New York.
W. E. Hogan, Bridgeport, Conn., vice president of De Valera branch, Bridgeport, Conn.,
John O'Dea, Philadelphia, Pa., national secretary Ancient Order of Hibernians.
John J. O'Neill, Bridgeport, Conn., president T. F. Meagher branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
Attorney Thomas D. Shea, Nanticoke, Pa., local council, Luzerne County; headquarters, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Secretary, Matthew O'Connor Ford; vice president, T. R. Callam; treasurer, R. R. Fitzpatrick; trustees, P. J. Calligan, J. V. Moylan, C. A. Judge, M. D.
John Stratton O'Leary, New York, N. Y., member of grievance committee, Bronx Builders' Protective Association,
Cornelius F. Murphy, Shelton, Conn., president of P. H. Pearse branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
Rodger Power O'Neill, M. D., New York City, N. Y., member national committee.
James D. O'Neil, Jenkintown, Pa., organizer.
Thomas McCourt, New York, N. Y., Con Colbert branch, Friends of Irish Freedom, Sunburst Club.
Frank Hague, Jersey City, N. J., member Jersey City branch. Charles F. H. O'Brien, Jersey City, N. J., member Jersey City branch. Eugene F. Kincaid, Jersey City, N. J., former Member of Congress. Thomas Shea, Nanticoke, Pa. Michael J. Enright, Chester, Pa., Thomas Clarke branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
James B. Mulherin, Augusta, Ga., delegate John F. Armstrong branch, Friends of Irish Freedom, Augusta, Ga.
Margaret Bowles, New York City, N. Y., Bishop D. Dwyer branch, Friends of Irish Freedom. · Peter J. Fleming, M. D., Boston, Mass., medical committee.
Daniel Foley, Winthrop, Mass., professor of economics, Trade Union College, Boston, Mass..
John Morton, Dorchester, Mass., advisory committee chairman, Boston, Mass. Rev. Edward S. Brock, S. J., Washington, D. C.
Joseph J. Hall, Naugatuck, Conn., assistant purchasing agent of Rubber Regenerating Co.
James O'Sullivan, Lowell, Mass., treasurer of two important corporations.
Jeremiah Flahavan, Ansonia, Conn., president of James Connelly Club, Friends of Irish Freedom, Ansonia.
Francis B. McKinney, Boston, Mass., lecturer Joseph Plunkett branch, Friends of Irish Freedom.
John G. Fitzgerald, Ansonia, Conn., vice president.
Michael B. McGreal, New Haven, Conn., City Board Ancient Order of Hibernians, New Haven, five divisions, three auxiliaries; Division No. 7, Ancient Order of Hibernians; Sarsfield G. A. Club, Friends of Irish Freedom, New Haven, Conn,
Matthew Cummings, Boston, Mass., president Boston Council, Friends of Irish Freedom.
John H. H. McNamee, Boston, Mass., banker and manufacturer.