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Hebrides, and Tasmania; Artamides (1 sp.), Celebes; Pteropodoeys (1 sp.), Australia; (* * * *) Campephaga (16 sp.), Austro-Malaya, and New Caledonia, Philippines, the Ethiopian region; Volvocivora (8 sp.) the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); Lalage (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago to New Caledonia and Australia; Symmorphus (1 sp.), Australia; Oxynotus (2 sp.), Mauritius and Bourbon; (*) Cochoa (3 sp.), Himalayas, Java. The position of this last genus is doubtful. Jerdon puts it in the Liotrichidae; Sundeval in the Sturnidae; Bonaparte in the Dicruridae; Professor Newton suggests the Pycnonotidae; but it seems on the whole best placed here.

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The Dicruridae, or Drongo Shrikes (Dicruridae of the Hand List, omitting the genus Melaemornis), have nearly the same distribution as the last family, with which they are sometimes united. They are, however, most abundant and varied in the Oriental region, much less so both in the Australian and Ethiopian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—

Dicrurus (46 sp., in several sub-genera), has the range of the whole family, extending east to New Ireland, and one species in Australia; Chaetorhynchus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Bhringa (2 sp.), Himalayas to Borneo (Plate IX. vol. i. p. 339); Chibia (2 sp.) Himalayas eastward to North China; Chaptia (3 sp.), all India to Malacca and Formosa; Irena (4 sp.), Central India, Assam, and Burmah to Borneo and the Philippine Islands. This last genus is placed by Jerdon among the Pycnonotidae, but seems to come most naturally here or in the last family.

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The Muscicapidae, or Flycatchers (Muscicapinae and Myiagrinae of the Hand List, omitting Cochoa and including Pogonocichla) form an extensive family of usually small-sized and often brightcoloured birds, very abundant in the warmer regions of the Old World and Australia, but becoming scarce as we approach the temperate and colder regions. They are wholly absent from North and South America. The genera, many of which are not well defined, are distributed as follows:— Peltops (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Monarcha (28 sp.), Moluccas to the Carolines and Marquesas Islands, Australia and Tasmania; Leucophantes (1 sp.), New Guinea; Butalis (4 sp.), Ethiopian and Palaearctic regions, Moluccas and Formosa; Muscicapa (12 sp.), Europe and Africa; Muscicapula (6 sp.), India to Western China; Alseonaa (1 sp.), South Africa; Erythrosterna (7 sp.), Europe to China and Java; Newtonia (1 sp.), Madagascar; Manthopygia (2 sp.), Japan, China, Malacca; Hemipus (1 sp.), India and Ceylon; Pycnophrys (1 sp.), Java; Hyliota (2 sp.), West Africa; Erythrocercus (2 sp.), West Africa and Zambesi; Microeca (6 sp.), Australia, Timor, and Papuan Islands; Artomyias (2 sp.), West Africa; Pseudobias (1 sp.), Madagascar; Hemichesidon (3 sp.), the Oriental region and North China; Smithornis (2 sp.), West and South Africa; Megabias (1 sp.), West Africa; Cassinia (2 sp.), West Africa; Bias, (1 sp.), Tropical Africa; Niltava (3 sp.), Himalayas to West China; Cyornis (16 sp.), the whole Oriental region; Cyanoptila (1 sp.), Japan, China, Hainan; Eumyias (7 sp.), India to South China, Ceylon, and Sumatra; (***) Siphia (8 sp.), North India, Formosa, Timor; Anthipes (1 sp.), Nepal; Seisura (5 sp.), Australia and AustroMalaya (excluding Celebes); (Myiagra (16 sp.), Australia and Moluccas to Caroline and Samoa Islands: Hypothymis (2 sp.), Oriental region and Celebes ; Elminia (2 sp.), Tropical Africa; Muscitodus (2 sp.), Fiji Islands; Machaerirhynchus (4 sp.), Papuan Islands and North Australia; Platystira (12 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Rhipidura (45 sp.), the Oriental and Australian regions to the Samoa Islands and Tasmania; Chelidoryna (1 sp.), North India; Myialestes (2 sp.), India to Ceylon, China, Java and Celebes; Tchitrea (26 sp.), the entire Ethiopian and Oriental regions, and to North China and Japan; Philentoma (4 sp.) Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, and Philippine Islands; Todopsis (6 sp.), Papuan Islands; (*) Pogonocichla (1 sp.), South Africa; (*-*)Bradyornis (7 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1*) Chasiempis (2 sp.), Sandwich Islands.

