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with crests or other ornamental plumes, so prevalent in the order to which they belong. The sub-families and genera, according to the arrangement of Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, are as follows:— - - - . TINAMINE, 7 genera—Tinamus (7 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay; Nothocercus (3 sp.), Costa Rica to Venezuela and Ecuador; Crypturus (16 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay and Bolivia; Rhynchotus (2 sp.), Bolivia and South Brazil to La Plata; Nothoprocta (4 sp.), Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili; Nothura (4 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia to Patagonia; Taoniscus (1 sp.), Brazil to Paraguay. TINAMOTINA, 2 genera—Calodromas (1 sp.), La Plata and Patagonia; Tinamotis (1 sp.), Andes of Peru and Bolivia.

General Remarks on the Distribution of Gallinae.

There are about 400 known species of Gallinaceous birds grouped into 76 genera, of which no less than 65 are each restricted to a single region. The Tetraonidae are the only cosmopolitan family, and even these do not extend into Temperate South America, and are very poorly represented in Australia. The Cracidae and Tinamidae are strictly Neotropical, the Megapodiidae almost as strictly Australian. There remains the extensive family of the Phasianidae, which offers some interesting facts. We have first the well-marked sub-families of the Numidinae and Meleagrinae, confined to the Ethiopian and Nearctic regions respectively, and we find the remaining five sub-families, comprising about 60 species, many of them the most magnificent of known birds, spread over the Oriental and the South-eastern portion of the Palaearctic regions. This restriction is remarkable, since there is no apparent cause in climate or vegetation why pheasants should not be found wild throughout southern Europe, as they were during late Tertiary, and Post-Tertiary times. We have also to notice the remarkable absence of the Pheasant tribe from Hindostan and Ceylon, where the peacock and jungle-fowl are their sole representatives. These two forms also alone extend to Java, whereas in the adjacent islands of Borneo and Sumatra we have Argusianus, Polyplectron, and Euplocamus. The common jungle-fowl (the origin of our domestic poultry) is the only species which enters the Australian region as far as Celebes and Timor, and another species (Gallus ceneus) as far as Flores, and it is not improbable that these may have been introduced by man and become wild. We have very little knowledge of the extinct forms of Gallinae, but what we have assures us of their high antiquity, since we find such distinct groups as the jungle-fowl, partridges, and Pterocles, represented in Europe in, the Miocene period; while the Turkey, then as now, appears to have been a special American type. . Order VI—OPISTHOCOMI.

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The Hoazin (Opisthocomus cristatus) is the sole representative of this family and of the order Opisthocomi. It inhabits the eastern side of Equatorial America in Guiana and the Lower Amazon ; and at Pará is called “Cigana’’ or gipsy. It is a large, brown, long-legged, weakly-formed and loosely-crested bird, having such anomalies of structure that it is impossible to class it along with any other family. It is one of those survivors, which tell us of extinct groups, of whose past existence we should otherwise, perhaps, remain for ever ignorant.

FAMILY 94.—WULTURIDAE. (10 Genera, 25 Species)








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Vultures range over all the great continents south of the Arctic Circle, being only absent from the Australian region, the Malay Islands, Ceylon, and Madagascar. The Old and New World forms are very distinct, belonging to two well-marked divisions, often ranked as families. The distribution of the genera is as follows:—

| Sub-family I. VULTURINAE (6 genera, 16 species), confined to the Old World,—Vultur (1 sp.), Spain and North Africa through Nepal to China north of Ningpo ; Gyps (5 sp.), Europe south of 59°, Africa, except the western sub-region, India, Siam, and Northern China; Pseudogyps (2 sp.), North-east Africa and Senegal, India and Burmah; Otogyps (2 sp.), South Europe, North-east and South Africa, India, and Siam; Lophogyps (1 sp.), North-east and South Africa and Senegal; Neophron (4 sp.), South Europe, India and the greater part of Africa.

Sub-family II. SARCORHAMPHINAE (4 genera, 9 species), con

fined to the New World.—Sarcorhamphus (2 sp.), “The Condor,” Andes of South America, and southern extremity below 41° south latitude; Cathartes (1 sp.), America, from 20° south latitude to Trinidad and Mexico; Catharistes (1 sp.), America from 40° north to 40° south latitude, but not on Pacific coast of United States; Pseudogryphis (5 sp.), South America and Falkland Islands, and to 49° north latitude in North America, also Cuba and Jamaica.

