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blacking with a short fine sponge, tied round one end of it; and, with this, put some blacking on the blacking-brush, and black the shoe all over; use the polishing-brush directly, while it remains damp, and rub it lightly, yet briskly, till the shoe shines perfectly bright.
When boots or shoes are laid down before a fire to dry, let them be placed at a good distance, or the leather will harden and shrink, and the shoes get out of shape.
998. Of cleaning Candlesticks. It is the duty of the cookmaid to clean the chamber candlesticks used by the servants, and the candlesticks belonging to the kitchen (those used by the family in the parlors, drawing-rooms, and best bed-rooms, belong to the housemaid's work). Before you commence, have a sheet of thick brown paper laid on a table, or on whatever else you intend to clean them, to save making a grease. Then scrape off the grease on to the brown paper with a piece of firewood, and put all you scrape off into your kitchen-stuff. The candlesticks should then be put, upside down, in the deepest candlestick, at a little distance from the fire, so that all the grease may melt, and drain into one. This grease should also be put into the kitchen stuff, and the candlesticks wiped perfectly clean with the candlestick-rag, or with a cloth kept for that purpose. The polishing should be done with a little dry rotten-stone, or dry whiting, put on a leather. The cookmaid has usually a candie-box provided for her, into which she puts all the pieces of candle, for kitchen use. This box should be lined with white paper, which should be frequently renewed, or the candles will become very dirty, and be unpleasant to burn, from bits of the stuff sticking to them. Always set the candles in the candlesticks in the fore part of the day, that they be ready when wanted, and that all the dirty work may be done before cooking commences.
999. Washing-Day.--If the washing be done at home, the cookiaid will have to assist; and the changes of linen, and the kitchen things, usually fall to her share. She generally folds and irons all but the fine things and the dresses. It is usual also for her to fill the copper; and for the housemaid to sort the clothes ready for the wash. Much time as well as labor will be saved by preparing the clothes for the wash the day be fore the washing-day; that is by putting them in soak, tha
fine things and coarse things in different tubs, after having ex amined, and rubbed with soap such places as are most dirty, such as the collars and wristbands of shirts, the parts of table cloths which are most soiled, and any place in the different arti cles which would require more than usual rubbing. Indeed, everything should be prepared the day before; the copper filled with soft water, the tubs rinsed and wiped, inside and out (taking care that they do not leak). The best way to prevent the tubs from leaking, is to turn them bottom upwards after using, and keep the bottom filled with water, without which they will not only leak but fall to pieces, in summer weather.
1000. Care of Clothes-lines, dc.-Clothes-lines, when done with, should be wiped quite clean, and put away dry in a bag, for future use, or they will dirty the clothes. A bag should also be kept for the pegs; and both bags should be kept in a dry place.
1001. Folding and Mangling.–Before you begin to fold the clothes, let the board be quite clean and dry, and a clean linen cloth placed upon it. Separate those things which are to be mangled, and those which are for rough-drying. Turn shirts, shifts, night-yowns, pillow-cases, petticoats, &c., the right side outwards; told them very smoothly, and sprinkle them to a proper dampness for ironing. If the collars, wristbands, and frills, or pleated front of a shirt, be dipped in a little starch, then into water, and rolled up without squeezing, it will bring the whole of the shirt to a proper dampness, when it has lain for some time.
The articles usually mangled are, sheets, towels, table-linen, pillow-cases, and other straight things; but if there be any foids, they will not look well when mangled. Pearl-buttons will break in the mangle, and cut the cloth, therefore, all things with buttons, and everi pillow-cuses, if they have buttons, should not be mangled.
1002. Of Ironing.-The ironing-blanket should be made of a thick kind of flannel, culled swan’s-skin, and a coarse cloth should be spread between it and the board. When you are ironing, be careful to try your iron first upon some article, or one of little value, for fear of its soiling or singeing the better clothes. Let the heat be iu proportion to the article you are about to iron, and be sure to make every part per fectly smooth.
After they are ironed, the things should be hung upon the horse to air. The cook maid is now done with the washing, as it is the housemaid's business to air them, and to place them in the drawers, when aired; but in many families, the putting of them away is done by the mistress of the house, or by some of the young ladies.
