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there are more mainsprings and chains broken through a jerk in winding, than from any other cause, which injury will, sooner or later, be the result, if the key be in bad order. Thirdly: As all metals contract by cold, and expand by heat, it must be manifest, that to keep the watch as nearly as possible at one temperature, is necessary piece of attention. Fourthly : Keep the watch as constantly as possible in one position--that is, if it hangs by day, let it hang by night against something soft. Fifthly : the hands of a pocket-chronometer or duplex watch, should never be set backwards; in other watches this is a matter of no consequence. Sixthly: The glass should never be opened in watches that set and regulate at the back. One or two other directions more, it is of vital importance that you bear in mind. On regulating a watch, should it be fast, move the regulator a trifle towards the slow, and if going slow, do the reverse; you cannot move the regulator too slightly or too gently at a time, and the only inconvenience that can arise is, that you may have to perform the duty more than once. On the contrary, if you move the regulator too much at a time you will be as far, if not farther than ever, from attaining your object; so that you may repeat the movement until quite tired and disappointed-stoutly blaming both watch and watch-maker, while the fault is entirely your own. Again, you cannot be too careful in respect of the nature and condition of your watch-pocket; see that it be made of some material that is soft and pliant-such as wash-leather, which is the best; and, also, that there be no flue or nap that may be torn off when taking the watch out of the pocket. Cleanliness, too, is as needful here as in the key before winding; for if there be dust or dirt in either instance, it will, you may rely upon it, work its way into the watch, as well as wear away the engine turning of the case.
DOMESTIC ECONOMY, AND OTHER MATTERS WORTH
Of the different kinds of Tea, Coffee, dc.—Preserving Fruits,
Flowers, &c.Cure of Fires—and other Hints.
739.— The names of the different kinds of tea, relate to the time of their being gathered, or to some peculiarity in their manufacture. It is a general rule, that all tea is fine in proportion to the tenderness and immaturity of the leaves. The quality and value of the different kinds diminish as they are gathered later in the season.
Black Teas.-As soon as the leaf-bud begins to expand, it is gathered to make Pekoe. A few days' later growth produces black-leaved Pekoe. The next picking is called Souchong; as the leaves grow larger and more mature, they form Congou ; and the last picking is Bohea.
Bohea is called by the Chinese, Ta-cha (large tea), on account of the maturity and size of the leaves; it contains a larger proportion of woody fibre than other teas, and its infusion is of a darker color and coarser flavor.
Congou, the next higher kind, is named from a corruption of the Chinese Koong-foa (great care, or assiduity). This forms the bulk of the black tea imported, and is mostly valued for its strength.
Souchong-Seaou-choong (small, scarce sort), is the finest of the stronger black tea, with a leaf that is generally entire and curly. It is much esteemed for its fragrance and fine flavor.
Pekoe is a corruption of the Canton name, Pak-ho (whito down), being the first sprouts of the leaf-buds; they are covered with a white silky down. It is a delicate tea, rather deficient in strength, and is principally used for flavoring other teas.
740. GREEN TEAs.—The following are the principal kinds : Twankay, Hyson-Skin, Hyson, Gunpowder, and Young Hyson.
Young Hyson is a delicate young leaf, called in the original language, Yu-tsien (before the rains), because gathered in the early spring.
Hyson, from the Chinese word He-tchune, which means, flourishing spring. This fine tea is gathered early in the season, and prepared with great care and labor. Each leaf is picked separately, and nipped off above the footstalk, and every separate leaf is rolled in the hand. It is much esteemed for its flavor.
Gunpowder Tca is only Hyson rolled and rounded, to give it the granular appearance whence it derives its name. The Chic nese call it Choo-cha (pearl tea).
Hyson-Skin is so named from the Chinese term, in which connection skin means the refuse, or inferior portion. In preparing Hyson, all leaves that are of a coarse yellow, or imperfectly twisted appearance, are separated, and sold as skin-tea, at an inferior price.
