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Oriental regions, and the Australian to New Zealand; Rollulus (2 sp.), Siam to Sumatra, Borneo, and Philippines; Caloperdiæ (1 sp.), Malacca and Sumatra ; Odontophorus (17 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Mexico; Dendroriya (3 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; Cyrtonya (3 sp.), Guatemala to New Mexico; Ortya; (8 sp.), Honduras and Cuba to Canada; Eupsychortya, (6 sp.), Brazil and Ecuador to Mexico; Callipepla (3 sp.), Mexico to California; Lophorty” (2 sp.), Arizona and California; Oreoriya (1 sp.), California and Oregon (Plate XVIII, Vol. II. p. 128); Lerwa (1 sp.), Snowy Himalayas and East Thibet; Caccabis (10 sp.), Palaearctic region to Abyssinia, Arabia and the Punjaub; Tetraogallus (4 sp.), Caucasus and Himalayas to Altai Mountains; Tetrao (7 sp.), northern parts of Palaearctic and Nearctic regions; Centrocercus (1 sp.), Rocky Mountains; Pediocaetes (2 sp.), North and North-west America (Plate XVIII. Vol. II. p. 128); Cupidonia (1 sp.), East and North-Central United States and Canada; Bonasa (3 sp.), north of Nearctic and Palaearctic regions; Lagopus (6 sp.), Arctic Zone and northern parts of Nearctic and Palaearctic regions.
The Phasianidae, including the Pea-fowl, Pheasants, and Junglefowl, the Turkeys, and the Guinea-fowl, are very widely distributed, but are far more abundant than elsewhere in the Eastern parts of Asia, both tropical and temperate. Leaving out the African guinea-fowls and the American turkeys, we have 13 genera and 63 species belonging to the Oriental and Palaearctic regions. These are grouped by Mr. Elliot (whose arrangement we mainly follow) in 5 sub-families, of which 3—Pavonniae, Euplocaminae, and Gallinae—are chiefly Oriental, while the Lophophornia and Phasianinae are mostly Palaearctic or from the highlands on the borders of the two regions. The genera adopted by Mr. Elliot in his Monograph are the following:— . PAVONINAE, 4 genera—Pavo (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Siam, to South-west China and Java; Argusianus (4 sp.), Siam, Malay Peninsula, and Borneo (Plate IX. Vol. I. p. 339); Polyplectron (5 sp.), Upper Assam to South-west China and Sumatra; Crossoptilon (4 sp.), Thibet and North China. (Plate III. Vol. I. p. 226.) w LOPHOPHORINE, 4 genera—Lophophorus (3 sp.), High woody region of Himalayas from Cashmere to West China; Tetraophasis (1 sp.), East Thibet; Ceriornis(5 sp.), Highest woody Himalayas from Cashmere to Bhotan and Western China (Plate VII. Vol. I. p. 331); Puerasia (3 sp.), Lower and High woody Himalayas from the Hindoo Koosh to North-west China. PHASIANINAE, 2 genera—Phasianus (12 sp.), Western Asia to Japan and Formosa, south to near Canton and Yunan, and the Western Himalayas, north to the Altai Mountains; Thaumalea (3 sp.), North-western China and Mongolia. (Plate III. Vol. I. p. 226.) EUPLOCAMINAE, 2 genera.-Euplocamus (12 sp.), Cashmere, along Southern Himalayas to Siam, South China and Formosa, and to Sumatra and Borneo; Ithaginis (2 sp.), High Himalayas from Nepal to North-west China. - . GALLINAE, 1 genus—Gallus (4 sp.), Cashmere to Hainan, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, and eastwards to Celebes and Timor. (Central India, Ceylon, and East Java, have each a distinct species of Jungle-fowl.) MELEAGRINE, 1 genus—Meleagris (3 sp.), Eastern and Central United States and south to Mexico, Guatemala and Yucatan. . AGELASTINAE, 2 genera. — Phasidus (1 sp.), West Africa; Agelastes (1 sp.), West Africa. NUMIDINA, 2 genera—Acryllium (1 sp.), West Africa; Wumida (9 sp.), Ethiopian region, east to Madagascar, south to Natal and Great Fish River.