In ironing the skirts of dresses, it is best and most proper to have a board about thirteen inches wide and four feet long, on which fasten, with tapes, an ironing-blanket; place one end of it on a table, and the other end on the dresser, or something that is firm, of the same height as the table. In using this board, pass it through the skirt, taking care that the wet part of the dress falls into a clothes-basket, or a cloth, which you must first put on the floor, under the middle of the board, to save the skirt from being soiled; and turn the skirt of the dress round the board, as you iron it.
1003. Save the Rags.—All rags of cotton or linen should be saved by the cookmaid; they should never be thrown away because they are not clean. Mop-rags, lamp-rags, all should be washed, dried and put in the rag-bay. There is no need of expending soap on them ; just boil them out in the suds after you have done washing.
Linen rags should be carefully saved; for they are extremely useful in sickness. If they have become dirty and worn by cleaning silver, &c., wash them, and scrape them into lint.
SOME HINTS ABOUT AGRICULTURE, GARDENING,
DOMESTIC ANIMALS, ETC. Of Soil, Ilay and the Grains-Of Vegetables—Destroying Ferrets, Reptiles, Rats and other Vermin-Flowers, fruits, Trees- Timber - Buildings.
1004. Advantage of Knowing something about Agriculture.-In a work designed, chiefly, for women, it may seem odd to find farming treated of, as though they needed such information. But while far the greater portion of American men* are till.. ers of the soil, it would be questioning the good sense as well as affection of their wives and daughters to suppose them indif-ferent to such pursuits.
The husband will work with more pleasure, when feeling his wife takes an interest in his employments. The daughter of a farmer should be ready to read her father's books and papers on agriculture, whenever he desires it, and assist in the garden, orchard, and among domestic animals, when such cases are suitable for her.
So, trusting you have a garden-hoe and pruning-knife for your own use, and can assist in transplanting flowers and shrubs, I shall give rules for these, and also a few hints na other matters connected with country life and the economy of farming.. These rules are selected, chiefly, from British authori. ties. England is famous for its agricultural science and modes of gardening, and planting trees. Such knowledge and taste are much needed in our land. But be careful, fair girl and comely matron, and do not expose your health or injure your personal appearance while helping in out-door work. A sun-bonnet or broad-brimmed straw hat and thick gloves should always be worn, when engaged in such employments.
* The rural population of America is now over twenty millions.
1005. Important Fact in Agriculture.- Whatever may be the nature of the soil, or of the crop cultivated, it should always be the aim of the farmer to grow full crops. Partial and sometimes extensive failures will even then but too often occur; but to neglect making the best known preparations, or only to prepare for half a crop, has a direct tendency to unprofitable farming.
1006. Manure for Clover.—Some farmers make it a rule to spread about fifty bushels per acre of ashes over their clover in March, which they find, from long experience, to be a good manure for this grass. Wood-ashes will be useful on any soil ; coal-ashes chiefly on stiff clays. On the stiff soils of some parts of Buckinghamshire, ashes of all kinds are much esteemed, and have risen to a high price.
1007. How to preserve Manure.-Put it in heaps, and cover it with earth two feet deep. Never leave manure in the baru yard; put it all, year by year, on your land,
1008. Dr. Taylor's Easy Method of ascertaining the Qualities of Marl, Lime Stones, or Quick Lime, for the purposes of Agriculture.- This was a communication by Dr. Taylor to the Malichester Agricultural Society; the general use of marl and lime as manures, having prompted him to point out the import ance of an easy and certain method of determining the qualities of different earths and stores, and ascertaining the quantity of calcareous earth in their composition; their value, in agricul. ture, commonly increasing in proportion to the greater quantity of it which they contain. The process recommended is thus described :-The marl or stone being dried, and reduced to powder, put half an ounce of it into a half pint glass, pouring in clear water till the glass is half full; then gradually add a small quantity of strong marine acid, commonly called spirit of salt, and stir the mixture well together. As soon as the effervescence thus excited subsides, add a little more marine acid ; thus continuing the operation while any of the earthy matter appears to dissolve; and till the liquor, after being weil stirred and allowed to stand for half an hour, appears sensibly acid to the taste. Wheu the mixture has subsided, if the liquor above it be colorless, that marl or lime-stone is the best which leaves the least in quantity of sediment or deposit in the bot