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Ethiopian regions, a few outlying species only entering the Australian or the Palaearctic regions. One family (Todidae) is confined to the West Indian Islands; and another (Leptosomidae) consisting of but a single species, to Madagascar; parallel cases to the Drepanididae among the Passeres, peculiar to the Sandwich Islands, and the Apterygidae among the Struthiones, peculiar to New Zealand.
The Parrots have been the subject of much difference of opinion among ornithologists, and no satisfactory arrangement of the order into families and genera has yet been reached. Professor Garrod has lately examined certain points in the anatomy of a large number of genera, and proposes to revolutionize the ordinary classifications. Until, however, a general examination of their whole anatomy, internal and external, has been made by some competent authority, it will be unsafe to adopt the new system, as we have as yet no guide to the comparative value of the characters made use of. I therefore keep as much as possible to the old groups, founded on external characters, only using the indications furnished by Professor Garrod's paper, to determine the position of doubtful genera.
The Cacatuidae, Plyctolophidae, or Camptolophidae, as they have been variously termed, comprise all those crested parrots usually termed Cockatoos, together with one or two doubtful forms. They are very abundant in the Australian region, more especially in the Austro-Malayan portion of it one species inhabiting the Philippine Islands; but they do not pass further east than the Solomon Islands and are not found in New Zealand. The distribution of the genera is as follow:— Cacatua (18 sp.) ranges from the Philippine Islands, Celebes and Lombok, to the Solomon Islands and to Tasmania; Calopsittà (1 sp.) Australia; Calyptorhynchus (8 sp.) is confined to Australia and Tasmania; Microglossus (2 sp.) (perhaps a distinct family) to the Papuan district and North Australia; Licmetis (3 sp.) Australia, Solomon Islands, and (?) New Guinea; Nasīterna (3 sp.), a minute form, the smallest of the whole order, and perhaps not belonging to this family, is only known from the Papuan and Solomon Islands.
The Platycercidae comprise a series of large-tailed Parrots, of weak structure and gorgeous colours, with a few ground-feeding genera of more sober protective tints; the whole family being confined to the Australian region. The genera are:
(1998 1999 2009) Platycerous (14 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, and Norfolk Island; Psephotus (6 sp.), Australia; Polytelis (3 sp.), Australia; Nymphicus (1 sp.), Australia and New Caledonia; (2002 2008) Aprosmictus (6 sp.), Australia, Papua, Timor, and Moluccas; Pyrrhulopsis (3 sp.), Tonga and Fiji Islands; Cyanoramphus (14 sp.), New Zealand, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Society Islands; Melopsittaeus (1 sp.), Australia; Euphema (7 sp.), Australia; Pezoporus (1 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Geopsittaeus (1 sp.), West Australia. The four last genera are ground-feeders, and are believed by Professor Garrod to be allied to the Owl-Parrot of New Zealand (Stringops).
I class here a group of birds brought together, for the most part, by geographical distribution as well as by agreement in internal structure, but which is nevertheless of a very uncertain and provisional character. - .
Palaeornis (18 sp.), the Oriental region, Mauritius, Rodriguez, and Seychelle Islands, and a species in Tropical Africa, apparently identical with the Indian P. torquatus, and therefore—considering the very ancient intercourse between the two countries, and the improbability of the species remaining unchanged if originating by natural causes—most likely the progeny of domestic birds introduced from India. Prioniturus (3 sp.), Celebes and the Philippine Islands; (*) Geoffroyus (5 sp.), Bouru to Timor and the Solomon Islands; Tanygnathus (5 sp.), Philippines, Celebes, and Moluccas to New Guinea; Eclectus (8 sp.), Moluccas and Papuan Islands; Psittinus (1 sp.), Tenasserim to Sumatra and Borneo; Cyclopsitta (8 sp.), Papuan Islands, Philippines and North-east Australia; Loriculus (17 sp.), ranges over the whole Oriental region to Flores, the Moluccas, and the Papuan island of Mysol; but most of the species are concentrated in the district including the Philippines, Celebes, Gilolo, and Flores, there being 1 in India, 1 in South China, 1 in Ceylon, 1 in Java, 1 in Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo, 3 in Celebes, 5 in the Philippines, and the rest in the Moluccas, Mysol, and Flores. This genus forms a transition to the next family. .
The Trichoglossidae, or Brush-tongued Paroquets, including the Lories, are exclusively confined to the Australian region, where they extend from Celebes to the Marquesas Islands, and South to Tasmania. The genus Nanodes (= Lathamus) has been shown by Professor Garrod to differ from Trichoglossus in the position of the carotid arteries. I therefore make it a distinct genus but do not consider that it should be placed in another family. The genera here admitted are as follows:— Trichoglossus (29 sp.), ranges over the whole Austro-Malay and Australian sub-regions, and to the Society Islands; (*) Nanodes (1 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Charmosyna (1 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X. Vol. I. p. 414); Eos (9 sp.), Bouru and Sanguir Island north of Celebes, to the Solomon Islands, and in Puynipet Island to the north-east of New Ireland; (**) Lorius (13 sp.), Bouru and the Solomon Islands; (**) Corphilus (4 sp.), Samoa, Tonga, Society and Marquesas Islands.
The Conuridae, which consist of the Macaws and their allies, are wholly confined to America, ranging from the Straits of Magellan to South Carolina and Nebraska, with Cuba and
Jamaica. Professor Garrod places Pyrrhura (which has generally WOL. II.-22
been classed as a part of the genus Conurus) in a separate family, on account of the absence of the ambiens muscle of the knee, but as we are quite ignorant of the classificational value of this character, it is better for the present to keep both as distinct genera of the same family. The genera are:–
Ara (15 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico and Cuba; Rhyncopsitta (1 sp.), Mexico; Henicognathus (1 sp.), Chili; Conurus (30 sp.), the range of the family; Pyrrhura (16 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to Costa Rica; Bolborhynchus (7 sp.), La Plata, Bolivia and West Peru, with one species in Mexico and Guatemala; Brotogerys (9 sp.), Brazil to Mexico.
The Psittacidae comprise a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage of Parrots and Paroquets of the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions, which are combined here more for convenience than because they are believed to form a natural group. The genera Chrysotis and Pionus have no oil-gland, while Psittacula and Agapornis have lost the furcula, but neither of these characters are probably of more than generic value. The genera are:–
Psittacus (2 sp.), West Africa; Coracopsis (5 sp.), Madagascar, Comoro, and Seychelle Islands; Peocephalus (9 sp.), all Tropical and South Africa; (*-*) Caica (9 sp.), Mexico to Amazonia; Chrysotis (32 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico and the West Indian Islands; Triclaria (1 sp.), Brazil; Deroptyus (1 sp.), Amazonia; Pionus (9 sp.), Paraguay to México; Urochroma (7 sp.), Tropical South America; Psittacula (6 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Poliopsitta (2 sp.), Madagascar and West Africa; Agapornis (4 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.