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The Pachycephalidae, or Thick-headed Shrikes (Pachycephalinae of the Hand List omitting Colluricinela, Cracticus, and Pardalotus) are almost confined to the Australian region, a single species extending to Java and Aracan, and another (?) to Madagascar. The family has generally been united with the Laniidae, but most modern ornithologists consider it to be distinct. The distribution of the genera is as follows:–

Oreocca (1 sp.), Australia; Falcunculus (2 sp.), Australia; Pachycephala (44 sp.), Sula Islands (east of Celebes) to the Fiji Islands, and Australia; Hylocharis (4 sp.), Timor, Celebes, IndoMalaya, and Aracan; Calicalicus (1 sp.), Madagascar; Bopsaltria (14 sp.), Australia, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides; Artamia (4 sp.), Madagascar-may belong to this family, or to Laniidae, Oriolidae, or Artamidae, according to different authors.

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The Laniidae, or Shrikes (Laniinae and Malaconotinae of the Hand List, and including Colluricinela), are most abundant and varied in Africa, less plentiful in the Oriental, Australian, and Palaearctic regions, with a few species in the Nearctic region as far as Mexico. The constitution of the family is, however, somewhat uncertain. The genera here admitted are:—

Colluricinela (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Rectes (18 sp.), Papuan Islands, North Australia, to Pelew and Fiji Islands; (1482 – 1484 to 1410 in - 1478) Lanius (50 sp.), the whole Nearctic, Palaearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, one species reaching Timor, none in Madagascar; Laniellus (1 sp.), Java; Hypocolius (1 sp.), Abyssinia and Upper Nile; Corvinella (1 sp.), South and West Africa; Urolestes (1 sp.), South and East Africa; Tephrodormis (4 sp.), Oriental region to Hainan and Java; Hypodes (1 sp.), West Africa; Fraseria (2 sp.), West Africa; Cuphopterus (1 sp.), Princes’ Island; Nilaus (1 sp.), South and West Africa; Prionops (9 sp.), Tropical Africa; Eurocephalus (2 sp.), North, East, and South Africa, and Abyssinia; Chaumonotus (1 sp.), West Africa; Vanga (4 sp.), Madagascar (Plate VI. vol. i. p. 278); Lamiarius (36 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region; Telephonus (10. sp.), all Africa and South Europe; Meristes (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Nicator (1 sp.), East Africa.

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The Corvidae, or Crows, Jays, &c., form an extensive and Somewhat heterogeneous group, some members of which inhabit almost every part of the globe, although none of the genera are cosmopolitan. The true crows are found everywhere but in South America; the magpies, choughs, and nutcrackers are characteristic of the Palaearctic region; the jays are Palaearctic, Oriental, and American ; while the piping crows are peculiarly Australian. The more detailed distribution of the genera is as follows:— .

Sub-family I. Gymnorhininae (Piping Crows).-Strepera (4 sp.), and Gymnorhina (3 sp.), are Australian only; Cracticus (9 sp.), ranges from New Guinea to Tasmania (this is usually put with the Shrikes, but it has more affinity with the preceding genera); Pityriasis (1 sp.), Borneo (an extraordinary bird of very doubtful affinities); Grallina (1 sp.), Australia, is put here by Sundevall,—among Motacillidae, by Gould. - . Sub-family II. Garrulinae (Jays).--Platylophus = Lophocitta (4 sp.), Malaya; Garrulus (12 sp.), Palaearctic region, China and Himalayas; Perisoreus (2 sp.), North of Palaearctic and Nearctic regions; Cyanurus (22 sp.), American, from Bolivia to Canada, most abundant in Central America, but absent from the Antilles; Cyanocoraw (15 sp.), La Plata to Mexico; Calocitta (2 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; Psilorhinus (3 sp.), Costa Rica to Texas; Urocissa (6 sp.), Western Himalayas to China and Formosa; Cissa (3 sp.), South-eastern Himalayas to Tenasserim, Ceylon, Sumatra, and Java. Sub-family III. Dendrocittinae (Tree Crows).-Temmurus (3 sp.), Cochin China, Malacca to Borneo (not Java); Dendrocitta (9 sp.), the Oriental region to Sumatra, Hainan, and Formosa; Crypsirhina (3 sp.), Pegu, Siam, and Java ; Ptilostomus (2 sp.), West, East, and South Africa. -

Sub-family IV. Corvinae (Crows and Magpies)-Nucifraga (4 sp.), Palaearctic region to the Himalayas and North China; Picicorvus (1 sp.), the Rocky Mountains and California; Gymnokitta (1 sp.), Rocky Mountains and Arizona (Plate XVIII., Wol. II., p. 128); Pica (9 sp.), Palaearctic region, Arctic America, and California; Cyanopica (3 sp.), Spain, North-east Asia, Japan;

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