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of the gig communicating a different one to the one you give yourself by jumping), which tends very much to throw you on your side or head. Many suppose it very easy to jump a little forward, and alight safe: they will not find it so on trial. The method of getting out behind the carriage, is the most safe of any, having often tried it when the horse has been going very fast. Perhaps it is best to fix yourself firm, and remain in the carriage.
810. Recovery from Suffocation, &c.—There are many occasions of danger, on which a person who can hold breath for a ininute or two, may save the life of another. The best
preparation for rendering such assistance is, by breathing deep, hard, and quick, (as a person would do after running,) and ceasing with his lungs full of air; he will then find himself able to hold his breath more than twice as long as he would without such preparation.
If in a brewer's fermenting vat, or an opened cess-pool, one man sinks senseless and helpless, from breathing the foul air, another man of cool mind would, by the above preparation, have abundant time, in most cases, to descend by the ladder or bucket, and rescue the sufferer, without any risk to himself. In entering a room on fire, a knowledge of this fact may be useful.
The following precautions should also be regarded. Avoid all unnecessary exertion; yo coolly and quietly to the spot where help is required; do no more than is needful, leaving the rest to be done by those in a safe atmosphere.
In case of choke-damp, as in a brewer's vat, hold the head as high as may be: in case of a fire in the room, keep the head as low as possible.
If a rope be at hand, fasten it to the person who is giving help, that he may be succored, if he venture too far. Many deaths happen in succession in cess-pools, and similar cases,
for want of this precaution.
It is hardly needful to say, do not try to breathe the air of the place where help is required. Yet many persons fail, in consequence of forgetting this precaution. If the temptation to breathe be at all given way to, the necessity increases, and the helper himself is greatly endangered. Resist the tendency, and retreat in time.
Be careful to commence giving aid with the lungs full of air,
not empty; for the preparation consists chiefly in laying up for the time, in the lungs, a store of that pure air which is so essen tial to life,
811. Thunder Storms.—The safest situation during a thunderstorm is the cellar; for when a person is below the surface of the earth, the lightning must strike it before it can reach him, and will probably be expended on it. Dr. Franklin advises persons apprehensive of lightning to sit in the middle of a room, not under a metal lustre, or any other conductor, and to place their feet upon another chair. It will be still safer, he adds, to lay two or three beds or mattresses in the middle of the room, and to place the chairs upon them. A hammock suspended with silk cords would be an improvement on this apparatus, Persons out of doors should avoid trees, &c.
The distance of a thunder-storm and its consequent danger can easily be estimated. As light travels at the rate of 192,000 miles in a second of time, its effects may be considered as instantaneous within any moderate distance. Sound is transmitted at the rate of only 1142 feet in a second. By observing, therefore, the time which intervenes between the flash of lightning and the thunder which accompanies it, a very near calculation inay be made of its distance.
812. Stroke of Lightning.—Throw cold water upon them as soon as possible. It will often restore persons struck by lightning when apparently insensible, or even dead.
813. A few Concise Rules for the Recovery of Persons ap parently Drowned.—The body on being taken out of the water, should be conveyed to the nearest house, in the gentlest manner possible ; the wet clothes must be removed, and the body well dried with a towel; it must then be placed on a mattress, laid on a table of proper height and length. Care must always bo taken to lay the head considerably higher than the extremities, and to place the body on the right side. The lungs should be inflated with a pair of bellows, not forcibly, but gradually, so as to imitate the action of respiration.
Do not place the body in a high degree of heat; (below 98 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale is the best temperature,) clear the apartment of all supernumerary persons, and let the windows - and doors be open, to admit a tree circulation of air.
Apply friction, after the lungs have been expanded, with the band only, or with a little oil on the fingers.
No injections are necessary, nor emetics, except in particular cases: bleedng is also a doubtful remedy: electricity, in judicious hands, may prove highly beneficial.
Let no rolling of the body be used with a view of emptying it of water; there is no water present, or scarcely any. The heart being overloaded with blood, may be burst by this injudicious proceeding, and more mischief has been done by tossing and rolling the body, than by any other erroneous treatment. Hot water, in bottles, may be applied to the feet and ankles, as soon as respiration commences: when the blood begins to circulate, heat may be gradually increased, and the patient removed to a warm bed, where he must be carefully watched till the action of the heart be completely restored.
