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perplexing evil, and much more economical and less troublesome than gunpowder, “rat exterminator," cats, or traps.
329. To destroy Fleas and other Vermin on Animals.--To de stroy them on dogs, rub the animal, when out of the house, with the common Scotch snuff, except the nose and eyes. Rub the powder well into the roots of the hair. Clear lime-water destroys the flea-worm without injuring the skin or hair.
Oil of turpentine, when applied to animals, which were covered with insects, destroyed the insects, without hurting the animal.
330. To destroy Bugs.-Mix half a pint of spirits of turpentine and half a pint of best rectified spirits of wine, in a strong bottle, and add in small pieces about half an ounce of camphor, which will dissolve in a few minutes. Shake the mixture well together; and, with a sponge or brush dipped in it, well wet the bed and furniture where the vermin breed. This will infallibly destroy both them and their nits, though they swarm. The dust, however, should be well brushed from the bedstead and furniture, to prevent, from such carelessness, any stain. If that precaution is attended to, there will be no danger of soiling the richest silk or damask. On touching a live bug with only the tip of a pin put into the mixture, the insect will be instantly deprived of existence, and should any bugs happen to appear after using the mixture, it will only be from not wetting the linen, &c., of the bed, the foldings and linings of the curtains near the rings or the joints, or holes in and about the bed or head-board, in which places the vermin nestle and breed; so that those parts being well wetted with more of the mixture, which dries as fast as it is used, and pouring it into the joints and holes, where the sponge and brush cannot reach, it will never fail totally to destroy them. The smell of this mixture, though powerful, is extremely wholesome, and to many persons very agreeable. It exhales, however, in two or three days. Only one caution is necessary; but that is important. The mixture must be well shaken when used; but never applied by candle light, lest the spirits, being attracted by the fare of the candle, might cause a conflagration.
331. Kitchen Cloths.—The four kinds of cloths requisite for the kitchen, are knife-cloths, dusters, tea and glass-cloths.
Knife-cloths should be made of coarse sheeting. Dusters are generally made of mixed cotton and linen. The best material for tea and glass-cloths, is a sheet which has begun to wear thin.
Besides the above cloths, are knife-tray.cloths, house-cloths for cleaning, pudding and cheese-cloths, and towels.
332. Clothes' Posts soon decay at the bottom, if left standing in the ground; but, if fitted into sockets so as to be removable, they will last for years. The sockets should be made of one-inch elm, eighteen inches in length, tapering downwards. When finished, they ought to be about three inches square inside, at the upper end. They are to be driven firmly into the earth till just level with the surface. The posts are then made to drop in and stand firm, and can be taken out, and put under shelter when not in use. A cover should be fitted to each socket, to keep litter from falling in when the post is removed. A drying-ground should not be too much exposed to the wind, as the violent flapping tears the corners of tablecloths, sheets, &c., and overblown linen feels flabby after man. gling.
333. Out-houses and Cellars.-If these have not been recently cleansed, have them thoroughly cleaned out and white-washed. A dirty cellar is an abomination, and the fruitful source of many diseases. Let all your out-buildings have a thorough wverhauling and repairing.
334. To purify Houses.—An able chemist recommends a mixture of one pound of chloride of lime in ten gallons of water. Throw a quart of this daily down the sink or watercloset. It will not cost five cents a week.
One of the best and most pleasant disinfectants is coffee. Pound well-dried raw coffee-beans in a mortar, and strew the powder over a moderately heated iron plate. The simple traversing of the house with a roaster containing freshly roasted coffee will clear it of offensive smells.
HEALTH AND BEAUTY,
Rules for the preservation of Health, and simple Recipes found
often efficacious in common diseases and slight injuries - Directions for preparing Remedies and ministering to the Sick and Suffering—The Toilet, or hints and suggestions for the preservation of Beauty, with some useful Recipes for those who need them.
335. Means of preserving Health.-Light and sunshine are needful for your health. Get all you can; keep your windows clean. Do not block them up with curtains, plants, or bunches of flowers: these last poison the air in small rooms. Fresh air is needful for your health.