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The singular Secretary Bird (Serpentarius) is found over a large part of Africa. Its position is uncertain, as it has affinities both with the Accipitres, through Polyboroides () and with Cariama, which we place near the Bustards. (Plate IV. Vol. I. p.261)

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The Falconidae, including the various groups of Hawks, Rites, Buzzards, Eagles, and Falcons, are absolutely cosmopolitan, ranging far into the arctic zone and visiting the most remote oceanic islands. They are abundant in all the great continents and larger islands, preferring open to woody regions. They are divided into several sub-families, the range of some of which are restricted. For this family as well as the preceding I follow the arrangement of Mr. Sharpe's British Museum Catalogue, and shall give the approximate distribution of each sub-family, as well as of the several genera, Sub-family I. POLYBORINAE (2 genera, 10 species), the Neotropical region with California and Florida, Tropical and South Africa-Polyborus (2 sp.), South America, and to California and Florida; Ibycter (8 sp.), Tierra del Fuego to Honduras and Guatemala.

Cariama and Serpentarius, which Mr. Sharpe puts here, are so anomalous that I think it better to class them in separate families—Serpentariidae among the Accipitres, and Cariamidae near the Bustards. . ...

Sub-family II, ACCIPITRINE (10 genera, 87 species)—Cosmopolitan.-Polyboroides (2 sp.), Africa and Madagascar; Circus(15 sp.), Old and New Worlds, widely scattered, but absent from Eastern Equatorial America, and the Malay Archipelago except Celebes Micrastur (7 sp.), and Geranospiza (2 sp.), Tropical parts of Neotropical region; Urotriorchis (1 sp.), West Africa; Erythrocnema (1 sp.), Chili and La Plata to California and Texas; Melieraa (5 sp.), Africa except West African sub-region; Astur (30 sp.), cos. mopolitan, except the Temperate South American sub-region Nisoides (1 sp.), Madagascar; Eutriorchis (1 sp.), Madagascar; Accipiter (23 sp.), cosmopolitan, except Eastern Oceania. Sub-family III. BUTEONINAE (13 genera, 51 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Malay and Pacific Islands.-Urospizias (1 sp.), East and Central Australia; Heterospizias (1 sp.), Tropical South America east of the Andes; Tachytriorchis (2 sp.), Paraguay to California; Buteo (18 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Australian region and the Indo-Malayan sub-region; Archibuteo (4 sp.), North America to Mexico and the cooler parts of the Palaearctic region; Buteola (1 sp.), Veragua to the Amazon Valley; Asturina (7 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to South-east United States; Busarellus (1 sp.), Brazil to Guiana; Buteogallus (1 sp.), Guiana and Columbia; Urubutinga (12 sp.), South Brazil and Bolivia to Mexico; Harpyhaliaetus (1 sp.), Chili and North Patagonia to Veragua; Morphmus (1 sp.), Amazonia to Panama; Thrasačius (1 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to Mexico. . - . Sub-family IV. AQUILINAE (31 genera, 94 species), cosmopolitan.—Gypaetus (2 sp.), south of Palaearctic region from Spain to North China, Abyssinia, and South Africa; Uroaetus (1 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Aquila (9 sp.), Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Ethiopian regions and India; Nisaetus (4 sp.), Africa and South Europe, India, Ceylon, and Australia; Lophotriorchis (2 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region, and Bogotá in South America; Neopus (1 sp.), India and Ceylon to Burmah, Java, Celebes and Ternate; Spiziastur (1 sp.), Guatemala to Brazil; Spizačtus (10 sp.), Central and South America, Africa, India, and Ceylon, to Celebes and New Guinea, Formosa, and Japan; Lophoaetus (1 sp.), all Africa; Asturinula (1 sp.), Africa, except extreme south; Herpetotheres (1 sp.), Bolivia and Paraguay to Southern Mexico; Dryotriorchis (1 sp.), West Africa; Circaëtus (5 sp.) Africa to Central Europe, the Indian Peninsula, Timor; Spilormis (6 sp.), Oriental region and Celebes; Butastur (4 sp.), Oriental region to New Guinea and North-east Africa; Helotarsus (2 sp.), Africa south of the Sahara; Haliaeetus (7 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Neotropical region; Gypohieraa (1 sp.), West Africa and Zanzibar; Haliastur (2 sp.), Indian Peninsula to Ceylon, New Cale

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