The Turmicidae are small Quail-like birds, supposed to have remote affinities with the American Tinamous, and with sufficient distinctive peculiarities to constitute a separate family. They range over the Old World, from Spain all through Africa and Madagascar, and over the whole Oriental region to Formosa, and then north again to Pekin, as well as South-eastward to Australia and Tasmania. The genus Turniæ (23 sp.), has the range of the family; Ortyxelos (1 sp.), inhabits Senegal; but the latter genus may not belong to this family.
The Megapodiidae, or Mound-makers and Brush-turkeys, are generally dull-coloured birds of remarkable habits and economy, which have no near allies, but are supposed to have a remote affinity with the South American Curassows. They are highly characteristic of the Australian region, extending into almost every part of it except New Zealand and the remotest Pacific islands, and only sending two species beyond its limits, a Megapodius in the Philippine Islands and North-west Borneo, and another in the Nicobar Islands, separated by about 1,800 miles from its nearest ally in Lombok. The Philippine species offers little difficulty, for these birds are found on the smallest islands and sand-banks, and can evidently pass over a few miles of sea with ease; but the Nicobar bird is a very different case, because none of the numerous intervening islands offer a single example of the family. Instead of being a well-marked and clearly differentiated form, as we should expect to find it if its remote and isolated habitat were due to natural causes, it so nearly resembles some of the closely-allied species of the Moluccas and New Guinea, that, had it been found with them, it would hardly have been thought specifically extinct. I therefore believe that it is probably an introduction by the Malays, and that, owing to the absence of enemies and general suitability of conditions, it has thriven in the islands and has become slightly differentiated in colour from the parent stock. The following is the distribution of the genera at present known — Talegallus (2 sp.), New Guinea and East Australia; Megacephalon (1 sp.), East Celebes; Lipoa (1 sp.), South Australia; Megapodius (16 sp.), Philippine Islands and Celebes, to Timor, North Australia, New Caledonia, the Marian and Samoa Islands, and probably every intervening island,-also a species (doubtfully indigenous) in the Nicobar Islands.
(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's arrangement is here followed).
The Cracidae, or Curassows and Guans, comprise the largest and handsomest game-birds of the Neotropical region, where they take the place of the grouse and pheasants of the Old World. They are almost all forest-dwellers, and are a strictly Neotropical family, only one species just entering the Nearctic region as far as New Mexico. They extend southward to Paraguay and the extreme south of Brazil, but none are found in the Antilles, nor west of the Andes south of the bay of Guayaquil. The sub-families and genera are as follows:— CRACINAE, 4 genera-Craw (8 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay (Plate XV, Vol. II. p. 28); Wothocraa, (1 sp.), Guiana, Upper Rio Negro, and Upper Amazon; Pauai (1 sp.), Guiana to Venezuela; Mitua (2 sp.), Guiana and Upper Amazon. PENELOPINAE, 7 genera.--Stegnolaema (1 sp.), Columbia and Ecuador; Penelope (14 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay and to western slope of Ecuadorian Andes; Penelopina (1 sp.), Guatemala; Pipile (3 sp.), Venezuela to Eastern Brazil; Aburria (1 sp.), Columbia; Chamapetes (2 sp.), Costa Rica to Peru; Ortalida (18 sp.), New Mexico to Paraguay, also Tobago. . OREOPHASINAE, 1 genus.--Oreophasis (1 sp.), Guatemala. It thus appears that the Cracinae are confined to South America east of the Andes, except one species in Central America ; whereas nine Penelopinae and Oreophasis are found north of Panama. The species of the larger genera are strictly representative, each having its own distinct geographical area, So that two species of the same genus are rarely or never found in the same locality.
The Tinamous are a very remarkable family of birds, with the general appearance of partridges or hemipodes, but with the tail either very small or entirely wanting. They differ greatly in their organization from any of the Old World Gallinae, and approach, in some respects, the Struthiones or Ostrich tribe. They are very terrestrial in their habits, inhabiting the forests, open plains, and mountains of the Neotropical region, from Patagonia and Chili to Mexico; but, like the Cracidae, they are absent from the Antilles. Their colouring is very sober and protective, as is
the case with so many ground-birds, and they are seldom adorned WOL. II.-23