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Tortoise-shell, Peacock, Painted Lady, and Purple Emperor butterflies. They are found wherever butterfly-life can exist, and some single species—like the Painted Lady (Pyrameis cardui)—range almost over the globe. A few of the more extensive and remarkable genera only, can be here noticed:— Colonis, Agraulis, Eresia, Synchloe, Epicalia, Eunica, Eubagis, Catagramma, Callithea, Ageronia, Timetes, Heterochroa, Prepona, Hypna, Paphia, and Siderone, are wholly Neotropical, as well as many others which have a smaller number of species. Eurypheme, Romaleosoma, Aterica, and Harma, are exclusively Ethiopian. Terinos, Athyma, Adolias, and Tanaecia, are Oriental, but they mostly extend into the Moluccan region; the last however is strictly Malayan, and Adolias only reaches Celebes. Mynes alone, is exclusively Australian, but Prothoe is almost so, having only one outlying species in Java. Eurytela and Ergolis are confined to the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, but the latter reaches the Moluccas. Cethosia, Cirrhochroa, Messaras, and Symphaedra, are both Oriental and Australian ; while Jumonia, Cyrestis, Diadema, Neptis, and Wymphalis, are common to the three tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere, the latter extending into the Mediterranean district, while Jumonia occurs also in South America and the Southern United States. The most cosmopolitan genus is Pyrameis, which has representatives in every region and every district. Apatura is found in all but the Ethiopian and the Australian, although it just enters the confines of the latter region in Celebes; Limenitis is abundant in the Oriental region, but extends eastward to Celebes and westward into Europe, North America, and even into South America. Argynnis, Melitoea, and Vanessa, are almost confined to the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions; the former however occurs in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Java, and also in Chili and in Jamaica. Two genera—Dicrorrhagia and Helcyra—have both one species in North India and another in the island of Ceram. The number of genera peculiar to each region is as follows:–Neotropical, 50; Australian, 2.; Oriental 15; Ethiopian, 14 ; Palaearctic, 1; Nearctic, 0.
The genus Libythea, which constitutes this family, appears to have its head-quarters in the Oriental region, but extends on all sides in an erratic manner, into various remote and disconnected portions of the globe, as indicated above.
This group has been separated from the Erycinidae of the older authors, and contains all the non-American genera and species. Half the genera and nearly four-fifths of the species of this group are, however, Neotropical; one is European; two or three African; and twenty-six Oriental and Australian. The genera are — Nomeobius (1 sp.), Europe; Dodona (6 sp.), North India; Zemeros (2 sp.), North India and Malaya ; Abisara (11 sp.), North India, Malayan and Moluccan districts, Madagascar and West Africa; Tawila (8 sp.), North India and Malaya; Dicallaneura (2 sp.), Moluccan district; Alesa (6 sp.), Eunogyra (2 sp.), Cremma (7 sp.), Boeotis (3 sp.), are all from the Brazilian sub-region; Eurybia (10 sp.), Mesosemia (80 sp.), inhabit both the Brazilian and Mexican sub-regions.
This small family, separated from the true Erycinidae by Mr. Bates, is confined to the tropical forest-districts of continental America. The genera are:—
Eurygona (71 sp.); Methonella (1 sp.); the latter found in Equatorial South America.
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This extensive family of small, but exquisitely beautiful butterflies, is especially characteristic of the virgin forests of the Neotropical region, only a few species of three genera extending into the Nearctic region. The more important genera, and those which have an exceptional distribution, can alone be here noticed. Charis extends from Brazil to New York; Apodemia from Brazil to California, Utah, and Oregon; Amarynthis inhabits the Brazilian and Antillean sub-regions; Lepricornis and Metapheles are small genera found only in the Mexican sub-region; Lymnas, Necyria, Ancyluris, Diorhina, Esthemopsis, Anteros, Emesis, Symmachia, Cricosoma, Calydna, Lemonias, Nymphidium, Theope, and Aricoris are common to the Brazilian and Mexican sub-regions. All the other genera (40 in number) are only known from the Brazilian sub-region, and of these a considerable proportion are confined to the damp equatorial forests of the Amazon Valley.
The Lycaenidae—of the variety and beauty of which in tropical regions our own “Blues” and “Coppers” give but a faint idea —are a group of universal distribution. We shall therefore indicate those genera which are restricted to one or more regions, or are nearly cosmopolitan. The large genus Polyommatus (containing 325 species) has the same universal distribution as the entire family. Our common “Blues” well represent this genus. Lycaena (comprising the “Coppers") is more especially characteristic of the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, but straggling species occur also in North India, South Africa, Chili, and New Zealand. Thecla is especially characteristic of the Neotropical region, where there are about 370 species; in the Nearctic region, 36; in the Palaearctic 13; and in the Ethiopian 3. Miletus, Lucia, Hypolycaena, Myrina, and Deudoria are common to the three tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere—the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian. Aphneus and Iolaus are common to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, the latter extending to Celebes. Ialmenus, Pseudodipsas, Curetis, and Amblypodia are common to the Oriental and Australian regions, but the first-named is found also in Madagascar. Zephyrus is found only in the Nearctic and Palaearctic, Eumaeus in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The Nearctic region has one peculiar genus (Feniseca); the Palaearctic has two–Thestor and Loeosopis; the Ethiopian has nine—Pentila, Liptana, D'Urbania, Awiocerces, Capys, Phytala, Epitola, Hewitsonia, and Deloneura ; the Oriental has five–Allotinus, Ilerda, Poritia, Camena, and Liphyra ; the Australian has three—Hypochrysops, Utica, and Ogyris; and the Neotropical also three—Lamprospilus, Theorema, and Trichonis.
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The Pieridae are distributed almost, if not quite, as widely over the globe as the last family, and we shall group the genera in the same manner. Pieris (130 sp.) is cosmopolitan; Terias and Callidryas are found in all the four tropical regions, and as far north as Pennsylvania in the Nearctic region; Pontia, Tachyris, Eronia, and TheStias are common to the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, the last-named, however, only extending as far as Timor; Colias is pre-eminently Palaearctic and Nearctic, with a few Ethiopian species, one Indian, two in Chili, and one in the Sandwich Islands; Anthocharis is wholly Palaearctic and Nearctic; Midea has two species Nearctic, and one in Japan; Gonepteryx is Palaearctic and Neotropical, extending into Texas; Idmais and Callosune are Ethiopian and Oriental; Thyca and Iphias are Oriental and Australian ; Meganostoma is Nearctic and Neotropical ; Nathalis and Kricogonia are Neotropical, ranging into Florida, Texas, and Colorado. .
The peculiar genera are pretty equally distributed. The Neotropical region has ten, two being confined to Chili; Euterpe and Leptalis are the most remarkable, the latter containing a number of forms mimicking the Heliconidae and Danaidae. The Oriental region has two, Prioneris and Dercas; the Australian one, Elodina ; the Ethiopian two, Teracolus and Pseudopontia ; the Palaearctic two, Leucophasia and Zegris; the Nearctic one, Neophasia.