The following way is commended by those who have seen it tried : 1. Lose no time. 2. Handle the body gently. 3. Carry the body with the head gently raised, and never hold it up by the feet. 4. Send for medical assistance immediately, and in the mean time act as follows: 1. Strip the body, rub it dry; then rub it in hot blankets, and place it in a warm bed in a warm room. 2. Cleanse away the froth and mucus from the nose and mouth. . 3. Apply warm bricks, bottles, bags of sand, &c., to the arm-pits, between the thighs and the soles of the feet. 4. Rub the surface of the body with the hands enclosed in warm dry worsted socks. 5. If possible, put the body into a warm bath. 6. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a common bellows in one nostril, carefully closing the other and the mouth ; at the same time drawing downward, and pushing gently backward, the upper part of the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air ; blow the bellows gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be raised a little ; then set the mouth and nostrils free, and press gently on the chest ; repeat this until signs of life appear. When the pa tient revives, apply smelling-salts to the nose, give warm wine or brandy and water. Cautions.-1. Never rub the body with salt or spirits. 2. Never roll the body on casks. 3. Continue the remedies for twelve hours without ceasing.
MISTRESS-MOTHER-NURSE- AND MAID.
In which are set forth the prominent Duties of each department,
and the most important Rules for the guidance and care of the Houschold.
OF THE TABLE
814. The taste and management of the mistress are always displayed in the general conduct of the table; for, though that department of the household be not always under her direction, it is always under her eye. Its management involves judgment in expenditure, respectability of appearance, and the comfort of her husband as well as of those who partake of their hospitality. Inattention to it is always inexcusable, and should be avoided for the lady's own sake, as it occasions a disagreeable degree of bustle, and evident annoyance to herself, which is never observable in a well-regulated establishment.
Perhaps there are few occasions on which the respectability of a man is more immediately felt, than the style of dinner tu which he may accidentally bring home a visitor. Every one ought to live according to his circumstances, and the meal of the tradesman ought not to emulate the entertainments of the higher classes; but, if merely two or three dishes be well served, with the proper accompaniments, the table-linen clean, the sinall sideboard neatly laid, and all that is necessary be at hand, the expectation of both the husband and friend will be gratified, because no interruption of the domestic arrangements will disturb their social intercourse.
Should there be only a joint and a pudding, they should
always be served up separately; and the dishes, however small the party, should always form two courses. Thus, in the old fashioned style of " fish, soup, and a roast,” the soup and fish are placed at the top and bottom of the table, removed by the joint with vegetables and pastry; or, should the company consist of eight or ten, a couple or more of side-dishes in the first course, with game and a pudding in the second, accompanied by confectionary, are quite sufficient.
In most of the books which treat of cookery, various bills of fare are given, which are never exactly followed. The mistress should give a moderate number of those dishes which are most in season. The cuts which are inserted in some of those lists, put the soup in the middle of the table—where it should never be placed. For a small party, a single lamp in the centre is sufficient; but, for a larger number, the room should be lighted with lamps hung over the table, and the centre occupied by a plateau of glass or plate, ornamented with flowers or figures.
815. Carefulness.—A proper quantity of household articles should always be allowed for daily use. Each should also be kept in its proper place, and applied to its proper use. Let all repairs be done as soon as wanted, remembering the old adage of "a stitch in time;" and never, if possible, defer any necessary household concern a moment beyond the time when it ought to be attended to.
In the purchase of glass and crockery-ware, either the most customary patterns should be chosen, in order to secure their being easily matched, when broken; or, if a scarce design be adopted, an extra quantity should be bought, to guard against the annoyance of the set being spoiled by breakage—which, in the course of time, must be expected to happen. There should likewise be plenty of coinmon dishes, that the table-set may not be used for putting away cold meat, &c.
The cook should be encouraged to be careful of coals and cinders: for the latter there is a new contrivance for sifting, without dispersing the dust, by means of a covered tin bucket.
Small coal, wetted, makes the strongest fire for the back of the grate, but must remain untouched till it cakes. Cinders, lightly wetted, give a great degree of heat, and are better than coal, for furnaces, ironing-stoves, and ovens.
816. Attention to little things.-Dg attention to little things, the neat appearance of a house may be secured, and time and