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donia, and Australia; Nauclerus (= Elanoides) (1 sp.), Brazil to Southern United States; Elanoides (= Nauclerus) (1 sp.), Western and North-eastern Africa; Milvus (6 sp.), the Old World and Australia; Lophoictinia (1 sp.), Australia; Rostrhamus (3 sp.), Antilles and Florida to Brazil and Peru; Leptodon (4 sp.), Central America to South Brazil and Bolivia; Gypoietinia (1 sp.), South and West Australia; Blanus (5 sp.), Africa, India, and Malay Archipelago to Australia, South America to California; Gampsonya (1 sp.), Trinidad to Brazil; Henicopernis (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Machaerhamphus (2 sp.), South-west Africa, Madagascar, and Malacca; Pernis (3 sp.), Palaearctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian regions. - * * - Sub-family V.FALCONINAE (11 genera, 80 species), cosmopolitan. —Baza (10 sp.), India and Ceylon to the Moluccas and North Australia, West Coast of Africa, Natal, and Madagascar; Harpagus (3 sp.), Central America to Brazil and Peru; Ictinia (2 sp.), Brazil to Southern United States; Hieraw (=Microhieraw, Sharpe), (4 sp.), Eastern Himalayas to Borneo and Philippines; Poliohieraa, (2 sp.), East Africa and Burmah ; Spiziapterya (1 sp.), La Plata; Harpa (1 sp.), New Zealand and the Auckland Islands; Falco (27 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Pacific Islands; Hierofalco (6 sp.), Nearctic and Palaearctic regions; Hierácidea (2 sp.), Australia ; Cerchmeis (22 sp.), cosmopolitan, except Oceania.
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The Pandionidae, or Fishing Hawks, are universally distributed, with the exception of the Southern Temperate parts of South America. The genera are:–
Pandion (1 sp.), the range of the entire family; Polioaetus (2 sp.), India through Malay Archipelago to Celebes and Sandwich Islands.
The Strigidae, or Owls, form an extensive and well-known family of nocturnal birds, which, although invariably placed next the Hawks, are now believed to be not very closely allied to the other Accipitres. They range over the whole globe, extending to the extreme polar regions and to the remotest oceanic islands. Their classification is very unsettled, and we therefore place the genera, for convenience, in the order in which they follow each other in the Hand List of Birds. Those adopted by most ornithologists are the following:—
Surnia (1 sp.), the Arctic regions of both hemispheres; Nycted (1.sp.), South Carolina to Greenland and Northern Europe; Athene (40 sp.), the Eastern hemisphere to New Zealand and the Solomon Islands; Minov (7 sp.), the Oriental region, North China and Japan; Glaucidium (7 sp.), Neotropical region, California, and Oregon, Europe to North China; Micrathene (1 sp.), Mexico and Arizona; Pholeoptyna (2 sp.), Neotropical region, Texas, and North-west America; Bubo (16 sp.), universally distributed, excluding the Australian region; Ketupa (3 sp.), the Oriental region, Palestine; Scotopelia (2 sp.), West and South Africa; Scops (30 sp.), universally distributed, excluding Australia and Pacific Islands; Gymnoglauw (2 sp.), Antilles; Lophostria; (2 sp.), Lower Amazon to Guatemala; Syrmium (22 sp.), all regions but the Australian; Ciccaba (10 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico ; Nyctalatinus (1 sp.), Columbia; Pulsatriæ (2 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Guatemala; Asio (6 sp.), all regions but the Australian, Sandwich Islands; Nyctalops (1 sp.), Cuba and Mexico to Brazil and Monte Video; Pseudoscops (1 sp.), Jamaica; Nyctala (4 sp.), the North Temperate zone; Striæ (18 sp.), universally distributed; Phodilus (1 sp.), Himalayas and Malaya.
In Mr. Sharpe's Catalogue (published while this work was passing through the press) the genera of Owls are reduced to 19, arranged in two families—-Strigidae, containing our last two genera, and Bubonidae, comprising the remainder. The species are increased to 190; but some genera are reduced, as Stria, which is said to contain only 5 species.
General Remarks on the Distribution of the Accipitres.
