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first makes her appearance; once in possession of her, you are master of all the rest; put her into an empty hive, whither she will be followed by the other bees.
1154. Useful Method of preserving Bees.—Instead of destroying whole swarms in their hives, to get the honey when the hives are full, they clear them out into a fresh hive, while they take the combs out of the old one; and they prevent their perishing in winter by putting a great quantity of honey into a very wide earthen vessel, covering its surface with paper, exactly fitted on, and pricked full of holes with a large pin; this being pressed by the weight of the bees, keeps a fresh supply continually arising. Their most fatal destruction by severe cold they prevent, by taking as many large tubs as they have hives, and knocking out the heads, they set the other end in the ground, laying a bed of dry earth or chopped hay in it, of six inches deep; over this they place the head knocked out, and then make a small wooden trough for the passage of the bees; this is transfixed through a hole cut through each side of the tub, at such a height as to lay on the false bottom, on which is placed the covered dish of honey for the food of the bees, leaving a proper space over this, covered with strong matting; they then fill up the tub with more dry earth, or chopped hay, heaping it up in the form of a cone, to keep out the rain, and wreathing it over with straw on account of the warmth.
1155. Sir Ashton Lever's method of preserving Birds, Beasts, Fishes, de.—Beasts. Large beasts should be carefully skinned, with the horns, skull, jaws, tail, and feet, left entire; the skins may then either be put into a vessel of spirit, or else rubbed well in the inside with the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, hereafter mentioned, and hung to dry. Small beasts may be put into a cask of rum, or any other spirit.
Birds. Large birds may be treated as large beasts, but must not be put in spirits. Small birds may be preserved in the following manner:- Take out the entrails, open a passage to the brain, which should be scooped out through the mouth; introduce into the cavities of the skull, and the whole body, some of the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, putting some through the gullet and whole length of the neck; then hang the bird in a cool, airy place—first by the feet, that the body may be impregnated by the salts, and afterwards by a thread through the
under mandible of the bill, till it appears to be sweet; then hang it in the sun, or near a fire: after it is well dried, clean but what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the cavity of the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack it smooth in paper,
Fishes, &c. Large fishes should be opened in the belly, the entrails taken out, and the inside well rubbed with pepper, and stuffed with oakum. Small fishes put in spirit, as well as reptiles and insects, except butterflies and moths; and any insects of fine colors, should be pinned down in a box prepared for that purpose, with their wings expanded.
1156. Birds that have been Shot.-When fresh-killed, observe to put tow into the mouth, and upon any wound they may have received, to prevent the feathers being soiled; and then wrap it smooth, at full-length, in paper, and pack it close in a box. if it be sent from a great distance, the entrails should be extracted, and the cavity filled with tow dipped in rum or other spirit. The following mixture is proper for the preservation of animals :— One pound of salt, four ounces of alum, and two ounces of pepper, powdered together.
1157. To preserve Game in Hot Weather.—Game or poultry may be preserved for a long time, by tying a string tight round the neck, so as to exclude the air, and by putting a piece of charcoal into the vent.
1158. Russian method of preserving Fish.-When the Russians desire to keep fish perfectly fresh, to be carried a long journey in a hot climate, they dip them into hot bees’-wax, which acts like an air-tight covering. In this way they are taken to Malta, even sweet in summer.
Choice and Cheap Cookery-New Receipts—Southern Dishes
Gumbo, &c.-Home-made Wines, &c.— Dairy-ColoringDiet-Health, &c.
1159. To preserve Ginger.-Take green ginger, pare it with a sharp knife, and then throw it into cold water as pared, to keep it white; then boil it till tender, in three waters, at each change putting the ginger into cold water. For seven pounds of ginger, clarify eight pounds of refined sugar; when cold, drain the ginger, and put it into a pan, with enough of the syrup to cover it, and let it stand two days; then pour the
syrup to the remainder of the sugar, and boil it some time; when cold, pour it on the ginger again, and set it by for three days; then boil the syrup again, and pour it hot over the ginger. Proceed thus till you find the ginger rich and tender, and the syrup is highly flavored. If you put the syrup on hot at first, or if too rich, the ginger will shrink, and not take the sugar.
1160. Orange Syrup-Is so easily made, and can be used so constantly with advantage, that no housekeeper should be without it. Select ripe and thin-skinned fruit; squeeze the juice through a sieve; to every pint, add a pound a half of powdered sugar; boil it slowly, and skim as long as any scum rises; you may then take it off, let it grow cold, and bottle it off. Be sure to secure the corks well. Two table-spoonfuls of this syrup, mixed in melted butter, make an admirable sauce for a plum or butter-pudding; and it imparts a fine flavor to custards.