As often as you can, open all your windows, if only for a short time, in bad weather; in fine weather, keep them open, but never sit in draughts. When you get up, open the windows wide, and throw down the bed-clothes, that they may be exposed to fresh air some hours daily before they are made up. Keep your bed-clothes clean; hang them to the fire when you can. Avoid wearing at night what you wear in the day. Hang up your day clothes at night. Except in the severest weather, in small crowded sleeping-rooms, a little opening at the top of the window-sash is very important; or, you will find one window-pane of perforated zinc very useful. You will not catch cold half so easily by breathing pure air at night. Let not the beds be directly under the windows. Sleeping in exhausted air creates a desire for stimulants. Pure water is needful for your health. Wash your
bodies as well as your faces, rubbing them all over with a coarse cloth
If you cannot wash thus every morning, pray do so once a week. Crying and cross children are often pacified by a gentle washing of their little hands and faces—it soothes them. Babies' heads should be washed carefully, every morning, with yellow soap. No scurf should be suffered to remain upon them. Get rid of all slops and dirty water at once, but do not throw them out before your doors; and never suffer dead cabbage-leaves or dirt of any kind to remain there; all these poison the air, and bring fevers. All bad smells are poison ; never rest with them. Keep your back yards clean. Pig-sties are very injurious; slaughter-houses are equally hurtful: the smells from both excite typhus fever, and cause ill health. Frederick the Great said, that one fever was more fatal to him than seven battles. Disease, and even death, is often the consequence of our own negligence. Wash your rooms and passages at least once a week; use plenty of clean water; but do not let your
children stay in them while they are wet-it may bring on croup or inflammation of the chest. If you read your Bibles—which it is earnestly hoped you do-you will find how cleanliness, both as to the person and habitation, was taught to the Jews by God himself; and we read in the 4th chapter of Nehemiah, that when they were building their second temple, and defending their lives against their foes, having no time for rest, they contrived to put off their clothes for washing. It is a good old saying, that Cleanliness is next to Godliness. See Heb. X. 22.
Wholesome food is needful for your health. Buy the most strengthening. Pieces of fresh beef and mutton go the farthest. Eat plenty of fresh salt with food; it prevents disease. Pray do not let your children waste their pockel-money in tarts, cakes, sugar-plums, sour fruit, &c.; they are very unwholesome, and hurt the digestion. People would often, at twenty years
age, have a nice little sum of money to help them on in the world, if they had put in the savings-bank the money so wasted. Cocoa is cheaper and much more nourishing than tea. None of these liquids should be taken hot, but lukewarm; when hot, they inflanie the stomach, and produce indigestion. All kinds of intoxicating drinks are to be avoided, or taken in the utmost moderation. If possible, abstain from them altogether, Money saved from drink, will help to educate your children, and make your homes happier.
We are all made to breathe the pure air of heaven, and there. fore much illness is caused by being constantly in-doors. This
is especially the case with mothers of families, young milliners, ironers, shoe-makers, tailors, &c. Let such persons make a point, whenever it is possible, of taking exercise in the open air for at least an hour and a half, daily. Time would be saved in the long-run, by the increased energy and strength gained, and by the warding off of disease.
Be sure to get your children vaccinated, between the third and sixth month after birth, before teething begins, and when they are in a good state of health for it. This would save a great many lives. On no account give your children laudanum, or any kind of sleeping medicine; numbers are killed by it.
336. Directions in severe Sickness.-Whenever any one of your family is taken violently ill, send as soon as possible for the most skilful physician-and follow, carefully, his orders. But, many times, the mother is the best physician, and the only one needed for her children, if she has been trained to take proper care of her own health, as every woman should be. The following recipes and directions may be of great service to young mothers, and those who have not been accustomed to minister to the sick,
337. To purify the Chambers of the Sick.-Close the windows and doors of the room to be purified, except one door; close also the chimney aperture, except two or three inches at the bottom, and remove all the iron and brass furniture; then put three table-spoonsful of common salt into a dish or pan, place it upon the floor of the apartment, and pour at once upon the salt a quarter of a pint of oil of vitriol; retire, and close the room for forty-eight hours, during which time vapor will continue to rise and diffuse itself completely through the room, so as to destroy the matter on which infection depends. The room may then be entered, the doors and windows thrown open, and a fire made in the grate, so that the apartment may be perfectly ventilated.
338. To prevent Infection. As a preservative, carry with you and smell occasionally, a handkerchief sprinkled with this mixture; half an ounce of spirits of camphor, half a pint of water, and five ounces of pyroligneous acid.
Cascarilla bark is good to smoke, to prevent the effects of malaria, and in sick rooms to correct bad effluvia. It yields a