T'wankay is the last picking of green tea, and the leaf is not rolled or twisted as much as the dearer descriptions. There is altogether less trouble bestowed on the preparation,
741.-The infusion or decoction of the roasted seeds of the coffee-berry, when not too strong, is a wholesome, exhilarating, and strengthening beverage; and, when mixed with a large proportion of milk, is a proper article of diet for literary and sedentary people. It is especially suited to persons advanced in years. People who are bilious and liable to costiveness, should abstain from it. When drank very strong, it proves stimulating and heating in a considerable degree, creating thirst and producing watchfulness. By an abusive indulgence in this drink, the organs of digestion are impaired, the appetite is destroyed, nutrition is impeded, and emaciation, general debility, paralytic affections, and nervous fever, are brought on.
742. Proper method of making Toast and Water, and the advantages resulting therefrom.- Take a slice of fine and stale loaf-bread, cut very thin—as thin as toast is ever cut—and let it be carefully toasted on both sides, until it be completely browned all over, but nowise blackened or burned in any way. Put this into a common deep stone or cbina jug, and pour over it, from the tea-kettle, as much clean boiling water as you wish to make into drink. Much depends on the water being actually in a boiling state. Cover the jug with a saucer or plate, and let the drink cool until it be quite cold; it is then fit to be used. The fresher it is made the better, and of course the more agreeable. The above will be found a pleasant, light, and highlydiuretic drink. It is peculiarly grateful to the stomach, and excellent for carrying off the effects of any excess in drinking. It is also a most excellent drink at meals, and may be used in the summer-time, if more agreeable to the drinker.
743. Baked Milk.—Put half a gallon of milk into a jar, and tie it down with writing-paper. Let it stand in a moderately warm oven about eight or ten hours. It will then be of the consistence of cream. It is used by persons who are weak or consumptive.
744. Substitute for Cream, in Tea or Coffee.-Beat the white of an egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of butter, and mix well. Then turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may not curdle. If perfectly done, it will be an excellent substitute for cream. For tea, omit the butter, using only the egg. This might be of great use at sea, as eggs can be preserved fresh in
745. Economical use of Nutmegs.—If a person begin to grate a nutmeg at the stalk end, it will prove hollow throughout; whereas the same nutmeg, grated from the other end, would have proved sound and solid to the last. This circumstance may thus be accounted for :—The centre of a nutmeg consists of a number of fibres issuing from the stalk, and its continuation through the centre of the fruit; the other ends of which fibres, though closely surrounded and pressed by the fruit, do not adhere to it. When the stalk is grated away, those fibres, having lost their hold, gradually drop out, and the nutmeg appears hollow: as more of the stalk is grated away, others drop out in succession, and the hollow continues through the whole nut. By beginning at the contrary end, the fibres above-mentioned are grated off at their core end, with the surrounding fruit, and do not drop out and cause a hole.
746. To ascertain the quality of Nutmegs.-Oil of nutmegg being of great value, it is often extracted from the nuts which are exposed to sale, and which are thereby rendered of very little value. To ascertain the quality of nutmegs, force a pin into them; and if good, however dry they may appear, the oil will be seen oozing out all round the pin.
747. Essence of Nutmeg—Is made by dissolving one ounce of the essential oil in a pint of rectified spirits. sive but invaluable mode of flavoring, in the arts of the cook or confectioner. .
It is an expen
748. To make Essence of Celery.--Soak for a fortnight half an ounce of the seeds of celery in one gill of brandy. A few drops will flavor a pint of soup or broth equal to a head of celery.
749. Tincture of Lemon-peel.–Fill a wide-mouthed pint bottle half full of brandy; when a lemon is used, pare off the rind very thin, and put it into the brandy. In two weeks the spirit will be strongly impregnated with the flavor of the lemon.
750. To test the purity of Spirits.- See if the liquor will burn away entirely: or, place a hollow ivory-ball in it; the deeper the ball sinks, the lighter the liquor, and consequently more spirituous.
751. To purify Olive Oil.- Turn the oil into a crock or bottle, and pour in a quantity of pure water; shake the vessel vigorously, and let it stand two hours. The mucilaginous matter which is the cause of rancidity, will be separated from the oil, and remain in the water. The oil can be decanted, and rebottled for use.
752. To preserve Eggs. The most simple and easy mode of preserving eggs, is to rub the outside of the shell, as soon as gathered from the nest, with a little butter, or any other grease