1161. Apple or Quince Jelly.—Pare, quarter, and core the apples; put them in a sauce-pan, with enough water to cover them only; let them boil five minutes; put them in a bag, and let them drain until the next day. To one pint of juice, put one pound of sugar, and boil it from fifteen to twenty minutes.
[Cranberry Jelly may be made in the same way.]
1162. Brandy Cherries.—Take the nicest carnation cherries, and trim them, leaving a short stem to keep in the juice; wash and wipe them tenderly, and put them into wide-mouthed bottles. Make a good syrup, and, when it is nearly done, add a pint and a half of French brandy to one pint of syrup; mix it thoroughly, and, when cold, pour it over the cherries. If carefully sealed, the fruit will be good for years.
1163. Brandy Peaches.—Drop the peaches in weak, boiling lye; let them remain till the skin can be wiped off; make a thin syrup, and let it cover the fruit; boil the fruit till they can be pierced with a straw; take it out; make a very rich syrup, and add, after it is taken from the fire, and while it is still hot, an equal quantity of brandy. _Pour this, while it is still warm, over the peaches in the jar. They must be covered with it.
1164. Brandied Peaches-an excellent way.-After having removed the skin in the usual manner, by using lye, and throw. ing them in cold water, weigh the peaches, and put them in a stone jar-allowing room at the top for three-quarters of a pound of sugar for each pound of peaches; then pour over enough white brandy to cover the fruit. Set the jar in a pot of cold water, and let it remain over the fire till the brandy comes to a scald. When they are cold, they may either be put in glass jars, and tied down with bladder, or left in the same jar.
1165. Tomato Catchup.—To one gallon of skinned tomatoes, adà four table-spoonfuls of salt; four table spoonfuls of black pepper, ground fine; half a table-spoonful of allspice, ground fine; three table spoonfuls of mustard; eight pods of red pepper. Simmer it slowly in sharp vinegar, in a pewter vessel, three or four hours; then strain it through a wire-sieve, and bottle it up. When cold, seal up the corks, and it will last for years.
1166. Green Tomato Pickle.-Cut in thin slices one peck of green tomatoes; sprinkle them with salt, and let them stand a
day or two. Slice ten or twelve smail onions. Mix together one bottle or small tin box of Lustard; half an ounce of mustard-seed; one ounce of cloves; one ounce of pimento; two ounces of turmeric. Put in the kettle a layer of tomatoes, then one of onions and spice, till all are in. Cover it with good inegar, and let it simmer till the tomatoes are quite clear.
1167. French Mustard.—Put on a plate, one ounce of the best powdered mustard; a salt-spoonful of salt; a few leaves of tarragon; and a clove of garlic, minced fine. Pour on it, by degrees, sufficient vinegar to dilute it to the proper consistency; about a wine-glassful; mix it with a wooden spoon. Do not use it in less than twenty-four hours.
1168. India Pickle. (E. R.)—Put two hundred gherkins, three pints of small onions, one quart of nasturtiums, one quart of radish- pods, 1 quartern of string-beans, six cauliflowers, and two hard, white cabbages, sliced, into a pan, and sprinkle them with salt-the onions having been previously peeled, and laid in salt and water for a week, to take off their strength. Then, after a day or two, take them out of the pan, and dry them thoroughly in a warm place, in the shade: they must be spread out separately. To two gallons of vinegar, put one ounce and a half of allspice, the same of long pepper and of white, and two ounces of ginger, tied up in muslin bags. When cold, mix with the vinegar one pound and a half of flour of mustard, and two table-spoonfuls of Cayenne pepper. Boil it well together, and pour it on the pickle. The vegetables mentioned, not be ing all procurable at the same time, may be added separately, at different periods, but they must all undergo the salting and drying process.
In choosing those vegetables, some discrimination may also be used. When in season, few things add a higher flavor to the pickle than the buds and flowers of the elder.
1169. Horse-radish.—Let the horse-radish lie one or two hours in cold water; then scrape off the skin, grate it, and moisten it with vinegar. Serve it with roast meat.
1170. Oyster Gumbo.—Mix well one table-spoonful of flour and one of lard, and brow the mixture in a frying-pan; take the liquor of two quarts of oysters, set it on the fire, and when