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right, I am fure they cannot be in the Wrong: Their Grievances and their Dangers were much more importunate than our own. I thought every Thing degenerated which was carried into that Country: It seems I am mistaken; or perhaps Oppreffion, which makes a wife Man Mad, can alfo make a Coward Valiant. I fear we are generally too partial to our own Home, and injurioufly fo with Regard to our Neighbours. A truebred English 'Squire believes his Countrymen to be more powerful, more valiant, more wealthy, more numerous, more polite, more learned, more wife, not only than any other Nation, but than all the Nations on the Face of the Earth put together: If we could look on other Countries with an impartial Eye, we might fee, that they have Numbers of People, and Sources of Wealth, and that they can either think or fight as well as ourfelves. The old Aldermen in all our CountryBoroughs, have learned from Baker's Chronicle the Succeffes of our Edwards and our Henries against France: They alfo know enough of our Story, to tell us that Scotland was not with us in thofe Days, and that Ireland was of no Benefit to us; but they forget, that the best Provinces of modern France were then under 'Princes of their own, mortal Enemies to that Crown; they do not perceive the inteftine Disorders which made Way for the English Arms; nor how eafy it was for a Neighbouring Prince, who had their Royal Blood in his Veins, to make Parties among a People of his own Religion, and how impoffible that Piece of Policy has been rendered by the Reformation: Modern France has at least twenty Millions of People, and the whole British Empire not half that Number. The like Alteration has


been produced in Spain, long fince our Black Prince made a Figure on that Part of the Continent. That Country, of many Kingdoms, is become one. So that tho' our ancient Kings in the Holy War may have been as great and powerful as any of their Neighbours; yet we have Reafon to fufpect, that not even the Accefs of Scotland under the fame Allegiance with us, nor the Growth of Ireland in People, in Civility, and in Wealth, have been able to make us keep Pace with the vaft Increase of Power in the Crowns of France and Spain, fince the Times I mentioned. And Heaven only knows what Scotland will do now.

If we expect to be of Importance in Europe, ought we not to make a Coalition with those who are both of our own Blood and our own Religion, and not force them by Hardships into a Spirit of Faction? Cromwell, in one of his Parliaments, rejected many Boroughs, and increased the Number of Representatives for Counties: I have been told the late Lord Clarendon ufed to fay, That this was an Amendment to be wished for in better TIMES. Oliver brought the Reprefentatives of the Three Kingdoms to fit in one Parliament: Is not this also an Alteration to be wifhed for at all Times? It is a Propofition which indeed ought to be an Axiom in our Politicks, that these Kingdoms can never make a great and happy Empire, whilst the constituent Parts envy the Profperity of each other, whilft the Stronger oppreffes the Weaker, and the Weaker is tempted to wifh for an Opportunity to chufe a milder Lord, or even to fet up for an Independency; which we must never think a Thing impoffible, because in the laft Century our Great-Grandfathers faw Seven little Districts break loofe from the other Ten,

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(the whole being but a fmall Part of a mighty Empire) and fet up for themselves with fuch swift Succefs, as in the fame Generation to beat their old Sovereign off the Ocean; and in the present Century, have not our Fathers feen the Revolt of Portugal from the fame extended Empire, tho' Portugal is a Country, neither fpacious, populous, nor warlike; not defended from Spain by the Dangers of boisterous Seas, nor by the Difficulties of Alps, or Appenines?

The People of Ireland cannot be fuppofed ignorant of their own Story; and indeed it is hard to find out, what has made them Slaves? or to be confidered as a conquered People? especially if it be true, that at leaft Nine Tenths of the LandEstate in that Kingdom is at present in the Conquerors Hands; and that this present War will probably make the like Divifion of the other Tenth, and this by the Aid and Arms of the English Proteftants of Ireland. Do Englishmen become Slaves by Conquering? These are Reftrained ProvincialPoliticks. Let us fhew that a limited Monarchy can increase and thrive as well as an abfolute one. Let us only rival Foreigners; but let us not deprefs one Country, Province, or Member of our own Empire, in Hopes to raise another. I fuppofe, if the Common-Council of London could make Laws for all England, we should have all the Manufactures of all the different Cities and Counties restrained to the Freemen of London only, and only to be carried on within the Sound of Bow-bell: Norwich or Taunton might probably take as great a Liking to the Woollen Manufacture, and Birmingham to the Monopoly of Hard-Ware. What Pity it is that fuch hopeful Schemes are not carried into Execution! How rich would they


render the Nation! How powerful the Prince in Proportion to the other Kings of Europe! How fecurely we should engross our Manufactures without any Danger of being under-fold by our Neighbours! Tho' we have no Occafion to extend the Limits of the British Empire, yet, we should purfue fuch Maxims as will make it flourish, for Na→ ture has done her Part for us. Our Situation tells us, that we have no Business on the Continent; that if France or Spain fhould make a Present to us of a Dozen ftrong Towns in Flanders, they would not be worth the Keeping; and we should only have Occafion to refolve into what Hands to put them. The common Experience of every Trader will tell us, that our Manufactures must be made cheap, if we would fell cheap; and that if our Neighbours can under-fell us, we may leave off Trade. We ought always to remember that the Woollen Manufacture came from Flanders, and the Silk from France, to England, and both by the Means of Oppreffion, no Matter whether Religious or Political, (tho' I think Grotius infifts, that the Netherlands fought for Liberty, not for Religion) it should therefore be our Care, that, in guarding against a Rival in Trade, we do not mistake our Mark; and that when we suppress the Irish, whofe whole Profits center with us, and add to our Power, we do not advance the French, and ftrengthen the Hands of our most dangerous, our Hereditary Enemy. It would indeed be a grateful Return for the Prefent which they have wifely made us within these laft twenty Years, of a large Number of their induftrious Artizans; but, I believe, the moft fcrupulous English Cafuift will be content to remain in their Debt on this Account.

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I shall not at present undertake to shew the Probability that, letting Ireland into a full Trade, and into an Union too, would inrich and aggrandize this Kingdom I fear you would believe I had taken too many Paradoxes on my Hands at once; but if I find you can digeft Part of the Doctrines already advanced, I fhall take another Opportunity to fhew that the true Scheme of National Trade is, to difperfe the Multitude of Working-Hands thro' the cheapest Provinces, and that then you will have Gold as Brafs, and Silver as Stones in the Streets of your Metropolis. I would attempt to prove, that nothing but a flourishing Trade, fupported by wife Treaties, brought Jerufalem to that happy Condition in the Days of Solomon: He raised great, but not heavy Taxes, for his Wifdom had brought fuch a Balance of Trade to his Kingdom, that his People were well able to bear them; they never murmured at them, till they got a weak Man for their King, who expected to reap what he had not fown; and I do not read (tho' Jerufalem was the Seat of Empire, and Solomon was of the Tribe of Judah) that there was any Difference made to the Prejudice of the Commerce of the reft of the Tribes. I could wish to give you a Sketch of the British Ifles united in one Interest and one Parliament, then might we hope for the Dominion of all the Ifles of the Bay of Mexico, and of the Ocean. A Dominion more open for us to acquire, and more easy to retain, than any the most inconfiderable Part of the Continent of Europe.

There is one Thing to be lamented in our Management of Foreign Acquifitions. We get an ufelefs Access of Land, at a great Expence of our People. We hardly ever make a new Subject;


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