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(5 sp.), Patagonia to Greenland; Uropsila (1 sp.), Mexico; Donacobius (2 sp.), Tropical America; Campylorhynchus (18 sp.), Brazil, and Bolivia to Mexico and the Gila valley; Cyphorhinus (5 sp.), Equatorial South America to Costa Rica; Microcerculus (5 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Mexico; Henicorhina (2 sp.), Peru and Guiana to Costa Rica; Salpinctes (1 sp.), High Plains of Rocky Mountains; Catherpes (1 sp.), Mexico and Rio Grande; Cinnicerthia (2 sp.), Ecuador and Columbia. (*) Sylvietta (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, is placed in this family by Mr. Tristram.

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The bird which forms the genus Chamaea inhabits California; and though allied to the wrensit has certain peculiarities of structure which, in the opinion of many ornithologists, require that it should be placed in a distinct family.

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The Certhiidae, or Creepers, form a small family whose species are thinly scattered over North America from Mexico, the Palaearctic region, parts of the Oriental region, and Australia, where they are somewhat more abundant. The distribution of the genera is as follows: .

Certhia (6 sp.), Nearctic and Palaearctic regions, Nepal, and Sikhim; Salpornis (1 sp.), Central India; Tichodroma (1 sp.), South Europe to Abyssinia, Nepal, and North China; Rhabdornis (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; Climacteris (8 sp.), Australia and New Guinea.

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The Sittidae, or Nuthatches, are another small family of treecreeping birds, whose distribution is very similar to that of the Certhiidae, but with a more uniform range over the Oriental region, and extending to New Zealand and Madagascar. The genera are as follows:– .

Sitta (17 sp.), Palaearctic and Nearctic regions to South India and Mexico; Dendrophila (2 sp.), Ceylon and India to Burmah and Malaya; Hypherpes (1 sp.), Madagascar; Sittella (6 sp.), Australia and New Guinea. Acanthisitta (1 sp.) and Xenicus (4 sp.), New Zealand, are placed with some doubt in this family.

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The Paridae, or Tits, are very abundant in the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions; many fine species are found in the Himalayas, but they are sparingly scattered through the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions. The genera usually admitted into this family are the following, but the position of some of them, especially of the Australian forms, is doubtful.

(*-**) Parus (46 sp.), North America, from Mexico, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions, Tropical and South Africa; (**) Lophophanes (10 sp.), Europe, the Higher Himalayas to Sikhim, North America to Mexico; Acredula = Orites (6 sp.), Palaearctic region; Melanochlora (2 sp.), Nepal to Sumatra; Psaltria (1 sp.), Java; Psaltriparus (3 sp.), Guatemala to California, and Rocky Mountains; Auriparus (1 sp.), Rio Grande; (* *) Parisoma (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (**) Agithalus (6 sp.), South-east Europe to South Africa; (**) Agithaliscus (6 sp.), Afghanistan and Himalayas to Amoy ; Cephalopyrus (1 sp.), North-west Himalayas; Sylviparus (1 sp.), Himalayas and Central India; Certhiparus (2 sp.), New Zealand; (**) Sphenostoma (2 sp.), East and South Australia.

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The Liotrichidae, or Hill-Tits, are small, active, delicatelycoloured birds, almost confined to the Himalayas and their extension eastward to China. They are now generally admitted to form a distinct family. The genera are distributed as follows:

(*) Liothria (3 sp.), Himalayas to China; Siva (3 sp.), Himalayas ; Monla (4 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet; Proparus (7 sp.), Nepal to East Thibet and Aracan; (iio) Pteruthius (6 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China; (iio) Cutia (2 sp.), Nepal; (*) Yuhina (3 sp.), High Himalayas and Moupin; (2) Iwulus (3 sp.), Himalayas to Tenasserim; (*) Myzornis (1 sp.), Darjeeling.

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The Phyllornithidae, or “Green Bulbuls,” are a small group of fruit-eating birds, strictly confined to the Oriental region, and ranging over the whole of it, with the one exception of the Philippine Islands. The genera are:— (*) Phyllornis (12 sp.), India to Java, Ceylon, and Hainan ; (*) Iora (4 sp.), the whole Oriental region; (*) Erpornis (2 sp.), Himalayas, Hainan, Formosa, and Borneo.

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The Pycnonotidae, Bulbuls, or fruit-thrushes, are highly characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound; less plentiful in the Ethiopian region, and extending to Palestine and Japan in the Palaearctic, and to the Moluccas in the Australian region, but absent from the intervening island of Celebes. The genera are:— -

Microscelis (6 sp.), Burmah, the Indo-Malay Islands, and Japan; Pycnonotus (52 sp., in many sub-genera), Palestine to South Africa, the whole Oriental region, China and Japan; Aleurus (1 sp.), Himalayas; Hemiæus (2 sp.), Nepal, Bootan, Hainan; Phyllastrephus (4 sp.), West and South Africa; Hypsipetes (20 sp.), the whole Oriental region, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands; Tylas (1 sp.), Madagascar; Criniger (30 sp.), the whole Oriental region (excluding Philippines), West and South Africa, Moluccas; Iconotus (7 sp.), West Africa; (**) Setornis (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; sole (4 sp.), Aracan and Malaya; Andropadus (9 sp.), Tropical Africa; (*) Lioptilus (1 sp.), South Africa.

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The Orioles, or Golden Thrushes, are a small group characteristic of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, migrating into the western Palaearctic region, and with some of the less typical forms in Australia. The genera are -—

Oriolus (24 sp.), Central Europe, throughout Africa, and the whole Oriental region, northward to Pekin, and eastward to Flores; (*) Analeipus (3 sp.), Himalayas, Formosa, Java and Borneo; Mimeta (9 sp.), the Moluccas and Australia; Sphecotheres (3 sp.), Timor and Australia. Artamia (1 sp.), Madagascar, perhaps belongs to the next family or to Laniidae.

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The Campephagidae, or Cuckoo Shrikes, (Campephaginae of the Hand List, with the addition of Cochoa) are most abundant in the Australian region (especially in the Austro-Malay subregion) less so in the Oriental, and still less in the Ethiopian region. The genera, for the most part as adopted by Dr. Hartlaub, are as follows:–

Pericrocotus (22 sp.), the whole Oriental region,extending north to Pekin, and east to Lombok; (* ~ *) Lanieterus (4 sp.), West and South Africa; (**) Graucalus (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, and eastward to Austro-Malaya, the New

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