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garded as the standard of the veterinary science. Its professors at this period were designated Veterinarii, a term derived from veterinus, a horse, so called by Pliny, probably from the steady and quiet disposition manifested by that noble animal when trained for the service of man: and although the veterinary art in the present day is looked upon as synonymous with farriery, still this latter term, from ferrarius, (ferrum, iron), with stricter propriety would apply to that useful and important branch of the art, namelythe shoeing of horses

As farriers, or those who made it their business to shoe horses, were, in the long reign of barbarism which followed the incursions of the Goths and Vandals into Europe, the only persons who practised as horse-doctors, the distinction between veterinary and farriery became extinct, and they are now looked upon as one ani the same thing: nor is this to be wondered at when we reflect that books of every description were in that age of darkness shut up in the libraries of the convents, and learning confined to the priesthood and some few of the nobles. Consequently, as the practice of shoeing horses with iron was then first commenced, the men so employed, called farriers, were likewise resorted to as the sole persons who troubled themselves to procure what little knowledge existed of the veterinary science.

When a brighter day began to dawn, and learning dissipated the gloom of ignorance, in the sixteenth century, this science found a patron in Francis the First of France. Germany, France, and Italy, vied with each other in producing works on the subject. The writings of Camper and Cæsar Fiarchi were of considerable note. Blundeville, Mascal, Markham, and others, in England, now likewise began to apply

themselves to its study: Dr. Bracken deserves particular mention, as does Osmer, who wrote several able treatises, and thus contributed materially to the improvement and success of the art.

But the greatest impetus towards excellence was given by the establishment of a Veterinary College at Lyons, in 1761, under the auspicious patronage of royalty. The example of France was followed by most of the other states of Europe ; and at this present tine we find colleges for the advancement of the science in almost every capital.

M. Vial de St. Bel was the first who proposed the erection of such an institution in England, but not meeting with the success he anticipated he returned to France. In 1790 he again made the attempt, and receiving considerable support from the Agricultural Society of Odiham, in Hampshire, he was enabled to open the institution in the same year: of this he was appointed the first Professor.

Many writers of celebrity now appeared. Blaine, who was assistant professor with M. St. Bel, Lawrence, White, and others, came into the field, and considerable improvement in the science was making daily. Broadman published his “ Veterinary Dictionary:" and in 1823 Mr. Percivall sent forth his invaluable work—"A Series of Elementary Lectures on the Veterinary Art.” Add to these a host of names appeared whose writings have illumined the horizon of the Veterinary Art, which is fast advancing to meridian splendour.

It may not be irrelevant to the subject to make the reader acquainted with a few of the Rules of the College.

Those who intend to become pupils, are required to pay a fee of twenty guineas. A general examination

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themselves to its study: Dr. Bracken deserves particular mention, as does Osmer, who wrote several able treatises, and thus contributed materially to the improvement and success of the art.

But the greatest impetus towards excellence was given by the establishment of a Veterinary College at Lyons, in 1761, under the auspicious patronage of royalty. The example of France was followed by most of the other states of Europe; and at this present tine we find colleges for the advancement of the science in almost every capital.

M. Vial de St. Bel was the first who proposed the erection of such an institution in England, but not meeting with the success he anticipated he returned to France. In 1790 he again made the attempt, and receiving considerable support from the Agricultural Society of Odiham, in Hampshire, he was enabled to open the institution in the same year: of this he was appointed the first Professor.

Many writers of celebrity now appeared. Blaine, who was assistant professor with M. St. Bel, Lawrence, White, and others, came into the field, and considerable improvement in the science was making daily. Broadman published his“ Veterinary Dictionary:" and in 1823 Mr. Percivall sent forth his invaluable work—“ A Series of Elementary Lectures on the Veterinary Art.” Add to these a host of num appeared whose writings have illumined the of the Veterinary Art, which is fant ridian splendour.

It may not be irrelevant to t ! reader acquainted with a few College.

Those who intend to become pay a fee of twenty guineas.

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takes place every quarter of a year, but no specified time is stipulated for a student's becoming acquainted with the art, which depends upon his own ability and perseverance. Two guineas per annum is the fee for subscribers, or twenty guineas constitutes a member for life. This entitles the subscriber to send any number of horses, provided they be. lame or sick; to the veterinary stables of the establishment, where they remain till cured, the proprietor paying only for the keep and shoeing; medicine and attendance being included in the subscription. Non-subscribers may send their horses for the inspection of the college surgeons, but they must not be admitted to the stables.

In addition to the works I have already named, the veterinary student, and indeed all who admire or take any pride or interest in that noble animal the horse, will find much good information in that very excellent “ Treatise on the Horse," published under the auspices of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; and a monthly publication entitled “The Veterinarian," will give an insight into all the writings and improvements which are daily making in the art.

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE HORSE.

In Zoology the horse belongs to that family or class called Equus, which consist of many varieties, as the Equus Assinus, (the ass), Equus Zebras, (the zebra), Equus Hernionus, (the dziggtai), Equus Montanus, (the dauw), and the Equus Quagga, (qagga). At the head of these stands the Equus Caballus, or Common Horse. Although there are many varieties of

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