The Birds of Prey are so widely distributed over the world's surface that their general distribution calls for few remarks. Of the four families all but one are cosmopolites, Vultures alone being absent from the Australian region, as well as from Indo-Malaya and Madagascar. If we take the sub-families, we find that each region has several which are confined to it. The only parts of the world where there is a marked deficiency of Accipitres is in the islands of the Pacific ; and it may be noted, as a rule, that these birds are more abundant in continents than in islands. There is not so much difference between the number of Birds of Prey in tropical and temperate regions, as is found in most other groups of land-birds. North America and Europe have about 60 species each, while India has about 80, and South America about 120. The total number of Accipitres is 550 comprised in 104 genera, and 4 (or perhaps more properly 5) families. In this estimate I have not included the Serpentariidae, containing the Secretary Bird of Africa, as there is some doubt whether it really belongs to the Order.
The Rails are among the most widely distributed families of birds, many of the genera being cosmopolitan, and several of the species ranging over half the globe. They are found in many remote islands; and in Some of these—as the Gallinula of Tristan d'Acunha, and the Notornis of Lord Howe's Island and New Zealand,-they have lost the power of flight. The classification of the Rallidae is not satisfactory, and the following enumeration of the genera must only be taken as affording a provisional sketch of the distribution of the group —
Rallus (18 sp.), Porzana (24 sp.), Gallinula (17 sp.), and Fulica (10 sp.), have a world-wide range; Ortygometra (1 sp.), ranges over the whole North Temperate zone; Porphyrio (14 sp.), is more especially Oriental and Australian, but occurs also in South America, in Africa, and in South Europe; Eulaleornis (15 sp.), is Ethiopian, Malayan, and Australian; Himantornis (1 sp.), is West African only; Aramides (24 sp.), is North and South American; Rallina (16 sp.), is Oriental, but ranges eastward to Papua; Habroptila (1 sp.), is confined to the Moluccas; Pareudiastes (1 sp.), the Samoa Islands; Tribonya (4 sp.), is Australian, and has recently been found also in New Zealand; Oeydromus (4 sp.).; Notornis (2 sp.), (Plate XIII. Vol. I. p. 455); and Cabalus (1 sp.), are peculiar to the New Zealand group. The sub-family, Heliornithinae (sometimes classed as a distinct family) consists of 2 genera, Heliornis (1 sp.), confined to the Neotropical region; and Podica (4 sp.), the Ethiopian region excluding Madagascar, and with a species (perhaps forming another genus) in Borneo.
Eatinct Rallidae.—Remains of some species of this family have been found in the Mascarene Islands, and historical evidence shows that they have perhaps been extinct little more than a century. They belong to the genus Pulica, and to two extinct genera, Aphanapterya and Erythromachus. The Aphanoptery.” was a large bird of a reddish colour, with loose plumage, and perhaps allied to Oeydromus. Erythromachus was much smaller, of a grey-and-white colour, and is said to have lived chiefly on the eggs of the land-tortoises. (See Ibis, 1869, p. 256; and Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 40.)
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The Scolopacidae, comprehending the Snipes, Sandpipers, Curlews, and allied genera, are perhaps as truly cosmopolitan as any family of birds, ranging to the extreme north and visiting the remotest islands. The genera of universal distribution are the following:—
Numenius (16 sp.); Limosa (6 sp.); Totanus (12 sp.); Tringoides, (6 sp.); Himantopus (6 sp.); Tringa (20 sp.); and Gallimago (24 sp.). Those which have a more or less restricted distribution are:— -
Ibidorhyncha (1 sp.), Central Asia and the Himalayas (Plate VII. Vol. I. p. 331); Helodromas (1 sp.), Palaearctic region and North India; Terekia (1 sp.), East Palaearctic, wandering to India and Australia; Recurvirostra (6 sp.), Nearctic region to the High Andes, South Palaearctic, East and South Africa, Hindostan and Australia; Micropelama (1 sp.), North America to Chili; Machetes (1 sp.), Palaearctic region and Hindostan (Plate I. Vol. I. p. 195); Ereunetes (3 sp.), Nearctic and Neotropical; Eurimorhynchus (1 sp.), North-east Asia and Bengal; Calidris (1 sp.), all regions but Australian; Macrorhamphus (3 sp.), Palaearctic and Nearctic, visits Brazil and India; Scolopaz. (4 sp.), the whole Palaearctic region, to India, Java, and Australia; Philohela (1 sp.), East Nearctic; Rhynchaea (4 sp.), Ethiopian and Oriental, Australia, and Temperate South America; Phalaropus (3 sp.), North Temperate zone, and West Coast of America to Chili.