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FAMILY 95–LEPIDOSTEIDAE. (I Genus, 3 Species)

“Fresh-water fishes, with ganoid scales, and dorsal and anal fins composed of articulated rays.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The genus Lepidosteus, the Garfishes or Bony Pikes, inhabits North America to Mexico and Cuba.

Order II—CHONDROSTEI.

o Sub-cartilaginous scaleless fishes with heterocercal tail, the skin with Osseous bucklers or naked.”

FAMILY 96.—ACCIPENSERIDAE. (2 Genera, 20 Species)

“Marine or fresh-waterfishes with Osseous bucklers and inferior mouth.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Accipenser (19 sp.), comprising the Sturgeons, has the distribution of the family; most of the species are marine, but some are confined to the Caspian and Black Seas and the great American lakes with the rivers flowing into them, while the Danube, Mississippi, and Columbia River have peculiar species. The other genus, Scaphirhynchus (1 sp.), is confined to the Mississippi and its tributaries.

EAMILY 97.—POLY DONTIDAE. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, with wide lateral mouth and naked skin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The Mississippi and Yang-tse-kiang rivers.

SUB.CLAss IV.-CHONDROPTERYGII. (SHARKs AND RAYS.)

Order I—HOLOCEPHAL.A. (Chimaeras)

FAMILY 98–CHIMAERIDAE. (2 Genera, 4 Species.)

“Shark-like marine fishes, snout of the male with a prehensile Organ.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Northern and Southern temperate seas. Chimara is British.

Order II—PLAGIOSTOMA TA.

Sub-order.—SELACHOIDEA. (Sharks)

FAMILY 99–CARCHARIIDAE (11 Genera, 59 Species) “Sharks with two dorsals and a nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of the Arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Species of Galeus and Mustelus have occurred on our Coasts.

FAMILY 100—LAMNIDAE (5 Genera, 7 Species) “Sharks with two dorsals and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas. Species of Lamma, Alopecias, and Selache have occurred in British seas.

EAMILY 101,–RHINODONTIDAE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“Sharks with two dorsal fins, the second small, and no nictitating membrane.”

Distribution—South and East Africa.

FAMILY 102.—NOTIDANIDAE. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) “Sharks with one dorsal fin and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas, from the North Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope and California. One species has occurred on Our Southern coasts.

FAMILY 103–SCYLLIIDAE (7 Genera, 25 Species) “Sharks with one dorsal fin and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—All temperate and tropical seas. Species of Scyllium and Pristiurus are British.

FAMILY 104.—CESTRACIONTIDAE. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) “Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Pacific Ocean from Japan to New Zealand, Moluccan Sea.

FAMILY 105—SPINACIDAE (10 Genera, 21 Species) “Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane, no

anal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Arctic, temperate, and tropical seas. Species

of Acanthias, Laemargus, and Echinorhinus have occurred on Oul CoastS.

FAMILY 106–RHINIDAE (1 Genus, 1 Species)

<& Sharks with depressed flat body and large expanded pectoral fins.” - - * :-

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas, from Britain to California and Australia.

EAMILY 107–PRISTIOPHORIDAE (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

“Sharks with produced flat snout, armed with teeth on each edge.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of Japan and Australia.

Sub-order BATOIDEI. (Rays)

EAMILY 108.—PRISTIDAE. (1 Genus, 5 Species) “Rays with produced snout and lateral saw-like teeth.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Seas of tropical and sub-tropical regions.

FAMILY 109–RHINOBATIDAE (3 Genera, 15 Species)

“Rays with long and strong tail, having a caudal and two dorsal fins.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical and sub-tropical seas.

FAMILY 110–TORPEDINIDAE. (6 Genera, 15 Species.) “Rays with broad smooth disc, and an electric organ.” Distribution—Tropical and temperate seas, from Britain to Tasmania. EAMILY 111–RAIIDAE. (4 Genera, 29 Species.)

“Rays with broad rhombic disc and no serrated caudal spine.”

DISTRIBUTION.—All temperate and tropical seas. Several species of Raia are found on our coasts.

FAMILY 112–TRYGONIDAE. (6 Genera, 43 Species) “Rays with the pectoral fins extending to end of snout.” Distribution—Seas of all temperate and tropical regions, and rivers of Tropical America. A species of Trygon has occurred on our Southern coast. Ellipesurus and Toeniura are found in the fresh waters of the interior of South America, while the latter genus occurs also in the Indian seas, but not in the Atlantic.

FAMILY 113—MYLOBATIDAE (5 Genera, 22 Species)

“Rays with very broad pectoral fins not extending to end of snout.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical seas. A species of Myliobatis is British, but most of the species and genera are confined to tropical seas. Dicerobatis and Ceratoptera are very large Rays, commonly called Sea-devils.

SUB-CLAss W.-CYCLOSTOMATA.

& Cartilaginous fishes, with suctorial mouths and without lateral fins.”

FAMILY 114—PETROMYZONTIDAE (4 Genera, 12 Species.)

“ Marine or fresh-water eel-like fishes, with suctorial mouths and without barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Coasts and fresh waters of temperate regions of both hemispheres. Three species of Petromyzon (Lampreys), are British.

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